Growing broccoli cabbage seedlings and caring for them at home
Not every gardener knows about such a variety of cabbage as broccoli, although in many countries this culture is widely used in cooking. Almost everyone can grow it on their site, taking into account the features and observing agricultural practices. Broccoli can be cultivated by seed or seedlings. Planting dates and variety selection depend on the region and how early you want to harvest.
Ground preparation and tanks
Broccoli, like any other variety, prefers nutritious and loose soil, through which moisture and air penetrate well. To prepare the soil mixture of the correct composition, it is necessary to mix rotted manure or compost with turf soil in equal proportions. In addition, fertilizers with the content of micro- and macrocells are added to the mixture. To do this, you can use wood ash at the rate of 1 tbsp. l per 1 kg of soil.
The soil for broccoli seedlings must be nutritious and loose, for which they use turf soil and rotted manure
In the process of preparing the soil mixture, you can replace the turf land with peat with the addition of sand. If there is no desire or ability to prepare the substrate yourself, you can buy ready-made.
To reduce the likelihood of infection of young plants with various diseases, it is not recommended to take land from the garden, especially from the place where crops of the cruciferous family were cultivated (radish, radish, cabbage). The fact is that in such a land, most likely, there are pathogens characteristic of these plants (fusarium, black leg, gray rot, etc.).
Soil preparation for growing seedlings also includes a disinfection step. To do this, 2 weeks before the intended sowing of seeds, the earth is steamed in the oven at a temperature of + 200 ° C for 15 minutes. After cooling the substrate, it is shed with potassium permanganate (1% solution). For these purposes, you can use other drugs, such as Fundazole, Gamair.
For growing broccoli seedlings, both homemade wooden boxes, plastic containers, and special cassettes are suitable. If you plan to sow in large volumes, then such tanks will be the best option. With a small number of landings, you can use plastic cups or bottles, pots, etc. The main thing is that there are drainage holes on the bottom of the containers. Before sowing the seeds of the tank, it is recommended to process potassium permanganate.
For growing seedlings, homemade boxes or special cassettes are suitable
Preparation of broccoli seeds for sowing
Broccoli seeds before sowing need processing, which is carried out with the aim of disinfection, accelerate germination and sorting of poor-quality seed.
For sowing, it is desirable to select only large seeds, but medium ones can also be used. Small and damaged kernels must be removed. Calibration can be carried out using a suitable mesh size (about 1.5 mm). There is another way: the seeds are placed in a 3% saline solution for 5 minutes. All that remains on the surface is discarded. Seeds sown to the bottom are considered suitable for sowing. After such a solution, they are washed in clean water.
Broccoli seeds are sorted before sowing, selecting only large and medium grains
To process the seed from various pathogens, it is soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, and then washed. Many gardeners use this method, but there is no less effective method of disinfection - thermal. To do this, the seeds are poured into a thermos and filled with hot water (+ 60 ° C) for 25 minutes, after which they are washed with cold water.
For disinfection, broccoli seeds are placed in a potassium permanganate solution for 20 minutes
The seeds can be germinated both in ordinary water, and in growth stimulants, for example, Heteroauxin, Kornevin, etc. An option is possible to prepare a nutrient solution based on wood ash (1 tbsp. Per 1 liter of water), in which the seeds are soaked for several hours . After processing, they are washed, placed on the lower shelf of the refrigerator for a day, and then dried and proceed to planting.
Cabbage seeds are germinated in ordinary water or in growth stimulants for faster emergence of seedlings
Rules for planting broccoli seedlings
In order to get high-quality seedlings of broccoli by the time it is planted in open ground, it is necessary to take into account the region in which it is planned to be grown, and also to properly plant the seeds. We will dwell on these points in more detail.
When to plant
The gardeners of the Moscow Region and the middle strip can grow almost any kind of broccoli cabbage: both early and late, without fear. Among the most popular can be identified Gnome, Vitamin, Tone. Seedlings are sown in late March or early April. In early May, broccoli can be sown directly in the open field, if the spring turned out to be warm. Otherwise, the sowing is transferred to the middle of the month. Landing in the suburbs can be done before the beginning of July. At later dates, it is likely that the crop will not ripen.
