Grapes Talisman - the history of the variety, especially planting and growing
The mascot is not a novelty in the country's vineyards; soon this variety will turn thirty years old. At one time, it caused a stir among specialists due to its exceptional large-fruited, frost resistance and disease resistance. Currently, it is not the most fashionable variety, but sometimes it plays a decisive role in breeding, conveying its positive qualities in the cultivation of new grape varieties.
The history of the cultivation of grape varieties Talisman
Talisman - grapes related to table varieties, it is the result of crosses between domestic scientists of grapes Frumoasa Albe (White Beauty) and Delight. The place of origin of the hybrid is Novocherkassk, the laboratory of the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after J.I. Potapenko. Using the Vostorg variety as the main “parent” in this institute, under the guidance of I.A. Kostrikin, many hybrid forms were bred, for example, Alex, Muscat Delight, Golden Don, Tamerlan, Timur, Talisman, Sashenka and others.
With the help of Vortorg grapes, a whole line of hybrids with properties for every taste was obtained
All of these hybrids were then used by scientists in subsequent breeding work. At the same time, one of the main varieties that ensured the success of all many years of work is the Talisman. First of all, he showed himself as the owner of stable immunity and high productivity, as well as a sign of large-fruited. It was on the basis of the Talisman and other derivatives of the Delight grapes that progress began in the development of new varieties and their widespread use in amateur gardening. Over the course of several decades, the Institute has created a huge number of table grape hybrids with high commercial qualities that differ in taste, color and ripening time.
The Talisman itself was bred in 1990, that is, it is already an old-timer in both industrial and amateur gardening.
Over the years, he acquired several more names: Kesha-1, Kesha-Muscat, Super Kesha, etc., so an inexperienced gardener can get confused in these synonyms. In addition, there is an opinion that these are not synonyms at all, and all of the listed names refer, albeit to similar, but still different hybrid forms.
The mascot was developed as a result of a large scientific project aimed at obtaining table-resistant hybrid grape forms with very large fruits that are resistant to frost and disease. In the course of this work, it was possible to obtain super-large berries weighing up to 20 g with an indescribable taste and excellent presentation of bunches. It was possible to achieve the main goal: increased disease resistance and record frost resistance for those years (up to -25 ° C). The talisman is still used in breeding new varieties.
However, the variety also has some significant drawbacks, which by now have managed to disappoint many growers, in the first place - the need to select pollinators. Currently, the boom of interest in the variety has passed, since many new forms have appeared that are not inferior to the Talisman in the size of berries and have no problems in terms of pollination. However, as they say, “the old horse does not spoil the furrow”, and in selection work, where you need to know all the nuances of behavior, Talisman, apparently, will not be threatened with resignation in the near future.
Description of grape variety Talisman
Talisman grapes grow in the form of a large bush, and the number of fruit-bearing shoots exceeds 3/4 of the total number of annual growth. At least two clusters are formed on each of them; with a larger number of them, it is necessary to normalize fruiting in order to prevent the formation of small berries (peas). The number of eyes per adult bush is recommended to be maintained in the range from 24 to 32 pieces.
Unfortunately, not every bush can withstand such a load, and some of the bunches have to be eliminated in advance
The mascot grows very quickly, bringing the first crop two years after planting an annual seedling, and sometimes the first brush the next year. Propagated by both cuttings and grafting. The rooting of cuttings is very high. Adapts to any climatic conditions, including the cool rainy summer. She is not afraid of the usual Central Russian winter, but the temperature of -25 ° C is still critical for him, therefore, in most regions it requires easy shelter for the winter. With proper care, it has increased resistance to the most dangerous diseases of the vineyard: mildew, gray rot and oidium.
The variety is medium early: it takes about 4 months from the beginning of the growing season to the ripening of the first berries, that is, the berries ripen in most places not earlier than the beginning of September. They do not require urgent removal and can easily remain on the bush until the first frost, while the quality of the berries does not deteriorate. The variety is very high yielding. The main disadvantage of the Talisman is that it contains flowers of only one gender: female. Therefore, to obtain a normal crop nearby, a bush of grapes with a male type of flower must certainly be planted nearby.
Kishmish - 342, Aleshenkin, Augustin are considered ideal pollinators. In such an embodiment, the pollination rate in ordinary years can be close to 100%, but in years with poor flowering conditions it is advisable to perform additional artificial pollination.
One of the most important advantages of the Talisman is its large clusters. The average bunch weighs about a kilogram. In ordinary years and with good care, the berries are packed in clusters of medium density, but sometimes more loose specimens are also found. In the case of normal pollination, their shape is close to conical. Bunches and berries are well preserved during transportation.
The berries of the Talisman are very large, their shape is oval, the length reaches 35 mm, the width is slightly less. Weight is from 12 g and above, up to 20 g. Color is white, with a greenish tint. At the time of full ripening, on the side facing the sun, the berries acquire a yellowish tan. White color is natural for the variety; it is not acquired due to wax coating.
In the sun, white grapes become amber
The pulp is juicy, has an excellent grape taste, with full ripening, an admixture of an unobtrusive nutmeg aroma is felt. The peel is thin, when consumed, grapes are not felt. Sugar content is very high, ranging from 17 to 24%, the total acidity is not higher than 8 g / l. Thus, the Talisman is a table variety of universal grapes: it can be consumed both fresh and for processing.
