Growing and caring for cyclamen at home
Cyclamen is a plant that attracts many amateur gardeners with a general decorative effect, compactness, abundance and duration of flowering. Moreover, his buds open in late autumn or even in winter, when most houseplants fall into "hibernation". It can not be called too whimsical, but it is advisable to familiarize yourself with the requirements for the conditions of detention in advance. There are many natural varieties of the flower and hybrids bred by breeding. Each grower will be able to find a plant to their liking, which fits perfectly into any interior. Given the peculiarities of cyclamen care at home, even a beginner will be able to get abundant and prolonged flowering.
What does cyclamen look like
Cyclamen is a perennial tuberous herbaceous plant from the Mirsinovy family, cultivated as an indoor plant in the Russian climate. It is found in the “wild” form on the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Caspian coasts, in North Africa, Southern Europe, and the Middle East. In nature, there are more than 60 varieties of cyclamen, of which about twenty have been successfully “domesticated”. There are many hybrids bred by breeding. Work in this direction has been going on for a long time, since the middle of the XIX century.
In nature, cyclamens often form a continuous green carpet.
The name "cyclamen" comes from the Greek "circle". The plant received it due to the characteristic spherical shape of the rhizomes. Also, it is often called a gibberish. There is also an unofficial nickname - “pork bread”. Wild cyclamen tubers are very fond of enjoying boars. They are not large, on average grow to 4-5 cm in diameter. Although there are specimens, “champions”, reaching 12-15 cm.
In tubers, cyclamen stores water and nutrients, which it then consumes during the dormant period.
The leaves of the plant are heart-shaped, with edges cut out by a clove, painted in a deep dark green color. They are assembled in a fairly compact outlet. In most varieties, the sheet plate is coated with silver-white or grayish strokes and stripes resembling a marble pattern.
Even if cyclamen did not bloom, the plant would still be in demand by amateur gardeners due to the unusual variegated color of the leaves
Cyclamen belongs to the category of ephemeroid plants. This means that they bloom in the cold season. Moreover, the more frost-resistant the variety, the later it opens buds. Flowers located on thin pedicels rise above the rosette of leaves. The length of the peduncle is on average 30 cm in ordinary varieties and 12-15 cm in dwarf ones.
The cyclamen flowers have an unusual shape, the petals are strongly bent back
Due to the characteristic shape and bent petals, the flowers resemble butterflies fluttering over a plant. Their color varies from snow-white to deep purple, including all shades of pink, purple and red. The flowers are bisexual, pollination without problems can be done at home. On each plant, 60–100 buds are gradually opened during the season. The lifespan of each of them is 10-12 days. Flowers spread a light unobtrusive aroma reminiscent of lilies of the valley. Breeders have developed variegated and terry varieties, as well as varieties with a fringed border of petals.
In "natural" cyclamens, the petals are most often mauve, breeders greatly expanded the color gamut
After flowering, around March-April, cyclamen drops its leaves. The presence of a dormant period is the key to abundant flowering in the next season. The tubers have growth buds, from which new leaves and pedicels form at the end of summer.
Cyclamen is a flower highly respected by the followers of the Feng Shui teachings. They believe that if you put it in the bedroom or in the children's room, you can save its inhabitants from problems with the heart and blood vessels, increase immunity, get rid of allergies and even infertility. In a child, a plant is able to relieve bouts of uncontrolled aggression and moodiness, and help overcome shyness.
Cyclamen tubers are widely used in folk medicine. In ancient Greece, they were recommended as a remedy for migraines, bites of poisonous snakes and generally any poisoning. And the gruel was applied to sore joints for the treatment of gout, rheumatism, arthritis, radiculitis. But self-medication is not worth it. The tubers of the Persian cyclamen and all hybrids derived on its basis are poisonous. You can earn not only vomiting, indigestion and diarrhea, but also cramps, neuralgia.
In Europe and the USA, cyclamens are often cultivated as “disposable” plants. Faded instances are simply thrown away and bought new ones. But with proper care, it is quite possible to extend the period of the "productive life" of the plant to 10-15 years and achieve annual flowering from it.
Where climate allows, cyclamens are widely used in landscape design
Video: cyclamen description
Popular varieties with photos
Most often, at home, cyclamens bred by breeding are grown. But for this, “wild” varieties are quite suitable. They are just much less common on sale.
- African. One of the largest, forms a rare rosette of leaves. Prefers a rather "poor", stony substrate. The flowering period falls in the fall. The color of the petals varies from pastel pink and pale purple to deep crimson. The leaves are rough to the touch, large (up to 15 cm in length). Compared to other cyclamens, it is distinguished by the growth rate.
