Grapes in Siberia: features of planting and care
Grapes, traditionally considered a southern culture, have long been successfully grown in Siberia. Such an opportunity arose not because the harsh Siberian climate softened, but thanks to breeders who bred frost-resistant varieties. However, in the conditions of a short summer, even unpretentious grapes need special care.
Grape varieties for Siberia
The ability to grow large and sweet grapes in Siberia is a good gift for gardeners in this region. Varieties adapted to sharply continental climate with strong fluctuations in both daily and annual temperatures have been developed. The warm period without frost lasts three months: from early June to early September. Therefore, early varieties grow well in Siberia: Muromets, Solovyova-58, Tukay, Rusven, Kodryanka and other early ripeness, in which 90–115 days pass from budding to full maturity of the berries.
Photo gallery: grape varieties suitable for growing in Siberia
- Rusven grape with its large sweet berries attracts wasps and needs protection with a net
- Large berries of Codrianka are collected in a brush weighing 400-600 g, but some reach 1.5 kg
- The Solovyov-58 grape variety is good for winemaking
- Muromets - grapes for raisins, fleshy flesh, without aroma, brush weight - up to 400 g
- Tukay grapes are distinguished by a highly growing bush and large clusters
Planting grapes in Siberia
Proper planting of grape bushes is one of the important factors affecting a good harvest.
Choose a place sunny and sheltered from the wind. Grapes can not be planted in a lowland, where frost, fog and stagnation of water more often. In a household plot, grapes are best placed near a blank fence or house wall facing south or southeast.
In one place, grapes can grow and produce good yields of 15–20 years.
Video: choosing a place for grapes
The most favorable time for any landings in Siberia is spring. Autumn here is very short, snow can fall already in September, seedlings during autumn planting just do not have time to take root. Plant grapes in May under shelter (in a greenhouse, greenhouse) or in open ground when the threat of frost passes. In some regions of Siberia and in early June there are snowfalls.
In Siberia, there is a high probability of frost and snowfall until June, so seedlings bought in spring must be kept on the windowsill until the heat comes
During the growing season, grape shoots grow by 5–10 cm per day. Such active growth requires good nutrition. If grapes are planted in unprepared soil, then all the nutrients are quickly consumed from the upper fertile layer. Bushes will develop poorly and bear fruit. Therefore, at least 2-3 weeks before the seedlings are planted in a permanent place, planting pits are prepared for them and seasoned with fertilizers.
Preparation of landing pits:
- Dig a trench 30 cm deep and 80 cm wide, to the bottom it can taper to 60 cm. The length depends on the number of seedlings. The distance between the bushes should be 2 m. If you plan to plant in 2 rows, then the row spacing is 2-3 m.
- Put the upper layer of soil (on the bayonet of a shovel) in one direction, everything below is in the other.
- Under each seedling inside the trench, dig a planting pit 60 cm deep and wide, that is, the total depth at the planting sites should reach 90 cm from the ground.
- Pour ash and 200 g superphosphate into the bottom of the planting pits. Lay a layer of branches and coarse stems of weeds.
- Fill the pits with a mixture of humus, topsoil and river sand (1: 1: 0.5).
- You don’t need to fill the trench itself, strengthen its walls with boards. Thus, the vineyard will be recessed into the ground, that is, from the planting level to the ground level should be 30 cm (the depth of the trench).
Grapes planted below the soil level on the site, the walls of the trench are strengthened by shields
For Siberia, with a landing depth of 20–40 cm, the heat received during the summer is used to the maximum extent possible. The trench can be made wider, then it will be better illuminated by the sun. Landing pit also often do more. It is believed that a 1-meter-deep pit, seasoned with organic matter and mineral fertilizers, provides the grape bush with nutrition for 10–15 years, that is, feeding will not be needed throughout the entire cultivation.
If you want to do without dressing and not dig a huge pit, sow the soil under the bushes and in the rows of green manure: alfalfa, mustard, clover, peas, lupine, wheat, oats. These plants contribute to the redistribution of nutrients between the layers of the soil and the accumulation of humus. Grow siderata before flowering, then cut and stack under the grapes as mulch.
There are recommendations to lay drainage of stones and broken bricks at the bottom of the landing pit and install a pipe through which the grapes are watered. But there are also reviews of gardeners who did not see the difference between planting grapes in “smart” pits and in ordinary ones. When watering through a pipe, the roots stretch towards it, and do not develop evenly deep and wide. Drainage becomes silted over the years, the roots can rot.
The “smart” pit in Siberia does not justify the efforts required for its construction
Many winegrowers agree that “smart” pits are needed only in the first 1-2 years after planting, and in the future they lose effectiveness, since the roots go beyond it. However, in the climatic conditions of Siberia, it is not advisable to make drainage systems, since young non-bearing bushes rarely need watering - 2-3 times per season.
There are few hot days in the region, more often it is rainy weather. In addition, the evaporation of leaves in young grapes is minimal; it has not yet developed into a strong bush. The best option is to put branches instead of stones at the bottom of the pit, which eventually rot and turn into fertilizing, and cover the soil after planting with a layer of straw, hay, grass cut or green manure.
