Growing beets in open ground and in a greenhouse
Beets - one of the main crops in the field and garden. This is due to the fact that it is quite easy to grow throughout the year along with other vegetable crops. Some of the nuances of this process will help to achieve a good crop of vegetables.
The genus of the rhizome herbaceous plant of the Amaranthaceae family of beets has more than 10 wild and 2 cultivated species. Cultivated beet leaf and ordinary (root). Everyone knows fodder, sugar and table beets are varieties of the latter species.
Table (vegetable) beets are most common
Beetroot refers to a two-year culture, although it is cultivated as a two-year plant only in the southern regions, where the root crop does not freeze in winter. The basal leaves of the plant are quite large, wide, juicy. In the first year after planting, root crops are formed, which in the ripening phase often protrude above the ground. Their pulp contains many beneficial substances. Petioles, leaves and beet pulp come in a wide variety of shades of green, red and purple.
Recently, many varieties with round and round-flat, oval, cylindrical, elongated-conical, spindle-shaped root crops have been bred.
Flowers usually appear in the 2nd year (sometimes in the 1st) in the axils of small leaves on a powerful erect stem, reaching a height of up to 1 m. White-green flower bunches are collected in complex ears. In each paniculate inflorescence, there are 2–5 inconspicuous flowers with a simple perianth. Depending on the ripening period, flowering occurs at the beginning or end of summer. And in August-September it is already possible to collect fruits in the form of compressed nuts, in each of which 3-5 seeds.
After flowering, beet stems appear on the stems, 3-5 seeds in each fused glomerulus
Application and benefits
Beetroot was used for food purposes as early as 2 millennia BC in some eastern countries. Later, this culture became indispensable in Europe. It is known that already in Kievan Rus, beets were cultivated as a root crop. Today, this vegetable has taken root in all continental latitudes.
Russia, Belarus and Ukraine are world leaders in beet-growing.
Beetroot salad is recommended for anemia, hypertension, and liver diseases.
Boiled and baked beets are well established in the diet for the treatment of scurvy, gallstone and kidney stone disease, diabetes, hypertension, anemia. A unique complex of minerals, vitamins, fiber contained in the plant helps to improve blood circulation in the brain, digestion, and strengthen the immune system. Beets are used fresh and processed for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, it is recommended to use as a mild laxative for children and adults, an effective remedy for spastic colitis and chronic rhinitis. Shredded young leaves and root vegetables help in the treatment of skin diseases: burns, ulcers, boils.
The juice of this vegetable has a special healing power. It is especially useful for older people in the treatment of anemia, neurosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis. But it is strongly recommended not to give it to babies under the age of 6 months.
Growing beets seedlings
By planting beets with seedlings, you can get a crop a few weeks earlier. Usually only early beet varieties are grown in seedlings in order to get a vitamin vegetable to the table as early as possible. Sowing seeds is carried out 3-4 weeks before transplanting seedlings.
For seeding, hybrids are selected that have a round shape of root crops and are resistant to shooting:
- Egyptian flat,
- Bordeaux 237,
- Cold resistant 19.
Sprouts of these varieties have shorter roots, which contributes to better survival after a dive. Beet seedlings fully develops at a temperature of 16ºC, demanding on soil moisture, needs to be ventilated.
Soil for beet seedlings is best purchased universal. The addition of 250 ml of wood ash to 10 liters of soil mix will serve as a good fertilizer for beetroot sprouts. Prepared containers are filled with soil and compacted well, moistened, shed with an aqueous solution of the fungicides Maxim, Fitosporin (according to the instructions) to protect seedlings from the insidious “black legs” in the future.
Sown seeds in dry form or already sprouted, previously soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and aged for several days in a soft cotton material. The second method allows you to immediately eliminate low-quality seeds that have not hatch.
Beet seeds can be sprouted before sowing
As a container for seedlings use boxes, plastic cups. If there is little seedlings and it does not take up much space on the windowsill, it is much easier to grow it in ready-made or home-made seedling cassettes, peat pots.