- Balearic. Natural dwarf. The height of the plant does not exceed 20 cm. The underside of the leaf is raspberry, closer to the base - maroon. The flowers are snow-white or pinkish.
- Cilician. It does not tolerate direct sunlight, prefers a shadow. Small leaves are covered with silver spots. The pale pink color at the tips of the petals gradually changes to a more saturated at the base.
- Kossky. A leaf plate without a pattern, with a single dark spot. The roots grow only from under the tubers. They themselves are dark brown, as if velvety to the touch. The flowers are pink or lilac. The shape of the leaves and petals depends on the region of growth. The closer to the southeast, the larger and brighter the flowers and narrower the leaf plates.
- Cypriot. An endemic plant found only on this island. The height of the leaf rosette is 8–15 cm. Snow-white petals with an ink-purple stain at the base. Of all the varieties, this is the most fragrant. Flowering lasts almost six months - from mid-September to February or March.
- Greek. Natural mix of colors. There is always a purple spot at the base of the petal. And they themselves are painted in almost all shades inherent in culture - from snow-white and pinkish to lilac-scarlet.
- Neapolitan (ivy). Differs in frost resistance. In the wild, it is found even in Russia. Where the climate allows, it is widely used in landscape design. It is easy to identify by leaves of characteristic shape resembling ivy. The flowers are pink and purple. The buds open from December to March.
- Lebanese. Dark green leaves are dotted with small yellowish dots. The flowers are mauve.
- Small-flowered. Pedicels are very short. Flowers with a diameter of not more than 2 cm. The leaves are also small. Petals are painted in different shades of lilac.
- Turkish. The leaves are small, but the flowers are very large. There is always a dark spot at the base of the petal. They themselves are painted in reddish-purple or purple.
- European. One of the largest cyclamens. The diameter of the tuber is about 15 cm, the height of the rosette is 20–25 cm. The leaves are streaked with silver touches, and spots of the same color come across. Peduncles are very long. The buds open in summer, not fall. He is the only one during the period of “rest” who does not lose foliage, but only stops growing. The color of the petals varies from almost white and pastel pink to blood-red, the tips are twisted in a spiral. The aroma is pronounced, it may even seem harsh to someone.
- Pontic (Colchic). Natural variety of cyclamen european. It differs in that it has plain leaves and smaller flowers.
- Persian. The leaves are dark green, covered with a "pattern" of silver spots and strokes. Petals are painted in different shades of pink, red, purple, purple. The period of active vegetation lasts only 3-4 months, the rest of the time the plant is bare tubers.
- Alpine violet. The leaves are elongated, almost oval, with a grayish-green pattern. Petals are located at an angle of 90 ° to the peduncle, so the flower resembles a propeller. Their fragrance is gentle, unobtrusive, honey. Coloring - all shades of pink. At the base of the petal there is always a purple spot.
Photo gallery: Varieties of cyclamen found in nature
- Cyclamen African in nature grows mainly on rocky plains
- Cyclamen Balearic - a miniature variety of natural origin
- Cyclamen of Cilicia suffers worse than anyone else in direct sunlight
- The appearance of Kossky cyclamen is highly dependent on the region of growth
- Cyclamen Cyprus - endemic plant
- Greek cyclamen even during the absence of flowering looks very elegant
- Neapolitan cyclamen is easy to identify by the characteristic shape of the leaves
- Lebanese cyclamen - these are small, but very fragrant flowers
- Cyclamen Small-flowered - one of the most compact varieties
- Cyclamen Turkish stands out for its bright color
- Cyclamen European differs in sufficiently large dimensions of the outlet
- Pontic Cyclamen - a breeding variety bred by nature itself
- Cyclamen Persian - the basis for most breeder experiments
- Cyclamen Alpine violet stands out with its unusual flower shape
Most often, flower growers do not grow “wild” cyclamen, but any of the hybrids bred by breeding. Also on sale you can find the so-called mix - a mixture of seeds of different varieties.
For convenience, all hybrids are divided into categories “mini”, “midi” and “maxi”. For the first, the diameter of the outlet is no more than 8 cm, the height of the peduncle is 10-15 cm. But the presence of large (for them) flowers is up to 4 cm. Of all cyclamens, the most miniature are the most unpretentious. The diameter of the cyclamen midi rosette is 10–12 cm, maxi is 13–20 cm.
Most often, breeders display a whole series of hybrids with petals of different colors. The "standard set", as a rule, includes white, pink, scarlet, lilac, purple. Most popular series:
- Patio. Very compact cyclamen, flower stalks do not exceed 10 cm, the diameter of the outlet is 8 cm. Flowering lasts from late autumn to March.
- Silver Hart. Leaves with a bright spot in the center resembling a heart. The height of the outlet is 20–25 cm. Flowers with a diameter of 3-4 cm, fragrant.
