Growing grapes in Belarus: a brief overview of the best varieties
Belarus is not the best place to grow such a thermophilic grape. But the constant work of breeders to develop new varieties that are resistant to adverse weather conditions has made the cultivation of this crop on Belarusian soil quite real and affordable even for gardeners who do not have much experience.
The history of growing grapes in Belarus
The first written mention of grape growing in Belarus dates back to the 11th century. Since that time, the order to shelter vines for the winter, given by the bishop to the Father Superior of the Turov Monastery, has been preserved. In the XVIII century, grapes became a fairly popular greenhouse and park culture. It is reliably known about its cultivation in the Radziwill estate "Alba", located near the city of Nesvizh, and other estates of noble people.
Belarusian viticulture reached a higher level of development in 1840, when an agricultural school was founded on the estate of Gory-Gorki in the Mogilev province. The head of the fruit nursery created on its basis gathered a large collection of plants, which included 6 grape varieties.
A significant role in the distribution of grapes in Belarus was played by experienced gardener Joseph Kondratievich Moroz. On a rented estate near the village of Fatyn, he cultivated this culture since 1900. IK Moroz gave particular preference to the early Malenger variety.
Early males can be found in the vineyards of Belarus and today
After the revolution, the Academy of Sciences of Belarus took up the study of viticulture in the country. They also planted grapes on the collective farms of the Gomel region. Only in the Khoyninsky district, this culture occupied about 6 hectares. Unfortunately, most of the vineyards died during the Great Patriotic War.
After the war, a large number of strongholds were opened, engaged in testing grape varieties in Belarus. Famous breeders such as I.M. Kissel and I.P. Sykora. During these years, Belarusian viticulture reached its peak. He was engaged in both large farms and amateur gardeners. The All-Union Census of Fruit Plantations, conducted in 1953, accounted for 90 195 grape bushes.
But carried out in 1954-1964 by the Institute of Biology of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus showed that most varieties planted in the vineyards of the republic are not suitable for cultivation in these climatic conditions and even in the most southern regions ripen no more than 6-8 times per ten years. The lack of economic feasibility led to the gradual abandonment of farms from growing grapes . As a result, by 1965, small vineyards remained in only a few areas of the Brest region.
The second wind of Belarusian viticulture opened in the 80s of the last century. The cultivation of new grape varieties that tolerate difficult climatic conditions made it possible to grow it in all areas of the region. Great interest in this culture remains in our days. Today it can be found in many garden areas of the country.
Video: Republican exhibition of grapes in the city of Pinsk
How to choose a grape variety for growing in Belarus
The weather conditions in Belarus are not very suitable for classic grape varieties. Here they often suffer from frost in the winter and high humidity in the warm season. In addition, many of them do not have time to ripen for a rather short summer by southern standards with a few hot days. Grapes and wetlands, with a high level of groundwater and a high content of peat, which occupy most of the territory of the country, do not benefit.
There are some advantages in northern viticulture. In Belarus, phylloxera (grape aphid), which has become a real scourge of southern vineyards, phomopsis (black spotting) and viral infections, is almost completely absent. For a long time, Belarusian winegrowers rarely encountered fungal diseases. But in recent years, due to the active import of southern seedlings into the country and global climate change, cases of infection of grapes with mildew, oidium and anthracnose have become much more common. But still, the spread of these infections is much lower than in the south.
In order to succeed in growing grapes, experienced gardeners advise choosing varieties that meet the following criteria:
- winter hardiness;
- early and super early ripening;
- the ability to ripen at the sum of active temperatures below 2 600 ° for the southern regions and less than 2, 400 ° for the northern;
- fast recovery of vines after injuries due to low temperatures;
- the presence of immunity to fungal infections.
Video: Belarusian winegrower talks about the intricacies of the selection of varieties
Varieties of Belarusian selection
The scientific study of grapes and their selection on the territory of Belarus is carried out by RUE Institute for Fruit Growing. Thanks to the work of his specialists, several grape varieties were born that grow well in the climatic conditions of Belarus and are included in the State Register of selection achievements of that country. These include:
- Minsk pink. Vigorous universal grapes with a very early ripening period. Small, weighing about 2.2 g, berries of this variety are painted dark pink in color and have a juicy pulp of mucous consistency with a labrus flavor. The skin is thin, fragile. In the Vitebsk region, it matures in early September. Minsk pink tolerates a drop in temperature to -29 ° C and is resistant to most fungal infections.
Great variety. No need to cover, cut to a meter high, bent down, and that’s it! It ripens completely in August and September, sweet, it only came to wine once, and we always eat it.Alexander13
- Space (Neptune). Universal variety, characterized by high growth power and good ripening of the vine. Its black small berries with fleshy, juicy, tart pulp are collected in loose clusters weighing about 120 grams. Usually they ripen in late-August-first half of September. About 2, 1 kg of fruits are collected from one bush. Winter hardiness - up to -26 ° C. Space rarely suffers from mildew and gray rot, but can be affected by oidium.
