Grapes Nadezhda AZOS: one of the best achievements of the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station
Both experienced growers and beginners want to have an unpretentious variety with excellent taste in their collection. These include grapes Nadezhda AZOS. Undemanding to growing conditions, it is suitable for a small garden, and for farming.
Grape varieties Nadezhda AZOS can be called one of the best achievements of the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station. Famous grades of Cardinal and Moldova served as parent forms for the future champion. The time of creation of the novelty falls in the mid 60-ies of the XX century. He was included in the State Register in 1998. The author of the variety is N.N. Apalkova.
Hope AZOS is allowed to grow in the North Caucasus region, which includes the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, the Rostov Region, the republics of Adygea, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Crimea, North Ossetia, Chechnya.
Grape varieties Nadezhda AZOS - one of the achievements of breeders Anapa AIA
Video: Nadezhda AZOS grapes
The trunk of the bush is strong and thick. Shoots can reach a length of 3 m. Their fruitfulness is from 75 to 90%. The bush looks attractive due to the large leaves. The five-blade green leaf plate has a thick spider web pubescence from below. Bisexual flowers. The grape cluster is large, loose, broadly conical in shape. The average weight is 0.5 kg.
The brush of grape variety Nadezhda AZOS is slightly loose, but large
The berry is dark blue, almost black, of an elongated oval shape, rather large - 6.2 g. Juicy fleshy flesh is covered with a dense skin with a wax coating. The peel is not acidic. The taste is very pleasant, tasters rate it at 8.2 points. The sugar and acid content in berries can be called almost balanced: sugar content - 14.4%, acidity - 10.2%.
Dark grape varieties are considered the most useful, although they lower the level of iron in the blood. The berries of the Nadezhda AZOS variety are an excellent prevention of cardiovascular diseases, reduce the risk of cancer, strengthen immunity, and improve the condition of respiratory diseases.
Dark grapes are considered the most useful and low-calorie
Features distinguishing grapes of Hope AZOS from other varieties:
- Grapes Nadezhda AZOS refers to table varieties. It is preferable to use it fresh. Not intended for winemaking;
- fruiting is stable, increasing over the years. The average yield of 80 kg / ha, the maximum is almost 2 times more - 153 kg / ha;
- grapes of medium ripening. From the moment the kidneys burst, 125-130 days elapse before the onset of technical ripeness;
- grapes bloom in mid or late May. Harvest ripens in late summer. Berries do not crumble and can hang until the first frost, without changing the taste;
- unpretentious, tolerates dry periods;
- frost resistance is average. The bush can withstand temperatures down to -22 ° C;
- resistant to a number of diseases, not prone to mildew, oidium. Moderately resistant to gray rot;
- due to its high taste and marketability, it is one of the best commercial varieties;
- Hope AZOS amazes with its early maturity - with proper care, you can harvest the crop the very next year after planting. But experienced winegrowers recommend cutting the early ovary so that the root system of the grapes can develop well;
- Hope AZOS is quite aggressive towards its neighbors and does not get along well with other varieties. Exceptions are Codrianka and Moldova;
- cuttings root weakly;
- overloading bushes with crops is possible, under the weight of clusters the vine breaks;
- under adverse weather conditions it is poorly pollinated, the berries grow small, and the hands are loose.
Grapes Nadezhda AZOS has good characteristics that make it a popular variety
Grapes Nadezhda AZOS can be grown on a trellis, used as a plant for landscape design. Due to its high growth, it often lands as an arbor or arched culture.
Table: advantages and disadvantages
|Great taste and appearance.||Badly pollinated in bad weather.|
|Great precocity.||During heavy rainfall, berries may burst.|
|Stable productivity.||The tendency to overload the bush and peeling.|
|Good immunity.||Weak rooting of cuttings.|
|Good resistance to frost and drought.|
|There is no need for pollinators.|
|Thick peel increases transportability and keeping quality.|
Hope AZOS is a non-capricious plant that does not require special care or conditions. But there are some nuances that must be considered.
For the plant, select the sunniest areas that are open on the south side and protected from the north and northeast. Good lighting is necessary, as the vines grow very quickly, and the lack of light greatly inhibits the process.
The sun is a growth generator for grapes
Buildings, fences, dense plantings of ornamental plants can serve as protection from winds. In winter, they contribute to the retention of snow on the site.