- Winfall. Unpretentious plant. The socket is compact, with a diameter of 8-12.5 cm. The height of the peduncles is about 15 cm.
- Miracle. A series of miniature hybrids, distinguished by the duration of flowering. Height of peduncles is up to 20 cm, diameter of the outlet is 10-12 cm. In addition to pink and white, the series includes a hybrid with petals of a very beautiful salmon hue.
- Silverado. It differs in growth rate. The leaves are silver with a dark green spot around the central vein. In the variety with white petals at a temperature below 14 ° C and above 24 ° C, they turn pink.
- Meringue. Large, very elegant flowers. The diameter of the outlet is 15–18 cm.
- Butterfly. The flowers are very large, fringed. The diameter of the outlet is 25 cm.
- Laser. One of the most common series on the market. These cyclamens are distinguished by their growth rate. The flowers spread a very pleasant delicate aroma.
- Midori. The socket is compact, no more than 15 cm in diameter. The leaves are elongated, almost lanceolate. Flowering in optimal or close conditions lasts up to six months.
- Sierra A large outlet, the height of the peduncles is 30–35 cm. It is distinguished by a very high germination of seeds - 90% or more. Long flowering, fragrant flowers.
- Sterling. Leaves are an unusual combination of silver and almost black. The flowers are large, fragrant. The diameter of the outlet is 25-30 cm.
- Winter ice. A wide silver-white border runs along the edge of the dark green leaf. Peduncles tall (28-30 cm), but thin, sloping under the weight of the buds.
Photo Gallery: Cyclamen Series
- Cyclamen Patio - one of the most compact hybrids
- Cyclamen Silver Hart got the name because of the drawing on a sheet plate
- Cyclamen Winfall is unpretentious than most "relatives"
- Cyclamen Miracle appreciated for its long flowering
- Cyclamen Silverado stands out for its growth rate, it may need a more frequent transplant
- Cyclamen Meringue - these are very large flowers
- Cyclamen Butterfly flowers really resemble butterflies circling over a plant
- Cyclamen Laser - a hybrid that enjoys steady popularity around the world.
- Cyclamen Midori blooms in suitable conditions for about six months
- Almost all seeds of cyclamen sierra sprout
- Cyclamen Sterling - a very spectacular contrast of shades on the leaves
- In cyclamen Winter Ice, flowers often slope slightly under their own weight
Terry cyclamens have also been bred by breeders. The number of petals they can reach 13. Sometimes among the double flowers may appear 1-2 ordinary, nothing wrong with that. These plants are the largest of all, are particularly demanding in care. Leaves do not drop during dormancy. The most popular varieties of terry cyclamen:
- Orpheus. Height of peduncles up to 40 cm. Flowers with a diameter of 6-8 cm, bright scarlet. Well suited for bouquets, spread a pleasant aroma. Flowering lasts from October to April.
- Kyle Peduncle height up to 30 cm. From a distance, flowers are very reminiscent of miniature irises. Petals (most often 11) with a fringed edge. It blooms year round with small interruptions. There is no clearly expressed rest period.
- Rococo. Large double flowers with a pink or purple spot at the base. Fringed edges.
Photo Gallery: Terry cyclamens
- Cyclamen Orpheus is a bright, very clean shade of petals
- Cyclamen Kyle flowers from a distance easy to confuse with irises
- The flowers of cyclamen Rococo are very lush, somewhat reminiscent of peonies.
Fringed cyclamens look more modest than terry cyclamens, but they are also very elegant and attractive. The edges of the petals are as if corrugated.
- Victoria. The fringed cyclamen most popular among gardeners. Snow-white petals, raspberry stain at the base. On the top edge there is a border of the same shade.
- Red partisan. Petals are bright scarlet, sometimes scarlet. The flowers are very fragrant.
- Leela. Very delicate pastel lilac shade of the petals.
- Louise. The flowers are large, the petals are strongly bent back. They are painted in an unusual pink and peach hue.
- Moon. Flowers are discreet pastel pink, very fragrant.
- Lucy. The flowers are large, snow-white with a lilac base, in the sun the petals are cast in silver.
Photo gallery: cyclamen with fringed petals
- Cyclamen Victoria - one of the most common breeding hybrids
- Cyclamen Red partisan stands out for its rich aroma
- Cyclamen Lilou looks modest, but very elegant
- Cyclamen Louise - a large-flowered hybrid
- Cyclamen Moon is distinguished by the duration and abundance of flowering
- In cyclamen Lucy, white petals in the sun acquire a silver tint
The Mediterranean climate habitual for cyclamens is quite difficult to reproduce in a modern apartment. Although in the homeland, the period of active vegetation falls not on the summer heat, but on a rather cool (by local standards) autumn and rich in rainfall. But the plant can make some "concessions", if you listen to its basic requirements.