Characteristic grape variety Talisman
To give an objective characterization of the grape variety, you need to imagine all the significant advantages and disadvantages of both clusters and berries, and the bush as a whole, to assess the problems associated with growing grapes and achieving high yields. Apparently, the Talisman’s indisputable merits are much more than relative disadvantages. The main advantages are as follows:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- high and stable overall productivity;
- large-fruited and a large mass of clusters;
- great taste with a specific muscat aroma;
- hassle-free transportability;
- crop safety both in assembled form and on the bush for a long time;
- high frost resistance;
- slight predisposition to morbidity;
- excellent rooting of cuttings;
- high adaptive abilities to various climatic and soil conditions.
The most important drawback, we repeat, is the need for replanting pollinators. But there are others, less significant. So, important (or not so?) Disadvantages of the Talisman variety:
- the presence of only female flowers, requiring the presence of nearby vine bushes with male flowers or laborious artificial pollination;
- the need for rationing the crop by removing a large number of excess inflorescences;
- susceptibility to wasps and hornets;
- the need for a long pruning of the vine due to too much growth power of the shoots;
- the need to provide a large area of power and equipment of especially durable trellises.
How overcome the aforementioned shortcomings are, to judge each winegrower. Obviously, by applying additional efforts and efforts, the above problems are completely solved. Of course, science does not stand still, new varieties appear annually, but there are no absolutely problem-free so far, and it is unlikely that they will be able to appear. In the meantime, amateurs who planted the Talisman variety in their vineyards do not seek to get rid of it.
Video: Mascot harvest on the bushes
Features of planting and growing grape varieties Talisman
In terms of planting and grooming technology for bushes, the Talisman is not much different from most grape varieties. Some features are associated with a high growth rate of shoots and - often - excessive load of their fruits. The variety is easily propagated by its own cuttings (rooting is close to 90%), but many winegrowers believe that it is more profitable to grow it by planting bushes of other varieties on perennial wood. The large area occupied by each Talisman grape bush also requires large distances to neighboring bushes or other plantings: it should be at least 3 meters, and preferably 4.
Despite the fact that the variety can be grown in any climatic conditions, to obtain high yields, the main thing is to give the bushes the maximum possible amount of heat and sunlight. It is on the basis of this rule that you should choose a place to land. There is probably no point in describing here in detail the entire technique of planting grape seedlings: in our time, finding material on this issue is not difficult. Like most varieties, the Talisman will grow best on chernozem soils, but any other is suitable if it is properly prepared and fertilized.
The size of the planting pit may not be very large, from 60 cm in all dimensions, but the entire area around the future planting (2-3 meters in each direction) must be dug in advance and plentifully fertilized with humus, wood ash and complex mineral fertilizers. On heavy soils, drainage is mandatory in the pit, and in arid regions a pipe for watering the bush lowered to the bottom of the pit in the first few years of its life. The best planting date is the second half of April, but in the south you can plant in October.
Care for fruiting bushes consists of watering, top dressing, mandatory qualified pruning and easy shelter for the winter. Watering Talisman needs plentiful, especially during intensive growth of berries. Top dressing should be done on time and without unnecessary zeal: especially not worth abusing nitrogen fertilizers. But you can pour a lot of ash under the bushes, this is one of the most valuable and, most importantly, harmless fertilizers.
All plants like ash, and grapes are no exception
The mascot is highly resistant to fungal diseases, therefore, if properly maintained, it requires only periodic preventive spraying from mildew, oidium and gray rot.
We have to seriously deal with wasps: destroying nests and hanging poison baits. The bait may be sweet water with a toxic chemical mixed into it, but not only a wasp will want to drink from this jar! Therefore ... We protect the ripening clusters with grids, destroy the wasp nests and put up with some losses.
As for pruning, here, indeed, for each grape variety its own scheme is optimal. In spring, pruning should be done very early and limited to the removal of dead and obviously extra shoots. In summer, you need not to spare time for breaking out extra young shoots and stepsons: this is much easier to do than in the case of already lignified shoots. The main pruning is before sheltering the bushes for the winter. For the Talisman, not only thinning, but also serious shortening pruning is recommended: no more than 7 eyes are left on the shoots. After this, the vines are removed from the trellis and covered with light materials, best of all with spruce or pine spruce branches. You need to undo the bushes in the spring, approximately in the middle - the end of March, with the onset of the first warm days.
I want to share my observations on the stability of this variety. In 2004, the Talisman bush was left on the old site, since it was not possible to transplant it because of its impressive size. In the neighboring areas, all the grapes were “burnt” by mildew, not just clusters, but even no leaves. And the Talisman, lying on the ground, in the shadow of three huge cherries, managed to give a few bunches and looked completely intact.Nellie
Another interesting observation according to the Talisman (maybe this is just my case) - the kidneys wake up in time roughly comparable to other varieties, and then they “freeze” a little. While the rest of the varieties grow slowly, the Talisman "hides" for several days, and then sharply shoots 5-centimeter powerful shoots."Kamyshanin"
From late August and until the third decade of September, it rained almost constantly. Many varieties cracked, did not ripen well, did not accumulate sugar. In contrast, the Talisman (not affected by oidium) did not crack at all, by mid-September it scored good sugar - it sold well in the market. The last drones had to be cut off in the first ten days of October - early frosts were forced this year. For about two weeks then he still lay in the drawers in the barn until they ate it. The vine ripened perfectly."Senchin"
The hybrid form of grapes Talisman is distinguished by the excellent taste of berries, abundant and constant yields, integrated resistance to diseases, pests and frosts. It has only one drawback: after planting only the Talisman bush, you should not wait for the harvest, it needs a pollinator. If the conditions of the site allow the planting of several bushes of different varieties, the Talisman will not upset his master.