Beetroot seedlings use plastic containers
Seeds are laid out and covered with soil 1-2 cm, rammed with a plank, watered crops. The containers are covered with glass or plastic wrap and placed in a warm, well-lit place. Before emergence, it is desirable to maintain an air temperature of 18–20 ° С. In the future, it is reduced to 16 ° C.
The best place for seedlings after emergence is a greenhouse.
Beet seedlings are watered 2 times a week, after which the soil is gently loosened with a stick to prevent crust formation. In high-quality soil, there are already all the necessary elements for the development of sprouts. For better growth, make one fertilizing with fertilizers with a mineral base: Growth, For seedlings, Vegetables or liquid fertilizers Krepysh, Sotka, Fertika (according to the instructions).
Beet seedlings are watered 2 times a week.
Each beet seed glomerulus contains from 2–7 seeds; therefore, seedlings require thinning and picking. Seedlings sown in cups, cassettes, and other spacious containers can do without picking. In the box, when the first cotyledonous leaves appear, seedlings should be thinned out. If you plan to use the removed plants further as planting material, thin out very carefully, take out the sprouts together with the ground with a special spoon, so as not to damage the roots.
Dive seedlings are watered and planted in the same soil as for sowing.
When the first cotyledon leaves appear, the beet seedlings should be thinned and dive
When starting to plant seedlings, take into account the temperature regime: the soil should warm up to 8–10ºC, and air - up to 16ºC. It is better to wait until the threat of spring return frosts has passed.
Try not to allow seedlings to outgrow. Its long roots are deformed and subsequently substandard root crops are obtained from them. In addition, such seedlings take root worse. The readiness indicator for planting is the presence of 3-5 real leaflets in seedlings. Seedlings are carefully removed together with the ground with a special stick. If the spine is bare, it is soaked in a mash of mullein and clay (1: 1).
Beetroot seedlings are carefully removed together with the ground with a special stick and transplanted to the garden.
The place for beets should be well lit by the sun, because in the shade the plants are extended, root crops do not develop normally. The site is prepared in advance, preferably in the fall. Dig the soil to a depth of 30 cm and fertilize it with organics (3 kg / m2), complex fertilizer (40-50 g / m2), wood ash (300 g / m2).
They start landing in the evening, choosing a cloudy day. The distance between the holes is at least 8 cm, their depth should correspond to the length of the root. Wells moisturize (250 ml of water), lay out the plants, trying not to bend the roots; sprinkle the earth, tamp the soil. Between the rows leave 25-30 cm.
By increasing the distance between plants, you can achieve large root crops, but not their quality. Root vegetables of medium size are considered more tasty, sweet and juicy.
Planted plants will not be exposed to sunburn if planted for several days with cover material.
After planting, seedlings are watered every day until the sprouts are well rooted. In the future, watering is carried out depending on climatic conditions 3-4 times per season. To leaves well washed and refreshed, it is better to do sprinkling. Experienced gardeners advise using water with the addition of table salt (1 tbsp. / 10 l) for watering, which increases the sugar accumulation of beets and protects leaves from many harmful insects.
About 1 liter of water is consumed per 1 m2. Excess moisture is more dangerous than a short drought. Try to prevent high humidity, which contributes to the development of fungi. The subsequent loosening after watering will prevent the appearance of a soil crust.
For better keeping quality and sugar content of root crops, it is recommended to stop watering a few weeks before harvesting.
Sprinkling washes and refreshes beet leaves
Beets are a big lover of fertile soil. But you should not overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers. They are introduced at the first stage of development in small doses. In the future, the introduction of nitrogen is undesirable, since it will accumulate as nitrates. The best fertilizer will be solutions of mullein (1:10) and bird droppings (1:20).
In order for the nutrient fluid to be absorbed into the soil, small grooves are made 5 cm from the plants. Use 10-12 liters of solution per 10 m2. When the leaves are closed on the plants, they can be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
After closing the leaves, the beets are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Wood ash is able to fill the lack of potassium in the soil. It is scattered on beet beds (1.5 l / 10 m2) and must be watered.
In order to avoid fibrous root crops, foliar top dressing is done with an aqueous solution of boric acid (2 g / 10 l). You can saturate the vegetable with potassium using lime milk (200 g of lime / 10 l of water). Foliar top dressing allows the plant to absorb and absorb the necessary substances faster and with greater benefit, prevents overdose of fertilizers.