Table: Suitable microclimate for cyclamen cultivation
|Location||Window sill of a window facing west or east. In the southern plant, you will definitely have to shade during the day when the sun is most active. On the north window, cyclamens do not have enough light for normal development. The plant does not mind fresh air, but it reacts negatively to cold drafts. In the summer, you can dig a pot in the garden, providing protection from the bright sun, rain and gusts of wind. In winter, cyclamens are placed away from heat sources. It is advisable to choose a suitable place immediately with this in mind. Culture does not like “moving”|
|Lighting||The plant loves light, but not direct sunlight. The penumbra is suitable for cyclamen. In the shade, flowering becomes not so plentiful, the “pattern” from the leaves disappears. The optimal duration of daylight hours is 14–16 hours, regardless of whether cyclamen grows or “rests”. In most of Russia, there is not enough natural light, especially in winter. Therefore, for illumination, you will have to use special phytolamps. Not the worst effect is given by ordinary fluorescent or LED|
|Temperature||The main problem with the content of cyclamens is to maintain a suitable temperature. Especially in autumn and winter, when the apartment has heating batteries and other heating appliances. If the room is too warm, cyclamen ceases to bloom, discards leaves and “hibernates”. Частично нивелировать эту проблему помогла селекция — многие современные гибриды отличаются повышенной теплостойкостью. Оптимальный показатель в период активной вегетации — 12–15ºС. Критический максимум, при котором процессы развития замедляются — 16ºС. Летом, во время «отдыха» цикламен устроит температура 20–25ºС. Холод растению тоже противопоказан. Быстро развивается корневая гниль, особенно если влажность воздуха повышенная|
|Air humidity||Резкие колебания влажности воздуха растение воспринимает не слишком хорошо. Но и «пустыня» ему не подходит. Если показатель составляет 50% и менее, цикламен, скорее всего, погибнет. Это ещё одна причина разместить горшок подальше от нагревательных приборов. В течение сезона активной вегетации листья и окружающий воздух ежедневно опрыскивают, стараясь, чтобы капли воды не попадали на клубень. Как только сформируются бутоны, процедуры прекращают. Капли, попадающие на них, могут спровоцировать их опадение, а у уже распустившихся на лепестках остаются некрасивые пятна. Теперь влажность воздуха придётся поднимать, воздавая цикламену «компанию» из других растений, насыпая в поддон горшка мокрую гальку или керамзит, обкладывая его мхом-сфагнумом или кокосовым волокном, расставляя по комнате тазы с прохладной водой. Единственное, чего делать нельзя — лить воду в поддон, оставляя её там надолго|
Свет цикламену жизненно необходим, но прямые солнечные лучи он не любит
Planting and Transplantation Procedure
Пересадка цикламена проводится раз в 2–3 года, в начале периода активной вегетации. То есть, как правило, процедура приходится на конец лета или на осень. Ростовые почки к этому времени «просыпаются», но ещё не успевают сформировать листья.
Глубокий объёмный горшок цикламену совершенно не нужен. Корневая система не в состоянии «освоить» пространство полностью, в результате его рост замедляется. Оптимальный вариант для культуры — ёмкость, напоминающая плошку или суповую тарелку. По сравнению с предыдущей её диаметр увеличивают на 2–3 см. Расстояние от клубней до стенок горшка составляет 2, 5–3 см. Обязательное условие — наличие одного или нескольких дренажных отверстий и слой дренажа на дне.
В процессе пересадки желательно внимательно изучить подземную часть растения на предмет наличия подозрительных симптомов
Почва растению требуется лёгкая, рыхлая. Но при этом она должна быть питательной. Иногда в продаже удаётся найти специальный грунт для цикламенов. Не хуже подойдёт и самостоятельно приготовленный субстрат. Обычную листовую землю смешивают с перегноем, торфяной крошкой и крупным песком (5:2:1:1). Щелочной грунт растение не любит, поэтому можно добавить просеянную древесную золу или истолчённый до порошкообразного состояния мел (стакан на 3 л почвосмеси). Защелачивание негативно сказывается и на иммунитете цикламена, он становится более восприимчив к болезнетворным грибкам.
Любой грунт перед использованием обязательно стерилизуют. Его можно обработать паром, прогреть в духовке или проморозить зимой на балконе. Быстрее всего пролить почву кипятком или насыщенно-фиолетовым раствором перманганата калия.
