Growing dogwood in the suburbs

Dogwood is a rare plant for the gardens of Moscow Region. Gardeners do not trust the southern tree too much, but this attitude is erroneous. Dogwood copes with frosty winters, is unpretentious in leaving and is a little susceptible to diseases. But for this tree to become a decoration of the site, you need to choose the right variety.

Description and characteristics of dogwood

Wild dogwood is found in the mountain forests of the Caucasus and Crimea, in the bright sunny forests of Central, Southern Europe and North America. In the Asian part of the globe, the plant is common in Japan, China, Asia Minor.

In the Turkic language, the name sounds like “kyzyl” and literally means “red”, which coincides with the color of ripe berries.

There are many legends and signs associated with dogwood. In the East, the plant is called the “shaitan berry”, and Christians believe that the Holy Cross is made of dogwood.

According to the sign, the more berries of dogwood on a branch, the colder the winter will be

Dogwood Characteristics

Common dogwood is a deciduous tree or multi-stemmed shrub. Under natural conditions, tree-like specimens grow 5–7 m in height. In a favorable environment there are trees 10 m high. The branches are sprawling, horizontally located. The bark has a dark gray color. The leaves grow opposite each other, within a length of 8 cm. The surface of the leaf is decorated with 3-5 pairs of arcuate veins. The top of the leaf plate is shiny, bright green, the lower side is lighter. The flowers are bisexual, collected in inflorescences-umbrellas of 15–20 pcs. Flowering occurs in April at a temperature of 8-12 ° C, earlier than the leaves appear.

Dogwood in the suburbs blooms in early April for 10-15 days

Dogwood is a drupe that differs in size and shape. Berries are long or short oval, pear-shaped or rounded. On average, the fetus weighs 2-6 g. The surface of the fetus is often smooth, sometimes tuberous. The color is represented by all shades of red, but there is yellow, dark purple or black. The oval bone is elongated.

In modern dogwood varieties, the coloring is not limited to traditional red

Fleshy juicy pulp accounts for 68–88% of the fetal mass. The taste is sweet and sour, it resembles a wild rose, and after the berries, a slight astringency is felt in the mouth. Dogwood has been living in one place for over 100 years. The plant is quick-growing, but if grown from seed, the appearance of the fruit is expected in 7 years. Yields increase with age. Twelve-year-old trees bring 25-30 kg of red berries, 25-year-olds - up to 100 kg. And at the age of 50, a crop of 150 kg matures on the cornel. Of the southern fruit plants, cornel is the most frost-resistant. Cases were recorded when the trees withstood cold below 35 ° C. Dangerous for cornel are not frosts, but winter thaws and spring return frosts. The plant does not have time to restore the level of winter hardiness. In addition, it reduces the yield of rain and fog during flowering.

Spring return frosts turn tree fail

Dogwood is self-infertile, so you need to purchase a couple of seedlings. If there is not enough space for the normal placement of plants, inoculate a branch of another variety in the crown of the planted one. The plant easily tolerates dry periods due to developed roots. The vertical root goes 1 m deep into the earth, and the fibrous part is located higher, 20-60 cm below the soil surface. Dogwood is highly immune; no specific diseases have been identified.

Growing dogwood in the suburbs

Despite the thermophilic, dogwood has been growing and bearing fruit for many years in the suburbs. The plant appeared in the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences back in 1950, so the cornel grove has 50 trees up to 3 m high. But incredulous gardeners do not risk planting cornel in the gardens, doubting their ability to survive the difficult winter conditions. And in vain, because dogwood is a picky plant that can survive under thirty-degree frosts. Even if the plant suffers in the winter, in the spring it will easily recover, as it gives a lot of root processes.

Dogwood is easy to care for, which will allow even a novice gardener to try his hand at growing southern berries.

Video: dogwood growing rules

Dogwood landing features

So that the dogwood can adapt quickly, they can withstand the timing of planting and carefully choose a place for the plant.

Dogwood landing dates

It is preferable to plant dogwood in late September - early October. If the terms are determined by popular signs, then it is worth starting the procedure as soon as the foliage falls from the poplar. You can not delay the planting, the seedling takes root for 3 weeks, and frost is fatal. Autumn planting will allow:

  • to get a strong planting material at an affordable price;
  • to simplify the rooting of a tree in a new place in moist land. By spring, dogwood will acquire a mass of roots that will help the plant grow quickly;
  • save time and energy. The tree is watered 1 time, the rest will be completed by the rains and the relatively mild climate of the Moscow Region.