Seedling preparation and planting
Grapes in Siberia are rooted cuttings with a closed root system. They are sold in plastic cups. Many people buy them in early spring, as long as there is a choice and prices are kept low, so the preparation for landing and the landing itself consists of the following steps:
- If you bought seedlings in early spring, then transplant them by transferring them from cups to larger pots and keep them on the windowsill, glazed balcony or in the greenhouse until the frost ends. Use the land for transplantation from your site, mixing it with humus (1: 1).
- On warm days (20⁰C and above), take out the cuttings under the open sky, first for an hour, gradually stay in the sunshine, increase until daylight, be sure to bring it into the heat at night.
- After June 5–7, you can start planting in open ground; the day before, seedlings are well watered.
- For each seedling, dig a hole the size of a pot in which grapes grow in a prepared prepared landing pit.
- Take out the seedling together with a lump of earth and place it in a hole with a slope in the direction in which you will bend and lay the vine in the autumn for shelter for the winter. Deepen the seedling to the first green stalks.
- Fill the earth, taken out when digging holes, pour a bucket of water and mulch.
Video: how to plant grapes in Siberia
Grape Care in Siberia
Grape growing is a complex of agricultural practices, which includes: watering, forming and thinning, garter to trellises, providing heat, shelter for the winter. Diseases and pests of grapes have not yet reached Siberia, so there is no need to spray plantings.
This sunny crop is resistant to drought and heat. The soil under the grape must be dry. The need for water is determined by the appearance of plants - leaves in the heat lose their elasticity, hang. To water the seedling, make a groove 15–20 cm deep around the circumference, step back 30 cm from the stem and pour 5–15 L of water into it. The rate depends on how well the earth absorbs. Use only water heated in the sun. After watering, level and mulch the groove.
For irrigation of grapes dig furrows or holes
After planting in the Siberian summer, plantings will rarely need to be watered, especially if the vineyard is located in a place protected from the wind, and the ground is covered with mulch. A fruiting vine needs more water. But the frequency and rate of watering depends on the weather. The signal is still the condition of the grapes. Pay special attention to him during periods:
- immediately after budding;
- 2 weeks before flowering;
- 1-2 weeks after flowering;
- before the winter shelter.
If the weather is dry during these important phases of development, be sure to water the grapes by wetting the top 30–50 cm. Do not water during flowering! In August, watering is also undesirable, the vine will ripen better without them.
The Importance of Mulch
Mulch keeps the earth moist and loose, the lower layer gradually rots, and the upper layer remains dry and prevents the development of fungi. Thanks to the mulch, there are no sharp changes in temperature in the root zone during rain; in the heat, the sheltered earth keeps a comfortable cool. In addition, such litter, decaying, emits carbon dioxide - one of the elements of photosynthesis.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Stack mulch in the spring only after the ground has warmed up. Suitable rotted sawdust, grass cut, hay or straw. These natural materials will decay and enrich the earth with humus by autumn.
Mulch keeps the earth moist and loose, the lower layer gradually rots, and the upper layer remains dry and does not allow fungi to develop
Formation in the first year, start with a garter, it is not necessary to build a trellis, it is enough to stick stakes or reinforcement 1.5 m high next to the seedlings. Leave two strongest shoots on each stalk when they grow to 50-60 cm, tie each to its support in the form of the letter V. It happens that only one shoot grows on the handle, tie it too.
Throughout the summer, stepsons will grow from the axils of the leaves, they need to be pinched. Some winegrowers recommend pinching stepchildren not at the base, but over the second leaf. In their opinion, additional leaves improve photosynthesis, the young vine receives more nutrition and strength. In August, mint, that is, pinch the tops of the main shoots.
Stages of the formation of a bush from a seedling with two shoots (the simplest scheme):
- In autumn, after shedding leaves, cut one shoot into 4 buds and the other by 2. The first will become a fruit arrow, the second will be a shoot of substitution, and together they form a fruit link.
- In the spring of the second year, tie the arrow and shoot of substitution horizontally to the trellis, and direct the stepsons growing from the axils of the stepson leaves vertically.
- In the fall of the second year, cut a long sleeve of 4 buds in half, that is, both sleeves will now have two vertical shoots. Then shorten these four shoots: those that are closer to the center of the bush, by 2 buds (substitution shoots), and the distant ones by 4 (fruit shoots).
- In the spring of the third year, tie the fruit arrows horizontally, and let the knots of substitution grow vertically. During the summer, 12 stepsons will grow - tie them upright.
- In the autumn of the third year, cut each of the two horizontal branches (fruit arrows) to the knot of substitution along with the four extreme shoots. Only four vertical shoots will remain in the bush again. We cut them again according to the same principle: closest to the center of the bush for 2 buds, the remaining two - for 4 buds.
- From the spring of the fourth year, continue the formation according to the above scheme.