Непосредственно в пересадке цикламена ничего сложного нет. Она мало чем отличается от аналогичной процедуры для иных комнатных растений. Клубни у экземпляров в возрасте до двух лет погружают в землю полностью, у взрослых цикламенов на поверхности оставляют верхнюю треть (некоторые садоводы советуют даже половину). Их нужно аккуратно отряхнуть от земли и внимательно осмотреть. Отмершие, загнивающие участки тканей вырезают острым стерильным ножом, «раны» обрабатывают, присыпая измельчённым в порошок активированным углем, корицей или смазывают зелёнкой.
Пересаженный цикламен «приходит в себя» довольно быстро
Некоторые цветоводы рекомендуют перевалку цикламена. Такой метод позволяет минимизировать неизбежный стресс для растения, но в этом случае нет возможности оценить состояние клубней и вовремя заметить развитие опасного заболевания.
Пересаженные растения не поливают в течение 10–12 дней, пока у них не начнут формироваться новые листья. В это время цветы нужно особенно тщательно беречь от попадания прямых солнечных лучей.
Невзирая на время года, нужно по возможности быстрее пересадить только что купленный цикламен. Процедуру проводят сразу после того, как растение адаптируется к новой среде обитания. Обычно на это уходит 12–15 дней. Такие экземпляры умеренно поливают, корни промывают в тёплой воде. Для дезинфекции их на пару часов замачивают в бледно-розовом растворе перманганата калия, затем ещё на столько же — в биостимуляторе для укрепления иммунитета. Подойдут как покупные препараты (Эпин, Корневин, гумат калия), так и народные средства (сок алоэ, разбавленный водой мёд, янтарная кислота).
Видео: пересадка цикламена
Уход за цикламеном в домашних условиях от А до Я
От цветовода, желающего культивировать цикламены и регулярно любоваться цветами, ничего сверхъестественного не потребуется. Основное, на что нужно обратить внимание — правильный полив. Ещё одно обязательное условие обильного и продолжительного цветения — обеспечение возможности «отдохнуть» в течение лета.
Для цикламена вредно как переувлажнение почвы, так и её пересушивание. В первом случае более чем вероятно развитие различных видов гнили. Во втором — растение сбрасывает бутоны и листья. Часто поливать цветок не советуют, обычно ему достаточно раза в 3–4 дня. Вместо этого рекомендуется повышать влажность воздуха всеми доступными способами.
Оптимальный способ полива цикламена — через поддон. Также допустимо увлажнение почвы по краям горшка. Воду для этого используют только мягкую, дождевую или талую. Если собрать её нет возможности, водопроводную отстаивают минимум сутки, добавляя несколько кристаллов лимонной кислоты или капель яблочного уксуса на 10 л. Через 30–40 минут после процедуры излишки влаги обязательно сливают из поддона. Оптимальная температура воды — 18–22ºС, на пару градусов ниже комнатной.
Предпочтительнее всего поливать цикламены через поддон, не забывая избавляться от излишков воды
Сильно пересушенный цикламен можно «реанимировать», полив его, как орхидею. Горшок с растением ставят в ёмкость с водой немного большего диаметра так, чтобы жидкость на 1–2 см не доходила до его края. Держат его в ванной примерно час, предварительно обеспечив высокую влажность воздуха.
Из удобрений культура предпочитает минеральные подкормки, хотя неплохо реагирует и на натуральную органику. Цикламену подойдут любые комплексные препараты для декоративно-цветущих растений (Мастер, Бона Форте, Флоровит). Длительное и продолжительное цветение отнимает у растения много сил, поэтому в течение сезона активной вегетации удобрения вносят регулярно, каждые 12–15 дней.
К тому, каким именно должно быть удобрение, цикламен особых требований не предъявляет, но ему необходимы регулярные подкормки
Из органических подкормок можно порекомендовать настой древесной золы. Это источник фосфора и калия — макроэлементов, необходимых для обильного и продолжительного цветения. А вот избыток азота для цикламена опасен. Он провоцирует его на активное наращивание зелёной массы в ущерб формированию бутонов. Также это может вызвать загнивание клубней.
Примерно за полчаса до внесения любой подкормки цикламены нужно полить. В противном случае почва быстро «засолится».Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Отцветающие бутоны постепенно удаляют вместе с цветоножкой. Аналогично поступают и с желтеющими увядающими листьями. Причём их не обрезают, а прищипывают как можно ближе к клубням. «Раны» дезинфицируют, присыпая их порошком из активированного угля.
Срезанные цветки цикламена можно использовать для составления букетов. В вазе они сохраняют свежесть в течение 1, 5–2 недель, если регулярно менять воду. Продлить этот срок ещё на 7–10 дней можно, если надрезать основания цветоносов вдоль на 4–5 см.