In the spring, with a dogwood planting, it is worth hurrying, because the vegetation period begins rapidly. You need to plant the plant before the first flowers appear and only in the heated soil.

Selection of soil and place for planting

For dogwood, a lighted area in the south or southwest part of the garden is suitable with a slight shade, since in nature the plant lives in light sparse forests. Light penumbra is important for young plantings. Over time, the cornel grows and becomes spreading, so the tree is located at a distance of 3-5 m from the boundaries of the site. In addition, dogwood is planted on the leeward side of buildings or fences. For landing, even sections are suitable, but a slight slope of 5-10 degrees is also allowed. Neighborhood with fruit trees does not hurt the dogwood, but you can not plant a plant under a walnut - it will not take root. In relation to soils, cornel is undemanding, it will grow even in heavy clay areas with high acidity. But the quality of the crop and the development of the tree in such conditions will suffer. Dogwood is suitable for light soils with aeration and nutrients, moderately moisture-intensive. A clay fraction and lime should be added to the ground to hold water.

Dogwood will not grow in wetlands where the groundwater level is above 1 m to the surface.

As a rule, dogwood is planted along the borders of the site so that the shadow from the dense crown does not cover other plants from the sun

Seedling Selection

Only a strong and healthy seedling is able to give growth, so when buying planting material, you should evaluate the tree according to the following criteria:

  • roots with elastic lateral branches of 25-30 cm, without signs of disease;
  • trunk diameter not less than 2 cm, the bark is smooth, without damage. Under the bark is fresh green wood. If it is brown, the seedling is not viable;
  • the age of the seedling is 1-2 years. The height of the tree is 1.2–1.6 m, 3-5 branches around the trunk.

Flower buds are already formed on two-year-old seedlings, and the plant is ready to bloom the next year after planting.

You need to buy seedlings in the fall, then the plant will take root and in the spring will give strong roots

Preparing the pit for landing

It is extremely important to cultivate the soil and properly prepare the planting pit, given that dogwood in one place grows longer than other fruit crops. For the autumn planting, preparatory work begins in the spring. The selected area is freed from plant debris, perennial weeds are removed. Acidic soil is lime, and in order to improve the quality of the earth, compost or manure of 5 kg per 1 m2 is introduced. After that, the surface is leveled and harrowed to retain moisture. In the summer, they begin to prepare the landing pit.

A dogwood pit is prepared in the summer so that the fertilizer is mixed with the soil

Step-by-step creation of a landing pit

It is not difficult to make a landing hole if you adhere to the following rules:

  1. Dig a recess of 80x80 cm. If the soil is prone to excessive moisture accumulation, make the recess a little deeper and lay a drainage on the bottom (broken brick or crushed stone).
  2. Drive a peg-support 80-100 cm high into the untouched bottom of the pit. Place it on the side where the wind blows.
  3. When digging, lay the upper fertile layer in one direction, and the ground raised from a depth - in the other. Add organic matter and mineral fertilizers to the fertile soil:
  • humus or manure - 1 bucket;
  • superphosphate - 200 g;
  • ammonium nitrate - 50 g;
  • wood ash - a half-liter jar.

To give the soil the desired structure in a filled hole is to pour a bucket of water.

Dogwood landing

Before planting, the tree is carefully inspected, damaged branches are removed. If the roots have dried, they are dipped in water for 1–2 hours to revive, and then for 10–15 minutes they are lowered into a clay mash. The process of landing in a pit is simple:

  1. Build a mound of soil in the center of the pit.
  2. On a dais, place a seedling, gently spreading the bound roots.
  3. Fill with earth and squeeze. After planting, the root neck should rise 5 cm above the ground.
  4. Tie the seedling to the support. When planting in autumn, carefully so as not to damage the ovary, remove the foliage from the branches.
  5. Arrange a watering circle around the seedling and pour in water at the rate of 30–40 l per plant.
  6. When water is absorbed, mulch the trunk area.

Dogwood should be planted carefully, since the fibrous roots can be damaged.

Video: dogwood landing process

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Dogwood Care

The picky dogwood will grow even a novice gardener.

Watering

Dogwood roots are able to receive moisture from the soil even with rare precipitation. Despite the ability of dogwood to tolerate dry periods, the plant is responsive to watering. Mature trees are more resistant to water shortage than young trees, but when fruiting, a moisture deficit will result in drying of the berries. The kidneys in the absence of water are not laid. In a thirsty plant, the leaves are folded in a boat to reduce evaporation. Regular watering is required by young, immature trees in the first growing season after planting. Dogwood should be watered with settled and warmed up water in the sun. The water consumption rate for a tree will be 2 buckets under a tree 1 or 2 times a week. To avoid unnecessary moisture loss, after watering you need to use mulch.

