Grapes of "Magarach": a description of three famous varieties - Citron, Early and Gift of Magarach
Yalta Institute of Winemaking and Viticulture "Magarach" is the oldest scientific institution in this area. It was founded almost two centuries ago - in 1828. During this considerable period, “Magarach” became known not only for its excellent wines produced at the factory of the same name, and for its excellent grape varieties. The Institute is a repository of unique collections used in the work of scientists: ampelographic, numbering more than three and a half thousand growing varieties and shapes of grapes; more than a thousand varieties of microorganisms used in winemaking; Enoteca, where more than twenty-one thousand bottles of wine are collected. Some of the grape varieties created by the Institute’s breeders based on these rich materials will be discussed further.
Numerous creations of the Magarach Institute
The centuries-old experience of Crimean winegrowers, employees of the department of selection and genetics of grapes of the Institute "Magarach" embody in new varieties of vines. This work has been going on since the establishment of the scientific institution. Nowadays in Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, vines of the third generation of grapes are growing, having group resistance to the negative effects of the environment. Many of them bear names in which the name of the institute sounds: the Gift of Magarach, the Firstborn of Magarach, the Centaur of Magarach, Antei Magarach, Tavkveri of Magarach, Ruby Magaracha, Bastardo Magarachsky and others. In total, there are two and a half dozen such names in the list of varieties of the ampelographic collection of the institute, among synonymic names there are even more .
Centuries-old experience of Crimean winegrowers employees of the department of selection and genetics of grapes of the Institute "Magarach" embody in new varieties of vines
About some grape varieties "Magaracha" more
Most varieties bred at the Magarach Institute are technical, that is, intended for use in winemaking. Many of them are grown by amateur winegrowers in their plots in the Crimea, regions of the south of Russia and Ukraine. They are attracted not only by grapes and wines obtained from grapes, which have excellent consumer qualities, but also the fruits of some varieties themselves, which have peculiar tastes and smells and are consumed fresh.
This average ripening period of grapes was obtained by crossing several hybrids and varieties at once
This average ripening period of grapes was obtained by the complex crossing of several hybrids and varieties: a hybrid obtained from the parental forms Magarach 2–57–72 and Rkatsiteli was crossed with Novoukrainsky early. Thus, Magarach 124–66–26 appeared, when it was crossed with Madeleine Anzhevin grapes, and a new variety Citron Magaracha was created. The name was given to him by the citrus aroma inherent to him, unusual for grapes, most noticeable in wines and juices from these berries .
This grape variety was especially famous when in 1998 they created the “Muscatel White” wine, which received the highest marks at international competitions in 1999-2001.
The vines of Citron Magarach are of medium or high growth power, shoots ripen well. Bisexual flowers are a guarantee of good pollination, as a result of which clusters are formed not very dense in the form of a cylinder, sometimes converging on a cone, with wings. For industrial grapes, they are quite massive. Berries of medium size and round shape, ripening, gain a yellow color of a thin and strong skin or remain a slightly greenish tint. In grapes 3-4 oval seeds. The variety has a harmonious taste and original aroma with bright notes of muscat and citrus. Citron Magaracha is endowed with increased resistance to diseases caused by fungi, it is immune to phylloxera .
120-130 days after the start of the growing season, the harvest of this grape variety ripens.
- The average weight of the brush is 230 grams.
- The average weight of berries is 5–7 grams.
- The sugar content is 250–270 g / l of juice, while the acid in the same volume is 5–7 grams.
- The optimal feeding area for one bush is 6 m2 (2x3 m).
- The variety is fruitful, 138 hectares of berries are collected from one hectare.
- Citron Magaracha tolerates a decrease in temperature in winter to -25 ºС.
On an eight-point scale of tasting assessment, dry wine from Citron Magarach received 7.8 points, and dessert wine - 7.9 points.
Grape Citron Magaracha needs adjustment of the load on the vine, since congestion leads to a loss in the quality of the crop and a delay in its ripening. In the autumn regulatory pruning, it is recommended to leave no more than thirty eyes on the bush, cut the shoots very shortly - for 2–4 buds.
Vines of Citron Magaracha variety have medium or large growth, therefore, during the flowering period, rationing is carried out . The number of clusters left on the shoots depends on the age and strength of the bush.
In regions where winter temperatures do not reach the limit value of -25 ºС for the Citron Magaracha variety, grapes can be grown in uncovered form, in other places it is necessary to cover grapes using a technology common to this type of plant.
Video: making white wine from Citron Magarach (part 1)
Video: making white wine from Citron Magarach (part 2)
He was bred by crossing Kishmish black and Madeleine Anzhevin
The Early Magaracha variety is a table black grape . It was bred by crossing Kishmish black and Madeleine Anzhevin.
The bushes of this grape have great growth power. The flowers of Early Manarach are bisexual, of which large or medium-sized clusters are formed. The shape of the brush can vary from cone-like to broad-conical. The density of berries in a bunch is average, it is somewhat loose.
The grapes of Early Magarach can be oval or round. When ripe, they gain a dark blue color and are covered with a clearly visible wax coating. Under the strong skin of the berries, a juicy and fairly dense pulp with a simple taste is hidden. Inside the grape 2-3 pieces of seeds. Juice of Early Magarach pink.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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This grape completely avoids the disease with gray rot, as it ripens in the early stages. May be damaged by mildew and phylloxera . Winter hardiness of grapes is weak. Ripe berries are often damaged by wasps and ants.
Berries of Early Magarach ripen in 120 days, if the active temperatures in the sum are at least 2300 ºС.