As soon as the cyclamen fades, watering is gradually reduced, reducing to zero by the time the bush has lost all the leaves. Fertilizing the "resting" plants is also impossible. Pots are transferred to a cool, bright room, providing protection against direct sunlight. The room is regularly ventilated. Some gardeners recommend putting the pot on its side.
The cyclamen has a growth point at the top of the tuber; at the end of the dormant period, new leaves and pedicels are formed quite quickly
Video: how to care for a flower after purchase
Common mistakes of a beginner grower
Cyclamen is quite sensitive to conditions of detention. When they are far from optimal, the appearance of the plant worsens. But everything can be corrected if the grower realizes his mistake in time and understands exactly what it consists of.
Table: Errors in cyclamen care and plant response
|What does the plant look like||What is the reason|
|“Wet” brown-black spots on tubers and leaf petioles||Root rot develops due to excessively frequent and / or heavy watering. Especially if the room is cold|
|Yellowing leaves, ongoing flowering||Low humidity and / or heat in the room, poor watering|
|Yellowing leaves and green stalks||Use for irrigation of hard not settled water|
|Yellowing and falling leaves||Heat, high humidity, constant exposure to direct sunlight|
|Brownish “dry” spots on leaves and flowers||Sunburn. Most likely, they were caused by drops of water that fell on the plant during irrigation or spraying, which played the role of lenses that focused the rays|
|Short sparse flowering or its complete absence||Nutrient deficiency in the soil, too “poor” soil. Other options - low humidity, irregular watering|
|Flowers "hiding" under the leaves||Too low temperature, light deficiency, excessive dampness in the room|
|Grayish “fluffy” coating on buds and blossoming flowers||High humidity, cold and indoor air|
Cyclamen reacts to errors in care with a deterioration in appearance
Common Diseases and Pests
Cyclamens suffer from diseases and pests quite often. Often the florist himself is to blame. Copies grown in far from optimal conditions, for which competent care is not carried out, are characterized by very low immunity. Contributes to the spread of pathogenic fungi and pests, dust on plants, crowding on the windowsill, neglect of sterilization of the soil, containers and tools, other non-compliance with "sanitary standards".
Table: Cyclamen-typical diseases and pests
|Disease or pest||Symptoms||Control measures|
|Fusarium||Leaves turn yellow from the tops. Black-brown blotches - clogged vessels - are visible on cuts of petioles. The plant withers and withers. Often only one half of the outlet is affected, the second continues to grow||Weekly watering cyclamen with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, adding sieved wood ash or crushed chalk to the ground for prevention. The disease can be treated only at an early stage of development - the aerial part is treated with Topsin-M, the substrate is shed with Fundazole|
|Wet and Root Rot||Leaves grow numb, lose their tone, become covered with “wet” dark spots. The tubers turn black, soften, become slimy to the touch. There is an unpleasant putrefactive smell from the plant, the soil is being drawn in by mold||In advanced cases, the disease is not amenable to treatment. The plant can only be thrown away so that the infection does not spread further. If the development of the fungus is noticed on time, all affected tissues are cut with a sharpened, disinfected knife, “wounds” are sprinkled with crushed chalk, activated charcoal. Cyclamen is transplanted into a new clean pot, completely changing the ground. For 2-3 weeks, water for irrigation is replaced with a solution of any biofungicide (Strobi, Tiovit-Jet, Alirin-B)|
|Gray rot||Leaves, flowers and buds are covered with a layer of “fluffy” ash plaque with small black patches. Affected tissue darkens and dies.||All affected tissues are excised, capturing an additional 5–7 mm, which appear healthy. "Wounds" are disinfected. Watering is reduced to the necessary minimum, spraying is stopped altogether. The soil is shed with a solution of Agate-25K, Topaz, Baikal-EM|
|Anthracnose||Peduncles are deformed, the tops dry out. Young leaves dry at the edges, twist in a spiral||Affected flower stalks and leaves are cut, the plant and soil are sprayed 2-3 times with a solution of any copper-containing preparation. Granules of Trichodermin, Glyocladin are introduced into the soil|
|Shield||Small brownish-gray rounded growths on the plant. They gradually "swell", the tissues around them acquire a reddish-yellow hue.||Visible guards are removed from cyclamen, lubricating their shells with turpentine, kerosene, machine oil with a cotton swab. Then the plant is sprayed with soap suds, the soil is shed with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. To control the pest, they use Aktara, Fosbekid, Fufanon. Effective prevention - spraying with infusion of onion or flower gruel. But if infection could not be avoided, folk remedies are ineffective|
|Thrips||Blurry yellowish spots appear on the underside of the sheet, and thin silver-beige strokes appear on the front side. The pests themselves look like small black sticks||For prophylaxis, sticky tape or pieces of thick cardboard greased with honey and petroleum jelly are hung next to the plants. It is useful from time to time at night to include a fumigator next to flower pots. Actellik, Karate, Confidor-Maxi are used to fight thrips. Folk remedies - infusion of yarrow, mustard powder, chili pepper pods|
|Cyclamen tick||Pests eat leaves, gnaw through petioles, damage roots. If you pull on the plant, the aerial part will easily separate from the tubers||The plant is sprayed with soap suds or flea diluted shampoo. For prevention, cyclamens are weekly treated with infusion of onion or garlic shooters. Folk remedies in the fight against a pest are ineffective. For this, acaricides are used - Apollo, Novaktion, Vertimek, Neoron, Agravertin. The intervals between treatments depend on the weather on the street - the hotter the more often you need to spray the plant and soil. Usually 3-4 treatments are enough, every time you need to change drugs|
Photo: common plant diseases and pests
- Fusarium-affected plant seems to fade and dry for no reason
- On the aerial part of the plant, the symptoms of root rot appear only when the development of the disease has already gone far
- Most often, the development of gray rot is initiated by the gardener himself
- Any fungicides are used to treat anthracnose.