Growing beets in open ground
Growing beets in open ground is even a beginner's strength. Plants sown immediately in the garden grow faster and are more resistant to weather conditions.
Tested by many gardeners, the method of planting beets is along the edge of the ridge in the vicinity of tomatoes, carrots, onions and garlic.
Beetroot feels great along the edge of the garden in the vicinity of onions, garlic, carrots
Sowing beets in open ground
More often, beets are sown in spring at a soil temperature of 10 ° C. Seeds are distributed on a flat and moist surface at the rate of 2 g / m2, covered with soil by 2 cm and strongly compacted. Winter sowing (late October - early November) is more laborious: they make grooves 4 cm deep, increase the seeding rate to 3 g / m2, compact the soil tightly, and cover it with mulching material. The distance between the grooves should be at least 20 cm.
In late October - early November, beets are sown before winter
It is not necessary to soak and germinate seeds for winter sowing, as they can freeze and not sprout.
In order for seeds to hatch freely, row-spacings are loosened with hoes across rows. After the appearance of seedlings, the beds are weeded, watered and thinned 2 times. Delay with thinning can lead to weakening of seedlings, so they try to carry it out as soon as possible.
- The first such procedure is carried out immediately after the appearance of the first true leaflet, removing extra sprouts and leaving a 3-4 cm distance between seedlings.
- After the second thinning, the distance increases to 8–10 cm, the strongest plants remain.
Regular cultivation promotes the growth of root crops.
Regular cultivation contributes to the growth of root crops, making the soil aerial
Watering and top dressing are the same as when growing in seedlings. In mid-July, beets can be sown for the last time, but root crops will be much smaller.
Follow crop rotation rules! The best predecessors of beets are eggplant, onions, cucumbers, tomatoes, legumes and crops. It is not necessary to form beet beds in the place where beets, cabbage, potatoes and carrots grew.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Video: how to grow beets
Growing beets in a greenhouse
Growing beets in a greenhouse has its advantages: obtaining stable crops throughout the year, reliable protection from pests and ease of care. Experienced gardeners are advised to grow in the greenhouse special varieties adapted to greenhouse conditions. Among them are well established:
- Burpiz Golden,
- Red ball
- Cold resistant.
The sequence of operations for growing seedlings in greenhouse beds:
- Take into account the temperature regime (the soil should warm up to 8-10 ° C, and the air - up to 17 ° C), make good lighting in the greenhouse.
- The fast-growing greens preceding sowing will fertilize the soil, normalize acidity. Suitable for this purpose are parsley, mustard, salads.
- Sown seeds in February-early March. The seeding rate is the same as for open ground.
- When the first true leaves appear, the seedlings are gently thinned, leaving a distance between seedlings of 8-15 cm (depending on the desired size of root crops).
- Make easy hilling of the sprouts.
- For preventive purposes, plants are watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- In order to avoid fiberiness and rigidity of root crops, plantings are regularly watered with heated water (at least 20 ° C). Watering should be moderate so that high humidity does not contribute to the development of fungal diseases.
- The day after each watering, the soil is loosened, weeds are removed.
- The room is aired from time to time.
- Greenhouse beds are fed with wood ash (150 g / m2), and then watered.
Cucumbers and tomatoes will be excellent neighbors for beets in the greenhouse. The rows of these vegetables can be alternated. It is undesirable to plant peppers, dill, and legumes nearby.
The first vitamin treat is beet leaves, which have gained enough strength. They are pulled out as they grow, 2-3 from each bush. Excessive removal of tops weakens the development of root crops.
Fresh beetroot leaves - a good supplement for frozen vegetable mixes, salads, soups
In the middle-end of May, it is already possible to start harvesting dessert, small root crops. When yellowness appears on the lower leaves and their wilting should be harvested. Delay can lead to darting (flowering), and fruit loss is guaranteed.
More nutrients, of course, in fresh, raw beets. It can be stored in the refrigerator for about 2 weeks, and even longer in the cellar.
Diseases and Pests
Appetizing beets often become the habitat of various pathogens and insect pests. Therefore, it is so important to diagnose a disaster in time and rush to save the crop.