Photo Gallery: Grape Pruning by Year
- First year: in the fall, one shoot is cut off for 4 buds, the second for 2
- Second year: in spring, shoots are tied up horizontally, vertical stepsons grow from the sinuses. In autumn, the arrow is shortened by half, substitution knots (2 buds) and arrows (4 buds) are formed from the remaining shoots
- Third year: in the spring, the arrows knit horizontally, knots of substitution - vertically. In the autumn, both arrows are cut off to replace knots, from the remaining shoots again form arrows (4 buds) and substitute knots (2 buds)
If only one shoot has grown on your seedling in the first year, then in the autumn cut it into two buds, of which by the next year form an arrow and a substitution shoot, then adhere to the above diagram. In Siberia, you can leave shoots with a large number of buds (5–6), that is, not to shorten the vine too much in case of freezing in winter. But in the spring, do not cut the main branches, but blind the extra buds and shoots. If left, they will take strength, thicken the bush, grapes in the conditions of a short summer may not have time to ripen.
Pruning grapes in the spring is not recommended. At this time, sap flow begins, wounds on the grapes are poorly healed, the vine “cries”, loses a lot of strength, will develop poorly, and may die.
Clusters will be laid on vertical shoots already in June, leave only the lower ones, well developed, pluck the upper ones. If you leave everything, then in a short summer they will not have time to ripen.
Having understood the principle of formation, experiment, leaving a different number of buds, shoots, inflorescences. So you find out from your own experience under what conditions you can get the maximum yield.
How to provide extra heat to grapes in Siberia (trellis device)
Tapestries can be not only a support, but also protection for grapes. Classic trellis consists of metal or wooden poles and a wire stretched between them.
Design features of trellises, allowing to accumulate heat:
- Visor above the trellis: at night, the cold air coming from above is cut off and the heat rising from the ground is delayed.
- The ends covered with a film - protection from the wind.
- Reflective screens made of foil or aluminum sheets around the perimeter of the trellis - the effect of better illumination and also an additional source of heat.
Video: single-plane trellis for grapes
Shelter of grapes for the winter
After harvesting (and young seedlings in late August - early September) grapes must be protected from the first frosts. To do this, cover the ground under the bushes with an old film, remove the vines from the supports, lay it on the film, and on top build a greenhouse in the form of a tunnel made of polycarbonate or arcs and film. As a result, when the temperature drops at night, the leaves will not freeze, and during the “Indian summer”, when there will still be warm days, photosynthesis and aging of the buds will continue.
After the fall, with the onset of cold weather, remove the temporary shelter, and leave the film on the ground. On top, build something like a box with sides. It is necessary to make such a construction so that the grapes are in the air gap, and not sandwiched between the upper and lower shelters. Place cardboard, foam sheets, agrofiber, burlap or other insulation on the sides of the box. From above, cover it all with a film, tuck it in the edges. Water should not get inside the shelter, otherwise the grapes will ripen. For waterproofing, you can use slate, roofing material and other materials.
Grapes are laid in boxes, insulated and protected from slate getting wet.
In the winter shelter, the grapes should not come into contact with metal (arcs, pins). Otherwise, the shoots in this place will freeze, the kidneys will die.
In the spring, when the snow melts, remove the shelter. In Siberia, this can happen in April and May. Thawing the soil does not need to wait. Do not pick up the vines, but build, like in the fall, a greenhouse. You can clean it and tie the shoots to the trellises only when the threat of frost passes, that is, in June. On warm days, do not forget to open the ends and ventilate.
Reviews and advice of Siberian winegrowers
It is even possible even in Siberia, and specifically in Altai, in Biysk, there has long been a school of winegrowers, and grapes have become widespread among gardeners, even varieties of our Siberian selection have been bred. I have been engaged in grapes for a long time, they successfully fruit Pearls, Szabo, Tukai, Aleshenkin, Muscat Katunsky, although we only ripen early and early varieties and require shelter for the winter, but it is worth it to see the results of your labor.veniaminovich
No matter how lazy you are, in Siberian conditions you still have to tinker with grapes (if the climate does not change). No matter how you accumulate heat, snow falls very often in Siberia in late May - early June - in this case, if the grapes are not wrapped, it will freeze, but you can’t wait for the stepsons to harvest - the summer is very short. Still frosts occur in August, at the end - you also need to cover ... The ideal option is a greenhouse, as in the Baltic states.Buttercup
This season, on the night from 3.10 to 4.10, there was a frost of -4.5 ° C. Adult bushes dropped foliage - not critical, the vine has ripened. But the rows of seedlings (yearlings) suffered. Shelter was trite - inverted buckets - iron and plastic (I repent, too lazy to make arcs). Result - grasped vine. But the Pino row was covered in arcs by the 60 spanbond in two layers. The result - not a single speck on the leaves. I was very surprised, too much difference. I use Spanbond for the first time. Previously, he was mistrustful of him as a winter shelter.Mix_servo
Growing grapes in Siberia is a difficult but interesting activity. The main thing is to prevent the bushes from freezing in the winter and provide the maximum amount of heat in the summer. If clusters of ripe grapes appear on the vines, then all your efforts were not in vain. You can give you the honorary title of winegrower, because not every gardener can successfully cultivate this culture, even in the south of the country.