In the Urals and Siberia, broccoli is quite possible to grow even by direct sowing in open ground. However, a more reliable method is seedling. For these regions, early varieties and hybrids should be selected, such as Macho F1, Fiesta F1, Tonus. Seedlings in the Urals are mostly grown in unheated greenhouses. Sowing is carried out from March 5 to 10.
For growing broccoli in the Urals and Siberia, it is recommended to use early varieties and hybrids
In the southern regions of Russia, broccoli seedlings are cultivated only with the aim of obtaining early harvests. In general, it is much easier to cultivate the culture here, but, nevertheless, there are some nuances that are caused by temperature values. For the considered variety of cabbage, the most comfortable temperature is + 16-25 ° C, and in the south it is quite hot. Therefore, in areas such as Astrakhan and Volgograd, broccoli have to be grown in the spring until the hot season arrives. In order to somehow rectify the situation, sowing by seeds is carried out in unheated greenhouses or at home, but early enough - in February. This allows you to harvest before the hot period.
If you adhere to the lunar calendar, then you should refer to the table, which indicates the favorable and unfavorable days for planting broccoli cabbage for seedlings in 2019.
Table: when to plant broccoli for seedlings in 2019 (according to the lunar calendar)
|Auspicious days||7, 8, 18, 20, 21||4-6, 8-10, 20-23||8-12, 19-24||5-6|
|Bad days||1-3, 6, 30, 31||5-17, 29, 30||14-16, 28-30||12-14, 27-29|
When the seeds and planting tanks are prepared, you can start sowing:
- A layer of expanded clay is poured onto the bottom of the drainage container. Then the tank is filled with soil mixture and moistened.
Expanded clay is poured at the bottom of the landing tank, and then it is filled with soil mixture
- Make grooves with a depth of not more than 1.5 cm or small recesses when sowing in separate containers.
In the prepared seedling box, grooves are made for sowing seeds with a depth of not more than 1.5 cm
- Lay out the seeds with an interval of 3 cm.
Broccoli seeds are sown with an interval of 3 cm, and when sown in separate containers, several seeds are placed
- Sprinkle with the same soil that is used for planting or peat.
Finishing the sowing, the seeds are sprinkled with the same soil mixture that is used for planting
After sowing, it is necessary to cover the containers with a film to preserve moisture and put them in a warm place.
Video: sowing broccoli cabbage for seedlings
Broccoli seedling care at home
The health and quality of plants, as well as the future crop, depend on how proper the care of seedlings will be. Therefore, seedlings need to provide appropriate conditions in which they will feel as comfortable as possible.
Temperature and lighting
The temperature regime is one of the main factors for the proper development of seedlings. After sowing seeds, containers with seedlings should be in a warm place with a temperature of + 18–20 ° C. When shoots appear, these values must be lowered: in sunny weather to + 15–17 ° C, in cloudy - + 12–13 ° C, and at night the indicator should be about + 8–10 ° C.
When growing broccoli seedlings, it is important to observe the temperature regime: in sunny weather up to + 15–17 ° C, in cloudy - + 12–13 ° C, and at night the indicator should be about + 8–10 ° C
Video: what to do with broccoli seedlings
Broccoli is a light-loving crop. First of all, it is worth considering that seeds are sown for seedlings in March, when daylight hours are quite short. Therefore, it will be necessary to organize additional lighting, for which phyto- or LED lamps can be used. It is believed that fluorescent lamps for cabbage are not suitable because of a different light spectrum. Young seedlings should be illuminated for 15 hours. The light source above the plants is placed at a height of 20 cm.
With a lack of sunlight, broccoli seedlings need additional lighting
Any kind of cabbage loves moisture, the lack of which leads to the death of plants. However, waterlogging of the soil contributes to the occurrence of dangerous diseases, such as keel and blackleg. This suggests that irrigation should be carried out as the top layer of the soil dries out, and the room itself with seedlings should be periodically ventilated.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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For irrigation of broccoli seedlings use only settled water at room temperature.