Planting beets every time in the same place can lead to the accumulation of infection in the soil. In addition, the zoospores of a dangerous fungus sometimes infect seeds. Often, the spread of pathogens occurs before the development phase in sprouts of 4-5 leaves. Appearing white mold is the first sign of a root eater.
The cause of the disease are spring frosts, sharp jumps in day and night temperatures. Heavy, too moist soil is a favorable environment for the development of many species of this fungus.
For example, Fusarium appears on the root system of seedlings in the form of sickle-shaped conidia of the mycelium. Due to the defeat of Rhizoctonia, brown mycelium forms on the seedlings.
In most cases, barely hatched sprouts die before they reach the surface. Unaware of the disease, gardeners replant heavily thinned crops.
The root eater also appears on the roots of adult plants with black pycnids of the fungus Phoma betae. Affected beet plants turn yellow and die. Even after recovering from the disease, the roots of such beets acquire a non-commodity appearance, lose their sugar content.
Beetroot root grower develops quickly in heavy, moist soil.
Preventive techniques are:
- the use of boron fertilizers;
- the use of seed dressers;
- compliance with the optimal temperature regime for sowing: soil at least 8ºC and air humidity at least 60%;
- loosening beet beds after crusting on the soil;
- mulching of crops with rotten plant residues, peat.
The first sign of the disease is the appearance on the lower leaves of the plant of concentric spots of brown or yellowish tint. Later, small black dots appear on the leaves. The disease is dangerous because after the death of the tops, dry rot of the core occurs, which is impossible to notice.
The disease is provoked by frequent heavy dew and prolonged drizzling rains, mists causing high humidity. The absence or deficiency of boron in the soil can also cause phomosis. A dangerous pathogen lives on the seed stems and seeds of beets, is easily tolerated by the wind.
Having discovered the disease on the leaves, the first thing to do is to add borax (3 g / m²) under the root of beets and make foliar top dressing on the leaf with an aqueous solution of boric acid 5 g / 10 l.
Leaves covered with concentric spots die due to phomosis, and dry rot develops in the heart of the root crop
Cercosporosis is a dangerous beet disease that can kill more than half of the crop. On the upper leaves, tiny light spots with a red border are found, and the lower leaves are covered with a light gray coating. Affected by cercosporiosis, the leaves dry out, and root crops quickly deteriorate, their keeping quality deteriorates.
To avoid spotting, the soil before sowing is treated with fungicides, and the seeds with Agat-25. Plants are fed with potash fertilizers.
Light spots with a red border - a sign of cercosporosis
Fusarium, brown, red rot
Fusarium spreads more often to damaged plants. Withered lower leaves, blackened base of petioles, cracks in the root crop with white contents are signs of this type of rot.
Brown rot, in turn, develops with high humidity and an excess of nitrogen in the soil. The disease is characterized by the formation of light plaque on the soil and tops of leaves. In fleshy root vegetables, internal and external black spots of necrotic tissue develop. Affected vegetables are removed without being stored.
For prophylactic purposes, foliar top dressing is done with boron, after irrigation, the soil is loosened.
Rotten root crops cannot be stored
Red rot (felt disease) is no less dangerous for beets. Volumetric brown spots appear on root crops, which become covered with sclerotia of the fungus over time. Infected fruits must be immediately separated from healthy ones to avoid further infection.
Most often, beetroot beds are annoyed by pest aggressors: common and mining flies, fleas, shield bugs, scoops and aphids. Adult individuals and their larvae damage the leaves and roots of beets. Fighting insects is much easier than fighting diseases.
If aphids are found on beets, treat the plant with infusion of onion husks
In most cases, you can do without chemicals, observing the simple rules of agricultural technology. It is necessary not to violate the requirements of crop rotation, to timely remove weeds on beet beds and nearby, in the autumn to carry out deep digging.