It is good to plant grapes at some distance from the walls of houses or other stone buildings looking to the southeast or southwest. Heated during the day, they give heat to the plant at night, creating the most comfortable conditions for it.
It is advisable to hide grape seedlings from the north wind behind a fence or building
Regarding the soil, the variety is unpretentious. It can grow on chernozem, sandstones or loams. They warm up quickly and provide good access of moisture and oxygen to the roots.
Wet, saline, too stony soils, places with rocky outcrops at a depth of less than 1 m to the surface are unsuitable for growing grapes.
Before planting the bush, the place must be put in order:
- Cut down the shrubbery, remove stones, fill up the holes.
- On clay soils, a continuous or tape plantation is carried out, that is, deep tillage with loosening to a depth of 70 to 100 cm.
- If the soil on the site is quite loose and permeable, then landing is carried out directly in dug holes.
- To improve the physical properties of heavy clay soils, crushed stone, sand, humus, and manure are used. If the pit is prepared immediately before planting, then only well-rotted organic matter must be introduced into the ground, carefully mixing it with the soil.
Before planting grapes, the plot is carefully prepared
For the variety Nadezhda AZOS it is very important to plant at the right time. Since cuttings take root worse than other varieties, planting is carried out only in spring, regardless of the region. True, the beginning of work is shifting slightly depending on climatic conditions. In the southern regions, the soil manages to warm up by the beginning of May; in cooler places, planting can be moved to the middle or end of the month. The process will be successful if the air temperature does not fall below 15 ° C and the soil warms up to 10 ° C.
In order for the grapes to grow faster after planting, the water for irrigation should be warm.
Landing pit is prepared in autumn or early winter (in the southern regions).
- The pit for grapes is impressive in size. You need to go deeper into the ground by at least 80 cm, length and width - 1 m.
- Put the upper fertile layer aside immediately. After the excavation has been excavated, proceed to the preparation of the land mixture for filling. The basis for the nutrient mixture is organic - about 15–20 kg, add a bucket of coarse sand, a shovel of ash and high ground there. Of mineral fertilizers, 150–300 g of superphosphate, 100–200 g of potassium salt (if there is no ash), and 30–40 g of ammonium nitrate will be needed. Put a drainage layer at the bottom of the pit if the ground is heavy. Top off the soil mixture and water abundantly.
The grape landing pit is large
- Some winegrowers on the south side of the pit stick a piece of plastic pipe with a diameter of 10-15 cm in the drainage to water the plant. Its end should be 5-10 cm higher than the landing level.
To water reached the roots, use special pipes for irrigation
For an experienced winegrower to distinguish a good seedling from poor work will not be:
- 1-2 year old bushes are the most viable. Young plants more easily tolerate the planting process and adaptation to new conditions. The seedling is at least 30–40 cm long.
- The normal root system should consist of at least 3-4 processes. They must be elastic and thick. Thin and dried roots do not guarantee a good survival rate.
The presence of a branched root system in grape seedlings is a good indicator of the health of the bush
- The trunk should be smooth, without thickenings and sagging, the bark should be free of scratches or other damage. If you slightly scratch it, you can see healthy green wood.
- A normal and healthy seedling should have at least one vine, but not too thin.
Grape seedling can have 1 or 2 vines
Remove some soil from a previously prepared hole. The remaining is desirable to collect a slide at the bottom of the pit.
- Set the plant in the center and spread the roots. Make sure that there are no voids under the heel of the seedling.
- Fill the roots with earth, tamp well and pour 2 buckets of water.
- After planting a seedling, the place of one-year growth (root neck) should be below the soil level.
- To garter the green shoots, a support is fixed next to the seedling.
If the seedling is planted near the building, it is set a little at an angle, the apex towards the wall.
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The nuances of care
For the full development and formation of the grape harvest, Nadezhda AZOS needs timely care.
Watering and mulching
An adult mature bush Nadezhda AZOS does not need additional watering, except for periods that are too hot when the soil dries quickly. During the growing season, 3-4 watering is considered the norm, which are carried out:
- after removing the winter shelter;
- one week before flowering;
- immediately after flowering;
- during fruit loading.
The first watering in a volume of 200 liters under the bush helps to activate the growth of green mass. Subsequently, the bushes are watered with warm water (20–25 ° C), normally 15–20 L under the bush (when watering through a drainage pipe). If moistening is carried out by the trench method, then the amount of moisture is doubled or tripled.