Dogwood is sensitive to waterlogging of the soil. Spring Moscow rainfall should be considered when drawing up a watering schedule.

Dogwood dressing

Regarding the application of top dressing, the opinions of gardeners differ. Some believe that cornel grows and bears fruit without fertilizing. The other parts, on the contrary, indicate an improvement in the quality of the crop and the development of the tree after adding organic matter to the soil. Be that as it may, dogwood reacts to top dressing, both mineral and organic. Depending on the season, different types of fertilizers are chosen:

  • at the beginning of the growing season and in the process of growth, it is better to use nitrogen-phosphorus compounds - 40-50 g per plant;
  • in summer, a solution of chicken droppings is used, diluting the fertilizer with water in an amount of 1 to 10;
  • closer to autumn, they feed 10-12 g of potassium per tree;
  • in spring or autumn, humus or rotted manure is introduced using organic matter as mulch or for digging. For 1 m2, 2-3 kg is enough;
  • in the autumn before digging, ash is added to the soil.

On acidic soils, do not forget about lime, since cornel requires calcium to bear fruit.

Tree pruning

Dogwood is cut in early spring, being careful not to damage the thin bark. The formation of the crown is carried out in the first years after planting. First, a shtamb is made out with a height of 50–70 cm, removing shoots starting from the landing level. 5–7 strong shoots are left as skeletal branches. The crown is formed in the form of a neat oval or compact pyramid.

Cornel crown is formed oval or pyramidal for the rapid growth of branches and ripening berries

In the future, gardeners monitor the cleanliness of the standard zone, remove broken or dried branches in time, sometimes performing thinning pruning. Rejuvenate the tree 15–20 years after planting.

Dogwood can be formed without any problems, becoming a decoration of the site. To do this, they attach the skeletal branches to the pegs in the desired direction, and then install the trellises and shoot processes along them.

Trunk Circle Care

The process involves weeding near-barrel space. The day after watering, the soil is loosened to prevent the formation of an earth crust that impedes normal gas exchange. Mulching is also not neglected, which combines the functions of feeding and preserving moisture in the roots, and also prevents the growth of weeds.

Dogwood preparation for winter

Despite frost resistance, young dogwood with immature roots must be protected in the winter. After leaf fall, it is worth removing the fallen leaves and a layer of old mulch. To warm the surface of the absorbent roots, a layer of manure or humus is laid up to a height of 20 cm, collecting a mound around the stem. Dogwood seedlings for the winter are covered with non-woven covering material. Sacking, lutrasil or agrofibre will do.

Winter in the Moscow Region is moderately cold with steady snow cover. If a snowdrift is formed around the dogwood, this will serve as a natural protection for the roots.

This covering material is breathable, but protects the plant from frost.

Diseases and Pests

Strong dogwood extremely rarely suffers from diseases and pests. But an attentive gardener should periodically check the condition of the trunk, branches and leaves, so as not to miss the initial stage of a developing infection or the appearance of insects.

Table: Disease and Insect Controls

Diseases and

pests

SymptomsControl measuresPrevention
Powdery mildewCan be recognized by the white powdery coating on the leaves. Leaf plates bend and stop growing.Fungicides, for example, Topaz, will help to cope with the disease. At the initial stage, it is worth processing

leaves with a solution of soda (60 g) and antibacterial soap

(30 g) per bucket of water.

Collection and annealing of fallen leaves, in autumn, loosening the earth under a tree. You can not overfeed dogwood with nitrogen.
Leaf spottingSmall reddish-brown spots gradually spread along the surface of the leaf, interfering with photosynthesis. The fungus through cracks in the cortex enters the trunk, where it damages the cambium.In the fight against fungal infection, copper-containing preparations are used.The disease often occurs due to excessive soil moisture, therefore

overflow is disastrous. Bordeaux fluid is also used against the fungus.

MultifloriumThe butterfly lays on the leaf surface 100-200 eggs each, of which caterpillars of gray-brown color appear with yellow stripes and tubercles on the back. Caterpillars eat leaf plates and make nests on young shoots.Caterpillars can be controlled with the help of Parisian greenery.Caterpillar nests are manually assembled and destroyed.