- Folk remedies in the fight against scale insects are ineffective, it is protected by a durable shell
- Thrips are especially not indifferent in yellow and minima, this feature is used in the manufacture of home-made traps
- The cyclamen tick is not an insect, therefore, special drugs - acaricides are used to combat it
Cyclamen in "captivity" successfully reproduces in both vegetative and generative ways. Most gardeners prefer the division of tubers, rightly considering growing new specimens from seeds to be a troublesome affair. Moreover, in this case it is completely impossible to predict what exactly will result. "Home" cyclamens seed seeds only after artificial pollination.
Experienced gardeners prefer to plant cyclamen seeds that they themselves have collected, rather than purchased in the store. Practice shows that their germination ability is several times better than that of purchased ones.
To get the fruits tied, pollen from flowers on different plants is transferred with a soft brush to the pistils of other specimens. For reliability, the procedure is repeated 2-3 times with an interval of 4-5 days. The best time for her is early morning.
It is advisable to plant seeds of cyclamen collected independently
The success of the procedure can be judged by the appearance of the peduncle on which this bud was located. It thickens, bends. The formation and ripening of the berry takes quite a lot of time. Ripening, it becomes softer to the touch, the skin wrinkles, cracks. Harvested seeds are not dried, this will adversely affect germination.
Landing is planned for early August. Immediately before it, they are soaked in knocking in a solution of any biostimulant with the addition of several crystals of potassium permanganate.
They need a light substrate that allows water and air to pass through. The usual universal soil for indoor plants is mixed with any “baking powder” - sand, perlite, vermiculite, finely chopped sphagnum moss or coconut fiber in approximately equal proportions.
The emergence of seedlings from cyclamen seeds will take at least a month, sometimes the process generally stretches for six months
Then they act like this:
- A shallow flat container is filled with a sterilized substrate, slightly moistened, and the soil is leveled. Seeds are sown as evenly as possible, sprinkled on top with a layer of fine sand with a thickness of not more than 1 cm. The container is tightened with a film or covered with glass.
- Before seedlings appear cyclamen seeds do not need light. But for them, temperature is very important. At 18ºС and below they begin to rot, if it rises above 20ºС - they fall into “hibernation”, the process drags on. But even after creating optimal conditions, you will have to be patient. The emergence of seedlings must wait at least 30-40 days. Sometimes the procedure takes two months, and even six months. This largely depends on the particular variety of cyclamen. During this time, the greenhouse is aired daily, getting rid of the accumulated condensate. The soil as it dries is sprayed from the spray gun.
- Hatching seedlings are brought into the light, but not in direct sunlight. The temperature of the content is lowered to 15-17ºС. Before the first sheet appears, the substrate is moistened daily.
- After they form 2-3 true leaves and tuber, they dive, planting cyclamens in small plastic cups. The most suitable soil is a mixture of sheet soil, peat chips and coarse sand (4: 2: 1). The procedure usually takes place in December. Tubers are completely covered with earth. After about a week, fertilizing with any complex fertilizer is carried out, reducing its concentration in the solution by half compared with the recommended manufacturer.
- In April or May of the following year, cyclamens are transplanted into pots of a suitable diameter and a substrate for adult plants. Then they are looked after, as usual. The first flowering can be observed 13-15 months after sowing seeds.
Cyclamen seedlings that form pea-sized tubers can be dived
Video: growing a flower from seeds
As they grow, “babies” form on the main cyclamen tuber. The selected plant you just need to remove from the soil, shake off the soil from the roots and with a sharp disinfected knife to cut off the formed "growths". All "wounds" must be treated, daughter tubers are allowed to dry for several hours.