Having discovered insects, try to use less harmful substances first:
- having treated the tops with infusion of onion peel or wormwood, you can get rid of aphids. To prepare the infusion, take 1 kg of the dried mass, grind it and pour 10 liters of water, boil for 15 minutes, insist 3-4 hours and filter;
- wormwood branches arranged in the aisles help from aphids and shield insects;
- dusting plants with ash, tobacco dust or treating leaves with an infusion of ash scare away a flea, the larvae of which regale on the roots of the plant. The recipe for ash infusion is simple: take 1.5 tbsp. ash, mix well and insist 1 day. Processed beets strained infusion in dry weather.
Spraying with solutions of bacterial preparations Bitoxibacillin (1%) and Gomelin (0.5%) is used in the fight against different types of scoop. Strongly ridged beetroot leaves, reminiscent of lace, indicate a strong invasion of flies and shieldflies. In this case, Aktara, Karbofos, Spark insecticides are used (according to the instructions).
Measures to control beet diseases and pests include:
- planting disease-resistant varieties;
- crop rotation compliance;
- seed treatment before sowing;
- fertilizer of soil and plants;
- timeliness of harvesting;
- implementation of agricultural activities;
- constant monitoring of landings.
Harvesting and storage
The first juicy root crops of early beet varieties are harvested in July. Late-ripening beets, which can be stored until the end of spring, are dug up in early autumn, when the leaves turn yellow and the leaves begin to dry.
For cleaning, choose a dry day. First, they dig the root crops with a pitchfork. Then, holding hands at the tops, they are pulled out of the soil. The blunt end of the knife gently removes the ground from the root, and cut off the leaves with a sharp, leaving up to 2 cm of petioles. Damaged root crops (damaged, rotten) are immediately separated. The dried beets are dried in the fresh air, and then about a week in well-ventilated rooms (sub-curtains), where the sun does not look.
Selected beets are first dried in the fresh air
Sliced spoiled and substandard root crops are immediately processed, harvesting for borsch seasoning, canned salads.
Canned beetroot salads - a great harvest for the winter
When the stalks are dried, the beets are dusted with chalk and put in storage in the cellar. Root crops are better preserved at temperatures from 0 to 2ºC, in rooms with good ventilation. In warmer places, the beets spoil, begin to “frown” and rot.
A proven method is to store root crops on supports of 15 cm or more in wooden or plastic lattice boxes 20 cm away from the wall. Rows of beets in boxes are sprinkled with sand, dry peat or sawdust from coniferous wood (3-4 cm layer).
In the sand, beets are stored much longer
Many gardeners practice storing beets in bulk on top of potatoes. Root crops are filled with moisture evaporating from potatoes and dry less.
Growing conditions in various regions
Beetroot is a heat-loving crop that reacts negatively to high humidity, low temperatures and poor lighting. Therefore, in some regions it is difficult to achieve a good harvest of this vegetable, especially for new gardeners.
For example, summer near Moscow is often rainy and does not please with excess heat, and the sun is so necessary to beets at the beginning of the growing season. But nevertheless, you can grow large root crops even in the conditions of the Moscow Region, having mastered some techniques of agricultural technology and picked up a zoned variety. First of all, you need to correctly determine the landing date. In the Moscow Region, the soil warms up to 8–10 ° C in the second half of May. At this time, sowing of early varieties is started. Later varieties can be planted only in the beginning or middle of June. If you plan to eat a vegetable immediately for food, early ripening varieties are suitable for cultivation:
Their harvest which can be harvested in July. Root crops of mid-ripening varieties for the Moscow region:
The fruits of these varieties persist until spring, more resistant to disease. It is risky to grow late beet varieties in the Moscow region, as their root crops may not ripen until the first autumn frosts.
Some summer residents use warm beds, on which they manage to grow late-ripening varieties Ataman, Torpeda, Odnorostkovaya.
The North-West and Far East zones are characterized by cold and too short summers. Residents of these regions should prefer early frost-resistant varieties with a short ripening period. Zoned varieties for Siberia:
- Bordeaux 237,
- Incomparable A-463,
- Podzimnaya A-474,
- Siberian flat,
- Cold resistant.
Given the sharp jumps in temperature, many gardeners recommend growing beets in Siberia only by seedlings, planting them in open ground no earlier than mid-June.
Beetroot is an indispensable and healthy vegetable for each of us. But you have to work hard to have a juicy vitamin product all year round.