- Actively growing vine ripens by 80% growth by autumn.
- The metric dimensions of a bunch of grapes of this variety range from: 16–22 cm - length, 14–19 cm - width.
- The average weight of the brush is from 0.3, sometimes up to 0.5 kilograms.
- The average weight of berries is up to 2.6 grams.
- Each berry has 3-4 seeds.
- On developed shoots, 0.8 clusters are tied on average, 1.3 clusters on average per fruit-bearing shoot.
- Frost resistance grade -18 ºС.
Given the low winter hardiness of Early Magaracha grapes, it is recommended to grow it in a cover-up method, and for this to form it in the form of a multi-arm fan without a stem. 5-8 eyes are left on the fruit shoots during autumn pruning, depending on what their alleged damage during the wintering period is. The bush should have up to forty eyes .
In areas where the Early Magaracha grapes are not threatened by a winter cold, it can be grown on a stem from 0.7 meters high and formed as a two-armed cordon.
To protect Early Magarach from fungal diseases and pests, it must be prophylactically treated during the season with fungicides and insecticides. During periods of drought, Early Magaracha requires additional watering.
When grafting a variety, it is better to plant it on stocks that are resistant to phylloxera.
Gift of Magarach
Magarach's gift has an early to medium maturity
Variety Gift of Magarach was obtained by crossing Rkatsiteli grapes and the hybrid form of Magarach 2–57–72, which in turn was received from a pair of Sochi black and Mtsvane Kakheti. As a result, white grapes of early-medium ripening appeared. This is a technical grade, it is used for the manufacture of cognac, white wines, juices . Now Gift of Magarach is grown in Hungary, Moldova, Ukraine, in the south of Russia.
From the beginning of sap flow to the collection of ripe clusters, 125–135 days pass. Vines of this variety are of medium or strong growth force. Shoots ripen well. Flowers on vines bisexual.
Bunches of medium size - their average weight is 150-200 grams. They are formed in the form of a cylinder. Their density is average. Berries having an average weight of 1.8 grams are round in shape. The color of the skin is white; when the grapes are overripe, it turns pink. It is elastic, thin. Berry flesh is a little mucous. Its pleasant taste does not have a bright aroma. In one liter of grape juice of this variety contains from 21% to 25% sugar and 8-10 grams of acid.
From one hectare of the vineyard you can get 8.5 tons of berries. Gift of Magarach withstands winter temperatures up to -25 ºС.
At 2.5–3 points, its resistance to mildew is assessed; the variety is tolerant to phylloxera . In the years of the spread of fungal diseases of grapes, 2-3 preventive treatments of the vineyard with fungicides are necessary.
They use grapes for winemaking, but it is not practically used fresh. In the manufacture of wine from grapes Gift of Magarach, additives of sulfites and wine yeast are needed.
In the best way, the Gift of Magarach feels in the southern regions of Ukraine and Russia, in Moldova, where it receives enough heat and light. It can be grown as uncovered or in the form of an arbor. During autumn pruning, no more than 50 eyes should remain on the vine; shoots are cut to 3-4 buds . The load of the bush of the Gift of Magarach must be normalized, leaving two clusters on the shoot.
Reviews of winegrowers about varieties of selection of the Institute "Magarach"
Planted PM seedlings in spring (Gift of Magarach). For various reasons, it turned out late - mid-May. First we slept, then woke up and overtook everyone. In the first year: strong growth, stepchildren (which I was initially afraid to break off) also grew well. He has a peculiar shade, the bush is easy to distinguish from others. Mildew held well, although I was inexperienced and allowed an outbreak of the disease. Lost bushes no more than 4-5 lower leaves. It always looked fresh no matter what, which made me very happy while my veneer was in a fever. By October, 80% had matured. I would venture to leave a trial bunch if it wintered well and grows.Dmitry 87
In my vineyard there is this variety (Citron Magaracha). The bush is young, so I can firmly answer only one question: I didn’t see cracked berries, although in the last year’s intense heat it flooded it several times very abundantly. In past years, there were no hints of sores, now I grabbed a little mildew, but managed to quickly stop. I don’t know about frost resistance, I have it in cover. Wine and juices have not yet been prepared: we eat sweet and very fragrant berries directly from the bush. Grows well, no problem. I like this variety. This year, almost all shoots gave three clusters. I didn’t normalize until the load pulls well, the crowns are bent.Nadezhda Nikolayevna
He tolerated it (Early Magaracha) for a very long time because of the very early ripening and pleasant with a marigold taste. Indeed, there was a time when I thought of using it as a wine grade. However, after a long period I decided to get rid of it. I am not at all happy that no more than 5-7 kg are hanging on a 10-year-old powerful bush. The main indicator for mildew, after it there are still several days of handicap for treatments. And yet, I specifically asked my neighbor in mid-August to try it (usually the children ate half-ripe) - the taste does not deteriorate, does not improve. In general, if without reckoning on the market, but only for oneself, it’s normal. On the bushes of Early Magarach grafted Flora, White Flame, Harold. Very powerful growth of scion. At last year’s vaccination, Laura 4 (albeit not very large) grones. Next year I hope to get a full crop. This option suits me more.Kryn
The word “maharach” itself, as it is said in the dictionary “Language of Odessa. Words and phrases ”means“ wine ”. It is no coincidence that such a name was given to the Institute of Winemaking and Viticulture, where so many beautiful varieties of these magical vines were bred, the fruits of which will both drink, feed, and delight. Of course, it is easier for residents of the south to grow Magarach varieties, but even in a climate less conducive to this, lovers of viticulture try to grow them and not unsuccessfully.