- Cosmonaut. Table grape variety ripening 101 days after the start of the growing season). The berries are dark purple, small with a simple sweet taste. Their flesh contains about 18.4% of sugars with an acidity of 4.8 g / L. The tasting score of berries is 7.9 points out of 10. The astronaut is often affected by fungal infections, and his frost resistance does not exceed -24 ° C. The yield of the variety is about 2 4 kg per plant.
- Beauty of the North (Olga). High-yielding (about 4.1 kg per plant) table grape variety. The berries are large, weighing up to 5 g, are painted in a light green color. The pulp is fleshy-juicy, sweet, with a tart or slightly grassy flavor. The beauty of the north often suffers from fungal infections. The average frost resistance of the variety is around -26 ° C.
For me, the variety is tasty, but ... and very problematic - oidium. I don’t apply chemical protection at all - that’s the shortage of the crop.Katerina55
Varieties Cosmos, Cosmonaut, Beauty of the North were created in collaboration with specialists from the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after I.V. Michurina.
Photo gallery: grape varieties developed by the Institute of Fruit Growing
- About 3.3 kg of berries can be collected from one bush of Minsk pink
- The average weight of Cosmas berries is about 1.2 g
- The Cosmonaut grape variety is characterized by loose clusters weighing about 220 grams.
- In the sun, the berries of the Krasa North variety quickly acquire a pink tan
Grapes are a thermophilic culture. In Belarus, he needs shelter for the winter. Only some varieties with winter hardiness exceeding -28 ° C can tolerate the cold season without it. For instance:
- Minsk pink;
- Somerset Sidlis;
- The riddle of Sharov;
- Marshal Foch.
Universal grape variety of Lithuanian selection. It easily tolerates air temperatures below - 28-30 ° C. In addition, this variety is highly resistant to mildew and gray rot and medium - to oidium.
Lepsny bushes are vigorous, well ripening along the entire length. The berries are dark red, weighing 3-4 grams, form small cylindrical clusters of medium density. The pulp is fleshy-juicy, harmonious taste with a light aroma of labrusca. It contains up to 19% of sugars with an acidity of about 5 g / l.
Lepsna berries are well tolerated transportation and storage
In Belarus, Lepsna ripens 100–110 days after the leaves bloom. Her berries are eaten fresh and used to make juices, wines and compotes.
Seedless grape variety bred in the United States of America. It has a unique winter hardiness. According to various sources, it ranges from -30 to -34 ° C.
Vine Somerset Sidlis has medium vigor. The berries are light pink in color with a very juicy and sweet pulp, which has a delicate strawberry flavor. They ripen within 110–115 days after the start of the growing season. Seed rudiments in berries are quite rare.
Somerset Sidlis is a very frost-resistant seedless variety
Somerset Sidlis is immune to most fungal diseases, but often suffers from wasp attacks that attract its sweet and fragrant berries. Productivity is average.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In my conditions, one of the few survivors of nature without tangible losses, loaded with fruitful shoots, is happy. Last season, when eating, rudiments did not occur. A good replacement is the omnipresent Alpha growing in our places.serge47
Technical grape variety belonging to the group of Franco-American hybrids. It easily withstands frosts down to -29 ° C, and according to some reports up to -32 ° C. Marshal Fosh is included in the State Register of Varieties of the Republic of Belarus.
Vines of this variety are characterized by an average growth force. The berries are round, small, dark blue. They produce high-quality pink and red table wines, characterized by good color.
Marshal Foch grape variety was named after the head of the Armed forces of France during the First World War Ferdinand Foch
Marshal Foch is resistant to mildew and oidium. Productivity is average. To increase it, experienced growers practice overloading the bush with their eyes, followed by a fragment of infertile shoots.
I made wine. I got almost 5 liters. Yesterday we made a test tasting with my relatives. It’s dark, thick, saturated! For me, beginners and loved ones are just awesome. I urgently clogged the remaining 4 liters and put it in the cellar. Although I would have until spring. This year the best MF wine! This is a preliminary estimate.Dima Minsk
Early grape varieties are especially popular with gardeners in Belarus. For their maturation, 95 -125 days are enough with the sum of active temperatures not exceeding 2, 600 ° C. This allows you to collect a plentiful grape harvest even in the conditions of a short Belarusian summer. The earliest ripening conditions in Belarus have the following varieties of this crop:
- Agate Don;
- North early;
- Violet august;
- Korinka Russian;
Table grape variety developed by specialists of VNIIViV im.Ya.I. Potapenko (Novocherkassk city). Its berries ripen 115–120 days after the leaves bloom at a sum of active temperatures of 2, 450 ° C.
