Grapes in Memory of Negrul - tasty, beautiful, unpretentious
Currently, about five thousand grape varieties are known. Their number is constantly increasing as a result of the breeding work of scientists and amateur growers, but not always the new is better than the old. Sometimes in the pursuit of new products, you can lose sight of time-tested, reliable varieties. One of them is table grapes in the memory of Negrul. It has impressive external and taste properties, and is also very unpretentious. The variety has proven itself both when grown on an industrial scale, and in amateur viticulture.
Grapes have long been a national treasure of Moldova. A variety of Memory of Negrul was bred at the NPO Vierul of the Moldavian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking. More than fifty new grape varieties were developed in the experimental plots of this breeding complex, which occupies one of the leading places in Europe.
A group of scientists worked on the creation of the Negrul Memory: M. S. Zhuravel, G. M. Borzikova, I. P. Gavrilov, I. N. Naydenova, G. A. Savin. In 1975, they crossed - “parents” of a new grade of steel Koarne Nyagre (Moldavian) and interspecific hybrid Pierrell (there is another name for it - Save Saillar 20–366).
After passing the variety test, the grapes of the Memory of Negrul were registered in 2015 as a variety in the Republic of Moldova. This grape has not been included in the register of selection achievements of the Russian Federation.
Grapes got its name in memory of the famous Soviet scientist A.M. Negrul, who was involved in genetics and selection of grapes. N. I. Vavilov called him "the king of grapes."
Description and characteristic
In memory of Negrul - black table grapes. Berries ripen within 145–155 days from the moment of bud opening, which characterizes the variety as medium-late. Berries reach a ripening maturity in the first half of September. The ripening period can be reduced in the southern regions to 135 days.
The growth rate of the bush is medium, on fertile or well-fertilized soils it can be high. Shoots ripen very well, up to 90%. Young shoots are characterized by increased fragility, so they require timely fixation to the support.
The clusters are large, their weight is on average 0.7–0.8 kg, but under favorable conditions they can reach two kilograms. Various factors can influence the mass of bunches, such as: weather conditions, supply of nutrients, bush age, load, and others. A bunch of cylindrical-conical shape, medium density, may be loose. Her appearance is very spectacular and attractive.
The clusters of medium-density or loose cylindrical-conical grapes in the memory of Negrul look very impressive
The berry is large (7–10 g), saturated dark violet in color, with a nosiform shape — elongated and pointed towards the end. The peel is covered with a dense coating of spring.
A spring is a thin layer of wax on berries. It performs protective functions, protecting against mechanical damage and the adverse effects of weather factors.
Large berries of the memory of Negrul memory have an original shape and are covered with a spring.
The pulp is juicy, fleshy, crispy. There are 2-3 seeds in the berry. The skin is dense, sometimes it can have a tart aftertaste. There are reviews that with an excess of moisture during the ripening period, the berries may crack.
Table: Agrobiological characteristics of the grape in memory of Negrul
|Country of origin||Moldova|
|Direction of use||Table|
|Growth power||Medium and above average|
|Vine ripening||up to 90%|
|Weight||0.7–0.8 kg (sometimes up to two kilograms)|
|Density||Medium or loose|
|The form||Elongated, with a pointed end|
|Color||Violet with dense spring plaque|
|Character of taste||Simple, harmonious|
|Acidity||5-6 g / l|
|Ripening period||Medium late (145–155 days)|
|Productivity||High (with proper agricultural practices)|
|The percentage of fruitful shoots||70–80%|
|Frost resistance||-25 ° C|
|Disease immunity||High (2–2.5 points)|
The taste is harmonious, sometimes in the fully ripened berries the presence of plum tones is noted. Grapes received a high tasting score of 9.2 points, which is an excellent indicator on a ten-point scale.
When assessing grapes, points are taken into account comprehensively in three indicators: for appearance (from 0.1 to 2 points), for the consistency of pulp and skin (from 1 to 3 points), for taste and aroma (from 1 to 5 points).
Grapes can be propagated by both seedlings and cuttings, which grow together well with stocks. Own seedlings take root well and begin to bear fruit in the second year. A full crop is formed in the fifth year of life.
The grape yield of the memory of Negrul is high. Bisexual flower promotes intense ovary formation. Subject to compliance with varietal agricultural technology, you can get a crop of 45-50 kilograms from one adult bush. The proportion of fruitful shoots is 70–80%, that is, for every 100 shoots, 70–80 shoots have inflorescences. Irrigation is not observed.
Bunches are well preserved on bushes up to frosts. Grapes in Memory of Negrul are distinguished by their excellent keeping quality - subject to the necessary conditions, they can be stored in the basement for up to four months. And also it tolerates long-term storage in the refrigerator.
Grapes are characterized by high transportability - when transported over long distances, the presentation is well preserved. Berries are used both for fresh consumption and for the manufacture of juice, preserves, compotes.
Frost resistance of root shrubs is increased (-25 ° C), in the southern latitudes it can grow without shelter. In the middle lane and more northern regions, grapes must be sheltered for the winter. Grapes are also not afraid of drought.
Resistance to common diseases and pests is high (2–2.5 points).
In a five-point scale characterizing the resistance of grapes to diseases and pests, the lowest score (0) corresponds to complete immunity - there are practically no such plants. The highest score (5) characterizes absolute instability.
Increased immunity is observed to mildew, oidium and gray rot. And also the variety is highly resistant to phylloxera, spider mites and leafworms. Most often, only standard preventive treatments are sufficient.
Wasp damage was not observed, but birds can cause great damage to the crop.
The variety of Negrul Memory, by its characteristics, is complexly stable. This makes it possible to grow it in central Russia and even a little north.