Photo gallery: dogwood diseases and pests

A sign of powdery mildew is a characteristic white coating on the leaves

Dry spots on the leaves of the tree merge and interfere with the photosynthesis process

Insect eats leaf plates and nests on growing dogwood shoots

Popular varieties of dogwood for the suburbs

Thanks to breeding work, many dogwood varieties have appeared that grow in the Moscow region. These are trees with early and medium ripening, which fits into the particular weather conditions of the area. The seedling brought from the south will not take root under the new conditions, but the zoned varieties will yield crops:

  1. Nastya. The plant is medium in size, the crown is not too thick. Peeling bark of gray color, peeling. Leaf bud is gray-green, floral - gray-yellow, with raspberry blush. The size of the leaves is medium to large. The plates are slightly elongated, with a slight sharpening. The dark green surface is matte, wrinkled, slightly pubescent. The sheet is concave, similar to a boat. The fruits are colored red, the average mass of drupes is 5 g. The flesh is red, medium rough, sweet and sour. The average yield of 104 kg / ha. The variety is appreciated for its rapid ripening. Fruits of universal purpose. The tree resists diseases and pests.
  2. Coral Brand. Medium-sized plant, oval fruits, like cherry plum. The variety is large-fruited, the weight of the berry is 5.5–6.5 g. The drupe color is orange-pink. The taste of the variety is sweet and more like cherry than dogwood. The bone is easily separated from the juicy pulp. Ripe fruits fall off, so it’s better not to pull with the harvest. The variety is ready for harvest on August 15–20. From a 15-year-old tree, up to 35 kg of the crop is harvested. Berries are universal in application.
  3. Vydubetskiy. The plant is tall, up to 4 m. Oval-pear-shaped fruits weighing 6.5–7.5 g. The skin is thin, glossy, painted dark red. In the stage of full ripeness, the berries acquire a garnet hue. Sweet and sour, juicy and tender pulp of dense consistency. Ripe fruits do not crumble, which facilitates the harvest. The variety is famous for its productivity - up to 50 kg per tree, the fruitfulness of the fruit, is not damaged during transportation. Frost resistance up to -25 ° C.
  4. Firefly. A tree up to 2.5 m high. Crohn with a diameter of 3 m, oval. Fruits weighing 7-7.7 g, bottle-shaped with a thickened neck. The color of the ripe fruit is red-black. Taste sweet and sour flesh dense, aromatic. Dogwood ripens in the last week of August or early September. Ripe berries do not crumble. Fruits are stagnant; after harvesting, 4 weeks are not deformed. Annual fruiting is noted, up to 60 kg of berries suitable for processing and freezing ripen in a 15-year-old tree per season.
  5. Lukyanovsky. A three-meter tree with a beautiful, medium thick rounded crown. Fruits are one-dimensional, pear-shaped, weighing 5 g. During the full ripening period, the dark red skin turns black. The pulp near the bone lightens. The consistency is dense, but tender. Productivity increases with age, 10–25 kg is removed from a 10-year-old tree, and 45–60 kg from 15–20-year-old trees. Harvest ripen in the first decade of August. Berries ripped ahead of schedule ripen, transport without any problems. The variety is valued for easy care, the ability to tolerate frosty and dry periods. Berries for universal use.
  6. Eugene. Плоды овально-каплевидные, крупные и блестящие. Масса ягоды 6–8 г. Тонкая, но плотная кожица окрашена в тёмно-красный цвет, который у вызревших костянок становится чёрным. Мякоть тёмно-красная, нежная, кисло-сладкого вкуса, легко отстаёт от косточки. Ягоды среднего срока вызревания, урожай готов к уборке в третьей декаде августа. Сорт славится ежегодными урожаями, 15-летнее дерево приносит от 40 до 50 кг ягод. Плоды хранятся в холодильнике до пяти недель. Сорт выбирают за засухо- и морозоустойчивость.
  7. Элегантный. Плоды удлинённой, слегка приплюснутой формы. Вес в пределах 9 г. Кожица глянцевая, окрашена в вишнёво-бордовый, близкий к чёрному, оттенок. Тёмно-красная мякоть плотная, отделяется от косточки, вкус сладковатый с лёгкой кислинкой. Стабильное плодоношение, урожайность с дерева — до 45 кг. Сорт отличается транспортабельностью и высокой сопротивляемостью болезням, не зафиксированы случаи поражения вирусами и грибками. Дерево выдерживает морозы до -25 оС.