Broccoli cabbage is hygrophilous, therefore drying of the soil should not be allowed, but also it is not necessary to fill the plants
Dive seedlings at the age of two weeks. As a container, you can use any suitable pots, cups, cut plastic bottles, etc. However, peat pots are considered the most convenient option, since plants from them do not need to be transplanted. Dive should be given special care to avoid damage to the roots. Otherwise, the growth and development of seedlings will be slowed down.
Picking is a process of transplanting seedlings from a smaller capacity to a large one, which contributes to the normal development of the aerial and root parts.
When picking seedlings, broccoli transplant plants in a separate container for the normal development of the leaf and root parts
Seedling containers are pre-watered to make plants easier to extract. The rest of the process is reduced to the following actions:
- As the soil for picking, the same soil mixture is used as when sowing seeds, after moisturizing it from the sprayer.
- Make recesses for plants.
- Using a special spatula or a flat wooden stick, the sprout is removed from the nursery and placed in a separate container, sealing both the ground and spraying it.
Until the seedlings of broccoli are taken, you need to protect it from direct sunlight and ensure a temperature of + 20–22 ° C.
Video: how to dive broccoli seedlings
The full development of young plants is impossible without additional nutrition. Seedlings can be fed 2-3 days after diving with a solution of nitroammofoski. To prepare a nutrient solution in a bucket of water dissolve 1 tbsp. l fertilizers. 50 g of substance are poured into one container with the plant. After that, the temperature is lowered during the day to + 16–18 ° C, at night it is maintained at + 8–10 ° C.
Before planting broccoli seedlings in open ground, plants must be hardened. They do this so that they get used to the conditions as close as possible to the open ground. The procedure begins two weeks before the cabbage is planted in the garden. First, seedlings are placed on the balcony or loggia for several hours. Gradually, time is increased, and in the last days the plants are left for the night.
To broccoli seedlings adapted to external conditions, carry out the hardening procedure
Planting seedlings in the ground
Before planting broccoli cabbage seedlings in open ground, you need to determine the site and the timing of the transplant.
Plot for seedlings
When choosing a plot for broccoli, you need to consider that the plant loves heat and sun. The soil for planting seedlings should contain a sufficient amount of nutrients. In the autumn, under digging, the beds are fertilized with ammonium nitrate 40 g, superphosphate 30 g and potassium chloride 30 g per m². You can use organic fertilizers (compost, humus) at the rate of 2 kg per m².
For cabbage, soil with an acidity of pH 6.5–7.5 is suitable. If the indicator does not correspond to the norm, then acidic soil is deoxidized with dolomite flour or lime (0.5 kg per 1 m²), and gypsum is applied on alkaline soils (0.2-0.5 kg per 1 m²).
When choosing a site for broccoli, it is worth considering what crops were grown on it before. Good precursors for cabbage are:
After crops such as tomatoes, radishes, radishes and other types of cabbage, broccoli should not be planted.
When choosing a site for broccoli, it is necessary to consider predecessors, since similar pests and pathogens can accumulate in the soil
When to plant
It is possible to cultivate the culture in question almost throughout Russia. However, the timing of planting depends on the variety and the region of cultivation. If we consider the transplanting of seedlings into the soil on the territory of the Moscow region and the middle zone, then the peculiarity of these regions is that the planting occurs in the first half of May. There is practically no hot sun here at this time, and plant transplantation will be a success. However, frosts for May are not uncommon. Therefore, the bed after planting will be useful to cover. As covering material, lutrasil, spanbond, etc. can be used.
In order to avoid damage to broccoli cabbage by return frosts, it is recommended to cover plantings with covering material
Regarding the timing of transplanting broccoli seedlings in open ground in the Urals and Siberia, they fall on the third decade of May. You can continue to land until mid-June. As a result, the crop can be harvested in late summer or early autumn, and in order to get it faster, greenhouses have to be installed on the site. If you sow seeds in March, then seedlings for shelter can be planted in early May, and harvest from mid-summer until the beginning of autumn.