In the fall, in the absence of precipitation, water-charging irrigation (200 l) is also carried out so that the plant calmly survives the cold.
Drain irrigation consumes less water
The situation with seedlings is different. At first, after spring planting, they need very good watering so that the root system can form normally. Humidification schedule - 1 time per week. After 30 days, the frequency of watering is reduced to 2 times per month. This regime is adhered to until the end of August.
In the summer, grapes are watered early in the morning or in the evening.
After watering, it is necessary to thoroughly loosen the soil surface, breaking the formed crust. To avoid further continuous loosening, as well as to prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture, use mulch. Sawdust, straw, dry leaves have proven themselves in this capacity.
Mulch not only preserves moisture, but also helps keep the soil clean.
If, in preparation for planting, all the necessary nutrients were included in the soil, then for 2 years the plant actively uses them and does not need additional fertilizing. But adult bushes actively absorb trace elements from the soil for development, so fertilizing should be an annual process.
Table: Root dressing
|Period||Application Rate||What affects|
|One week before the start|
|Promotes active growth of foliage and shoots.|
|2 weeks before the start|
|20 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of potassium magnesia are dissolved in 10 l of water. Repeated feeding is carried out after a week.||For foliage growth and the formation of large berries.|
|2 weeks before collection|
|20 g of superphosphate and potassium fertilizer per 10 liters of water.||Increases the sugar content of berries and their mass.|
Equally important is the introduction of nutrition in a non-root way. When preparing the solution, mineral fertilizer is diluted with plenty of water. Spraying is carried out in the afternoon, so as not to burn leaves.
Minerals and organic matter are important for feeding grapes
Trimming and shaping a bush
The procedure helps the young plant to form faster and begin to bear fruit. Pruning adult grapes makes it easier to care for, increases yield and improves the quality of berries.
In the southern regions, where the winter is not too harsh, pruning is carried out in the fall, 3 weeks after leaf fall. The sap flow in this period stops and the grapes are not threatened with the loss of important nutrients, and the wounds heal faster. Autumn pruning is more suitable for Nadezhda AZOS, as the variety is grown in mild climatic conditions.
For the bush, the best option for the formation would be a one-shoulder cordon on a stem 1.10–1.20 m high with freely hanging vines. Grapes of this variety are prone to overloading with crops, therefore, when pruning, about 25 shoots with about 40 pieces of leaves are left on the bush. With a short pruning of 2–4 eyes, the grapes are much larger.
Video: trimming a horizontal cordon in winter
The most effective method of garters for grapes Nadezhda AZOS is trellis. The simplest design is a single-plane trellis. It is mounted quite quickly and requires a minimum of costs. For the construction you will need:
- 4 supports - poles or pipes;
- 15 m strong wire;
- 4 crossbars 0.75 m long;
- cement mortar.
The work plan consists of the following steps:
- Dig holes in the diameter of the supports. Their depth should be about 80 cm. The distance between the pits is 3 m.
- Pour sand at the bottom with a layer of 20 cm.
- For stability of the support, fix a thrust bearing on its base.
- After installing the support, the foundation is cemented.
- To give the strength of the structure, crossbars are stuffed from above.
- When the foundation is frozen, fix the wire. The first row should be at a distance of 40 cm from the soil surface, the rest - at 45 cm above each other.
It is convenient and practical to grow grapes on a trellis
Shelter for the winter
Frost resistance Hopes AZOS can be called average. Therefore, in the cultivation areas of the variety, where the temperature in the cold period can drop below 22 ° C, the bush needs to be covered for the winter. To do this, dig trenches that are lined with straw or lapnik. Trimmed vines are laid in them. Through the width of the trench, iron brackets are dug, and a thick plastic film is laid on top. Fix it so that the polyethylene does not touch the bush. Along the perimeter of the shelter, the film is covered with a layer of earth so that the wind does not tear it off.
Shelter is removed only after complete melting of snow. It is advisable to do this on a cloudy day or in the evening, so that the sun does not burn the bark.
In regions where winters are not very severe, there is no need to build such a shelter. But be sure to warm the roots with a layer of mulch or earth.
In regions with cold winters, shelters for grapes Nadezh Azoz need to build shelters
How to deal with diseases and pests
Grapes Nadezhda AZOS is appreciated for its excellent resistance to fungal diseases. But disease prevention must be carried out necessarily. And if the first signs of infection appear, act immediately so that the disease does not have time to spread.