Фотогалерея: сорта, районированные для Подмосковья

Этот сорт кизила способен выдерживать резкие похолодания

Плоды сорта Светлячок хранятся до четырёх недель

Кизил Настя прекрасно сопротивляется болезням и вредителям

Этот сорт среди всех подмосковных получил наивысшую оценку за вкус

Плоды кизила Коралловая марка нужно собирать в срок, иначе они осыпаются

Ягоды Евгения лидируют по количеству содержащегося витамина С

Кизил Выдубецкий без проблем переносит длительную транспортировку

Зимостойкие сорта кизила

Благодаря работе селекционеров кизил приживается и плодоносит в регионах с суровыми зимами. Для подмосковных холодов выведены следующие сорта:

  1. Елена. Округло-овальные одномерные плоды массой 5–8 г. Поверхность ягоды покрывает тонкая и блестящая кожица тёмно-красного цвета. Отделяющаяся от косточки мякоть окрашена в красный, нежная и сочная. Во вкусе преобладает сладость, содержание сахаров доходит до 7, 7%. Урожай с дерева собирают рано — в конце августа. Снимать плоды нужно в срок, так как ягоды склонны к осыпанию. Урожайность ежегодная, с показателями 22–42 кг, сорт устойчив к болезням. Побеги выдерживают понижение температуры до -35 оС и без проблем транспортируются. Сорт Елена полезен в свежем виде, но подходит и для заготовок.
  2. Николка. Плоды готовы к сбору в конце июля — начале августа. Ягоды одномерные, удлинённо-овальные, с лёгкой асимметрией, массой 5–8 г. Вызревшие плоды тёмно-красные. Равномерно окрашенная мякоть нежная и сочная, плотной консистенции, ароматная. Вкус сладкий с небольшой кислинкой. Взрослое дерево даёт 35 кг ягод. Сорт устойчив к болезням, выдерживает тридцатиградусные морозы. Ягоды универсального назначения.
  3. Вышгородский. Сорт раннего созревания, поспевает в начале августа. Ягоды удлинённо-округлые, массой 4–6 г. Кожица блестящая, тёмно-красная, мякоть плотная, сочная. Вкус насыщенный, кисло-сладкий. Урожайность 35–42 кг с дерева. Плоды транспортабельны, хранятся длительное время, не утрачивают полезные свойства после переработки. Устойчивость к заболеваниям высокая, побеги легко переносят морозы.
  4. Гренадёр. Ценится за раннее созревание ягод — в начале или середине августа. Округло-вытянутые плоды массой 5–9 г покрыты глянцевой кожицей красного цвета. Мякоть имеет среднюю плотность, вкус кисло-сладкий. Урожайность стабильна, с одного дерева собирают 45 кг ягод. Сорт хорошо хранится и транспортируется. Иммунитет высокий, дерево зимостойкое. Плоды используются и в заготовках, и в свежем виде.

Фотогалерея: сорта, не боящиеся заморозков

Плоды склонны к осыпанию, поэтому их снимают за три-пять дней до полного созревания

Кизил Гренадёр ценится садоводами за ранний урожай и крупные плоды

Сорт переносит даже тридцатиградусные морозы

Отзывы о выращивании кизила

Я в Подмосковье прошлом году осенью посадил 3 шт. Да, их надо сажать не менее 2-х шт. У нас когда кизил цветёт, если нет пчёл в это время, урожая не будет (так мне поведал дедушка, у которого я саженцы взял).

Мубариз

В горах за ним никто не ухаживает и дерево отлично плодит. Он достаточно морозостоек в средней полосе, не подмёрз у меня даже в зиму 2005–2006 года. Основной недостаток — очень раннее цветение (первая декада апреля). Вы лишь должны время от времени проводить санитарную обрезку, надеюсь, не надо объяснять, что это такое. Плодоносит, конечно, не так, как на югах, но ягоды вполне вызревают. Задерживать цветение я никогда не пытался, (да и как его задержишь?), а вот от заморозков укрывал толстым лутрасилом, благо, размеры куста позволяют.

AndreyV

У меня кизил растёт 7 лет. Куст размером с куст крыжовника, в прошлые суровые зимы обмерзал, но опять обрастал, ещё ни разу не цвёл, сам по себе куст симпатичный, красивая, густая и долго не облетающая листва. Растёт больше в стороны, чем вверх.

Irina

В Подмосковье отлично растёт и вызревает. Проблем нет никаких.

Иван Тишин

В Подмосковье кизил большая редкость. Правда, в прошлом году видели в одном саду просто гигантский куст, метра 3 высотой. Так вот, я была на этом участке в сентябре, а плоды ещё не набрали массу, хотя прошлое лето было очень жарким. Надо бы поинтересоваться у хозяина, успел созреть или нет.

tamara

Кизил — полезная ягода, вырастить которую в подмосковном саду нетрудно. При минимальном уходе осенью дерево порадует урожаем ягод с незабываемым вкусом.

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