How to plant
Until the seedlings are planted in open ground, there should be 5-6 true leaves on it. The transplant is carried out according to the scheme 35 * 60 cm in the evening hours or in cloudy weather. The process consists of the following steps:
- They make shallow planting pits according to the size of the root system of seedlings.
Wells for seedlings of cabbage make the size of the root system of plants, taking into account the earthen coma
- Wells are shed with water.
- The seedling is removed from the planting container with a lump of earth and placed in the hole to the level of the first leaves.
Seedlings when planting in open ground are buried to the level of the first leaves
- If the weather is dry during the landing, then watering is done again, after which it is sprinkled with dry soil and lightly tamped with a hand.
After transplanting, seedlings are irrigated, sprinkled with dry earth and compacted by hand
A layer of mulch is placed on top of the plantings, which will prevent the evaporation of moisture and will serve as protection of the roots from overheating and weed growth.
Possible problems with growing broccoli seedlings
When growing broccoli seedlings, sometimes problems arise that, one way or another, affect the growth and development of plants, and in the future on their quality. If young seedlings turn yellow, then this is a clear sign of a lack of nutrients in the soil or their excess. So, with a deficiency of potassium, the tips of the plants turn yellow. In addition, yellowing can be caused by infections in the soil, which was not treated before sowing.
Broccoli seedlings sprout due to lack of light or temperature
If rotting seedlings is observed, then this indicates infection with fungal diseases. If it is a black leg, then the plantation first turns brown, and then the lower part of the stem rots and thins, which leads to the death of the seedling. Quite often you can watch how the seedlings of cabbage are drawn. The main reason for this phenomenon is a lack of light, improper temperature conditions, as well as a high density of landings. In this case, it is necessary not only to thin out the plants, but also to provide the necessary conditions for their normal growth.
The black leg is one of the main diseases of seedlings of cabbage, in which the stem in the lower part rots, becomes thinner, which leads to the death of the plant
If you don’t have the seeds at all, then there are not so many reasons: poor seed or poor temperature and humidity. We can conclude that the bulk of the problems that arise when growing broccoli seedlings is due to improper preparation of soil and seeds, as well as non-compliance with the conditions for the normal development of plants.
Further care for broccoli
Caring for broccoli is not a big deal. One of the features of the culture is the need for shading of young plantings from direct sunlight. To do this, you need to build a shading structure from the fabric. As for irrigation, they are carried out once a week, of course, taking into account weather conditions. Drying and waterlogging of the soil should not be allowed. They irrigate plants directly under the root, and also resort to spraying. The main thing is that watering should be carried out in the morning or evening hours.
The soil on the cabbage bed must be loosened after each irrigation or rain. This will contribute to a better penetration of oxygen to the root system and tying inflorescences. Loosening also helps to remove weeds, which not only attract harmful insects, but also increase soil moisture, which leads to the development of fungal diseases.
Loosening the soil on cabbage beds improves air exchange and helps to control weeds
Broccoli in open ground needs extra nutrition. During the growing season carry out 3 feeding:
- The first time fertilizers are applied 2 weeks after transplanting seedlings (1 glass of mullein and 1 tsp. Urea per 10 l of water).
- The plants are fed for the second time 2-3 weeks after the first (1 tbsp. L ammonium nitrate per 10 l of water).
- The third time the plants are fertilized at the end of the summer period (40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 l of water).
During the inflorescence of the inflorescences, the stalk of the cabbage becomes weak. Therefore, plants need help by introducing a nutrient solution that is similar to the third top dressing. In addition, it is necessary to respond in a timely manner to the appearance of pests and the occurrence of diseases, resorting to folk remedies or using bio- or chemical preparations.
Video: broccoli cabbage care and flowering prevention
In order to grow high-quality seedlings of broccoli, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions for plants. In many regions of the country, cultivation of this variety of cabbage is possible by direct sowing of seeds in open ground. However, in order to get an early harvest, the seedling stage is mandatory. Compliance with all the rules and recommendations will allow you to grow strong seedlings and painlessly transfer the transplant to the open ground.