Don Agate - a vigorous variety with dark blue berries weighing up to 5 grams. The pulp is fleshy, with a simple taste without a pronounced aroma, the skin is dense, easily eaten. The variety is very high-yielding and prone to overloading with berries, so it needs to be normalized. During it, 1-2 clusters are left on one shoot. Failure to comply with this rule may lead to an increase in ripening and a deterioration in the taste of berries.
Don agate is well-deserved among wine-growers of Belarus
Don agate is highly resistant to mildew, gray rot and low temperatures (up to -26 ° C). Due to its unpretentiousness and good taste, this variety has become widespread in Belarus. Experienced gardeners often recommend it for growing to beginners who have recently taken up viticulture.
And last year Agat Donskoy only pleased me, the other varieties are either frozen or rained during flowering, and this one would be henna. vine ripening is good for almost the entire growth of 2.5-3 meters. The taste of berries is more like a neutral one, but it does not bother, you can eat a lot, and if you make kompot from it, it turns out very tasty, but I don’t understand why its wasps like Kiev next to it, it’s cloying with sugar, but wasps they don’t eat it, but on agate as honey. This year, planted two more seedlings, it will be like a workhorse.sergeykas
Korinka Russian is one of the earliest grape varieties. Even in the northern regions of Belarus, it is ready to harvest already in the second or third decade of August.
The berries of Russian Korinka are small, golden green, with a pinkish tan. The pulp is fleshy-juicy, without seeds, pleasant sweet taste without a pronounced aroma. It contains 20–22% sugar with an acidity not exceeding 5 g / l. Berries of Korinka Russian are perfect for eating fresh and for making raisins such as raisins.
The vine of this variety has a high growth force and perfectly ripens along its entire length, even in Belarus. In addition, Korinka Russian tolerates frosts well to -26 ° C and is rarely affected by mildew. However, she is quite susceptible to oidium.
Video: Korinka Russian in the Belarusian vineyard
Another ultra-early grape variety. Its berries reach full ripeness already 90–95 days after the start of the growing season. In Belarus, this period usually falls in mid-August.
Tukai is a medium-sized bush with large berries of light green color, collected in cylinder-conical clusters weighing from 300 to 800 grams. The pulp is juicy, sweet, with a strongly pronounced muscat aroma. Under favorable conditions, from one plant you can collect up to 15–20 kg of fruits that are well tolerated by transportation and storage.
Under favorable conditions, the weight of Tukay berries can reach 4 g
Tukai is not very hardy. His vine can die at temperatures below -25 ° C, and according to some reports, even below -21 ° C. Among other disadvantages of this variety, Belarusian winegrowers note:
- lack of immunity to mildew and oidium;
- frequent pollination problems in adverse weather conditions;
- tendency to peeling berries.
Despite all the problems with pollination, Tukai has ripened and almost all has been eaten. Taste is strong muscat. Invisible bones eaten. Left a couple of bunches to weigh .. I wonder how much they will pull ???siluet
Grape varieties with a ripening period exceeding 135–140 days are not very suitable for growing in Belarus. Most of them do not have time to ripen in the short Belarusian summer. Only two relatively late varieties are included in the State register of selection achievements of this country:
- Alpha. Its dark-purple berries with a mucous pulp, which has a characteristic isabial taste, ripen after 140-145 days from the start of the growing season with the sum of active temperatures above 2 800 °. Despite the relatively late ripening period, Alpha is very common in Belarus. This was made possible thanks to its amazing unpretentiousness and frost resistance. She tolerates winter cold without shelter and does not require any special agricultural activities in the summer. This variety also has good yield. From one hectare of planting Alpha, you can collect 150-180 quintals of berries, which are most often used to make wines and compotes.
Alpha variety is often used for landscaping arbors and terraces.
- Taiga emerald. A table variety with light green sweet and sour berries with a strong strawberry flavor. It is characterized by high cold resistance (up to -30 ° C) and the presence of immunity to mildew. The productivity of Taiga emerald is 60–80 kg / ha. Despite its table designation, in Belarus this variety is often used for the industrial production of wines.
The grape variety Taiga emerald was developed by I.V. Michurina by Nikolai Tikhonov
I hold a couple of Alpha bushes on a compote. I want to try a little seperate it with other varieties when preparing wine. I just like this taste of Isabella, the taste of childhood, so to speak. There are few people in whom it does not grow. The truth is growing - it is said loudly - there are no formations, no feeding, no treatments ... .. It survives, but nothing needs to be done .... You don’t even need to eat.Wolodia
Today, grapes are not an exotic crop for Belarus. A large number of amateur gardeners grow it in their personal plots. Becoming one of them is easy. It is enough to choose a suitable grape variety and give the plant a little attention. In return, he will certainly thank the beginning grower with an abundant harvest of sweet and fragrant berries.