Table: Possible Diseases and Pests
|Anthracnose||The leaves are covered with small spots of red-brown color with a contrasting border. Gradually, the spots begin to merge. The surface of the sheet dries and dies. Depressed areas appear on the stems and branches, which grow and deepen, obstructing the movement of nutrients. Inflorescences and berries are also affected.|
|The vine is covered with small white growths. Then they darken, become hard and crack. Grapes are poorly developed and die quickly.||With a sharp garden tool, cut the growth to a healthy tissue. Treat the wound with 5% solution of copper sulfate. If this measure does not help, the bush needs to be uprooted and destroyed.|
|Most often, plants suffer after winter shelter. The problem is that the onset of the disease cannot be discerned, since the primary lesion occurs inside the wood. The sick vine dies.||At the beginning of the growing season, when signs of dry sucking became apparent, the vine is removed. The cut point is painted over with the addition of any strong fungicide.|
|Shield||Fixed insects hide under a brown carapace, with the beginning of sap flow in grapes they begin to actively feed on juices. A weakened plant is susceptible to fungal infections.|
|A microscopic insect eats grape juices from young leaves, leaving punctures on the surface. As a result, the leaves become covered with yellow spots, the process of photosynthesis is disrupted.|
Photo gallery: by what signs to recognize diseases and pests
- The first signs of anthracnose appear on the leaves in the form of small spots.
- Bacterial cancer is practically not treated, often the vine bush has to be uprooted
- Dry sucker is dangerous because it is very difficult to determine the disease at an early stage
- Hiding under the shield, the pest actively eats plant juices
- A leaf damaged by a grape mite is covered with numerous holes
Harvesting and storage
Grapes Nadezhda AZOS ripen in late August - early September. Weighty clusters are removed using a secateurs. Harvest in dry weather. If it rained the day before, wait until the grape leaves dry out completely, otherwise they will begin to deteriorate.
If the grapes are planned to be stored in boxes, then the bottom of the container is lined with a clean cloth or paper. The brushes are laid out with the stalk up in one layer. The grapes are stored in this way from 1.5 to 2 months. The disadvantage of this method is that you need to periodically check the berries for rot. The best option for storage would be refrigerators with a temperature of -1 to 2 ° C and a humidity of 90–95%.
You can store brushes by hanging them on a stretched wire. The room should be cool and ventilated.
You can store grapes by hanging clusters on a stretched wire
My Hope AZOS is 11 years old. I will never give up on her. Aging is good. The load pulls 2 clusters to escape. For all the time I tried to crack only once. Pollinated well. I have 2 bushes - one pollinates Arkady, the second - Kodryanka and Rusball. I do not see the difference in pollination. Cuttings root well, but the growth of the first 3-4 years of this variety is slowed down, especially the first 2 years. There would be a place, I would plant a couple more bushes. I completely cut off one bush into a bed, it is stored without problems until the New Year. And the jam from it is generally awesome, imagine the berries in a jar of 4 cm, the berries do not boil during cooking, but become ripe, if you keep the jam longer on the fire, the color turns black.ylena
Regarding Nadezhda AZOS, do not worry, it ripens without problems and I would not bother with vaccinating it on some other variety. The vine also ripens well, quite enough to maintain the formation of the bush.Tyutyunnikov Alexander
The variety is really worthwhile in all respects, and primarily in terms of taste. Not a modern super-bomb, but reliable, disease resistant. It’s worth having for yourself. In my conditions, the sredneroslik rooting really worse than many varieties and GF, but not critical, the yield of seedlings I have, depending on the conditions of germination from 50 to 70%.Yuri Semenov
On Nadezhda AZOS, to restrain growth, I use a decrease in fertilizing and a slight overload, but at the same time, maturation is delayed. But it’s better to try it all yourself, since one tricks one technique, the other - others.Stanislav Sharygin
Well, to say that this is a good variety - to say nothing. This is an outstanding variety in all respects. I brought it to myself about 7 or 8 years ago when I read the following lines - in an interview with V.N.Krainov they asked what, in his opinion, is the most delicious variety. He replied that there were many, but for him personally - Nadezhda AZOS. So for me, he is also out of competition.bursucok
Grapes Nadezhda AZOS grows beautifully on a trellis, they decorate a gazebo or arch in a private house. And when the time comes to harvest, you can enjoy the great taste of juicy berries. Knowing the nuances of planting and caring for the variety will grow it even for beginner growers.