Then they are planted in small pots filled with soil suitable for adult plants. Until they give new leaves, they are watered very moderately and carefully protected from direct sunlight.
You can also cut a single tuber into several parts. But the growth points of cyclamen concentrate on its top very densely and inevitably suffer in the process.
All slices made during the division of the tuber are carefully processed, otherwise the development of root rot is more than likely
It only seems that the soil of cyclamens dries quickly, especially now, in the heating season. Try to water them when the leaves lose a bit of their elasticity. And it’s very easy to fill them. My pots are on the western window, under the battery, they receive watering once a week. But if there is a need to water, then water. Indicator - leaf condition.Fedora
The Persian cyclamen Aneli came out powerful and healthy, for nothing, that I was germinating it in the ground, which I was picking in a flower bed in front of the hostel.Tatyana EAO
I am in cyclamens a complete "kettle." They grow on my own. Pollination did not try. Seeds from European often try to get stuck, but in the end - it's empty. And in the Persians ripen easily. I don’t even know what is the matter. Perhaps the European were such a whim? Or do you need to take some action? Greek cyclamens are VERY interesting and diverse. So flowers are useless. The leaves themselves are beautiful.Olga (Murmansk)
Cyclamen is a stunning flower that, when properly maintained, pleases with abundant flowering in the autumn-winter period, when there is so little heat and sunshine. There are a huge number of species and varieties of cyclamens. I myself have not very much experience in growing cyclamen from seeds, but I have already managed to understand that the germination of store seeds is terrible, unlike homemade seeds that germinate 100%.Olenkasx
It is necessary to water cyclamen only in the pan, in no case from above, or the tuber will rot. He loves spraying from a spray bottle, and a little sun, 2-3 hours, preferably in the morning. It is better not to pick the seeds now, this can provoke flowering, but one or two flowers will open. Now it needs to be put into rest mode, put in a cooler place and gradually reduce watering. And in the middle of May, I cut off all the leaves, pull the tuber out of the pot, cut the roots briefly without hurt the tuber, leave it in a cool place for 5-8 days. Then I will transplant it into a new soil, slightly moist, so that the top of the tuber is just above the soil. After ten days, you can start to sprinkle it lightly with water, when the first sprout begins to sprout, you can start to water it a little, if water remains in the pan after 2-3 minutes, drain it, it is very afraid of overflowing water. Closer to fall, it will begin to bloom violently. If he is not given a period of rest, then by the fall 2-3 flowers will bloom, and then practically cease to bloom. At the end of flowering (the flower begins to fade), it must be cut, and after the legs dry out, it must be removed, this stimulates the formation of new buds. This applies to all colors.Viktor50
European cyclamen (and subspecies) is heat-loving and the only non-deciduous cyclamen. During hibernation, he does not drop leaves, but simply ceases to grow. This cyclamen is the most frost-resistant of all. Theoretically, it can winter in the suburbs (practically - it will rot sooner or later anyway). It actively vegetates in the warm season, the rest period falls in the winter.Junior pilot
I water cyclamens from below, on a plate, and I advise everyone. Most cyclamens are afraid of the bay, so be careful, especially since they are most likely in the transportation ground. But even if they dry out, then immediately the leaves become soft, and the flowers fall off. After watering, they are restored. Purchased cyclamens are very well pollinated. Click on the colors with your fingers, pollen will sprinkle. Then a “box” will be tied. Be with your seeds.
As far as I can remember, the European cyclamen always grows in the house. This gentle lily of the valley smell is familiar from childhood. I don’t know about “dancing with tambourines”, they never specifically pollinated it and did not sow the seeds. But the fact that the seeds are tied, I can say for sure. Peduncles curl up with a “snail” to the ground and freeze for a long time in this state. Gradually, the bush in the pot grows, either from the growth of rhizomes, or from self-sowing of seeds. But this process is very, very slow. If you plant European cyclamen, then then he is sick for a long time and comes to his senses. He is very sensitive to transplantation.Just Natasha
Flowering cyclamen begins in November and ends only in April. During flowering, cyclamen is watered at least twice a week through a tray. It is advisable to moisten the soil constantly. It is not advisable to rearrange the cyclamen to another place, this can lead to dropping buds. In the spring after flowering, the plant goes to rest. Once in one to two years after flowering, cyclamen is transplanted.Roza_v
Cyclamen confidently gaining popularity among amateur gardeners. Previously, many simply feared planting it, considering it a whimsical exotic culture. In fact, it is relatively unpretentious. If the plant is provided with optimal or close to their living conditions, it will more than thank the florist with many bright flowers of a wide variety of shades, spreading a pleasant unobtrusive aroma. Moreover, they open in the winter, just when there is especially not enough saturated colors, uplifting.