With resistance to diseases and pests from 1 to 3.5 points and frost resistance above -23 ° C, grape varieties are called complex resistant.
This grape fully reveals its best qualities in the climatic conditions of the southern regions, as it was bred in sunny Moldova. However, long-term practical experience shows that the variety has proven itself when grown in more northern latitudes.
Advantages and disadvantages
The grape variety of Memory of Negrul has a significant number of advantages:
- large and elegant clusters;
- large berries of the original form, covered with a dense layer of spring
- harmonious taste;
- excellent presentation;
- high transportability;
- good keeping quality;
- high productivity (with appropriate agricultural technology);
- high pollination (bisexual flower);
- lack of peeling;
- increased frost resistance (in the southern regions it can be grown in non-covering form);
- high resistance to major diseases and pests;
- drought tolerance;
- good survival of seedlings;
- high degree of ripening shoots.
Varieties have much less disadvantages, but they should be remembered:
- insufficient frost resistance for many regions (requires shelter);
- the need for protection against birds;
- cracking of berries with excess moisture during the ripening period;
- fragility of young shoots (require timely fixation to the support).
When comparing the positive and negative qualities of the grapes of the Memory of Negrul, it becomes obvious that the variety is completely unpretentious and has very few flaws with an impressive number of advantages. The disadvantages are not significant and do not create any special obstacles for the cultivation of this variety, even for beginners in gardening.
Features of agricultural technology
Grapes in Memory of Negrul are completely capricious and quite accessible for cultivation in summer cottages by amateur gardeners. With standard care, you can get a good harvest. If you additionally take into account some features of this variety - the result will be much better.
To get the highest and highest quality crop, you need to choose the right place for planting grapes. It is best to place bushes of the Pamyat Negrul variety on the southern, southwestern and southeastern slopes. With a good slope, the site will be less exposed to winds and more protected from the effects of low temperatures in the winter. When located on warm slopes, the plants will receive enough sunlight, which will contribute to an increase in the sugar content of the berries and the keeping time.
Grapes in Memory of Negrul best grows on fertile chernozems, light loams and loamy soils. Clay soils, salt marshes, and wetlands are not suitable for planting.
Since the root system of the bush is quite powerful, the depth of the pit should be at least 80 cm and its size 80x80 cm. In experimental plots, when carrying out agrotechnical studies, a planting scheme of 2.75x1.5 m was used. can grow very much, so the distance between them can be increased.
Both spring and autumn planting are used. In the spring they plant in April or the first half of May, in the fall - after the leaves fall. Plants are planted in pits previously prepared, moistened and seasoned with organic and mineral fertilizers.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The grape of Negrul Memory is resistant to drought, but this does not mean that it can do without watering at all. Although there is a practice of growing this variety in non-irrigated areas, it would be better to provide the bushes with the necessary amount of moisture to increase yield.
In autumn and early spring it is recommended to carry out water-charging irrigation of plants. And also you need to remember that grapes should receive a sufficient amount of moisture in the following phases of vegetation:
- the period of budding;
- after flowering;
- period of growth and filling berries.
Watering the grapes before and during flowering is not recommended due to the strong shedding of flowers with excess moisture. A month before the harvest ripens, the watering of grapes in the memory of Negrul is stopped, since increased humidity can cause cracking of the berries. The last watering is recommended from the end of July to the beginning of August, depending on the ripening period in the respective climatic conditions.
Bushes of the variety Pamyati Negrul during the period of growth and fruiting take out many nutrients from the soil, so plants need to be regularly fed with organic and mineral fertilizers. The timing and types of top dressing depend on the plant's nutrient requirements during various periods of vegetation:
- in the spring, they make nitrogen (nitrogen stimulates the growth of shoots and green mass) and phosphorus fertilizers;
- two weeks before the beginning of flowering, they are also fed with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers (phosphorus promotes the formation of an ovary), while the amount of nitrogen fertilizers is reduced;
- during the ripening period, only phosphoric fertilizers are applied, which contribute to the ripening of clusters;
- after harvest, potash fertilizers are used to improve the ripening of the vines and increase winter hardiness.
In autumn, along with digging, organic fertilizers are applied in the form of humus, manure or compost with a periodicity that depends on the quality and structure of the soil:
- on fertile soils (chernozem, light loam) 1 time in 3 years;
- on sandy soils 1 time in 2 years;
- on sandy soil annually.
After applying liquid top dressing (as well as after watering), it is recommended to mulch the trunk circle with any organic substances. For this, rotted wood sawdust, mowed grass, hay and other organic materials are used. Mulching keeps moisture in the soil and prevents weeds from growing.
Shaping and trimming
In the experimental plots, bushes were grown in the form of a bilateral horizontal cordon on a rather high stem (80–90 cm). At high formations, a large amount of perennial wood is formed, which positively affects the size of the clusters and their quality. It should be clarified that such a formation is suitable for those regions where grapes can be grown in non-covering form.
Non-covering grape bushes in memory of Negrul are grown in the form of a bilateral horizontal cordon on a high stem
When growing in areas where shelter is required, a more optimal option would be to form in a rodless form with slanted sleeves. As a rule, a fanless stampless formation is used, which facilitates the shelter of bushes for the winter.
If necessary, shelter grapes in memory of Negrul apply a fanless stamping
The bush has a decorative look, so it can also be grown on the gazebo, if the climate allows you to leave plants for the winter without shelter.
In the official description of the variety, it is recommended to leave 3-5 eyes on fruitful shoots, but according to many winegrowers, long pruning gave good results. In total, it is advised to leave 35–45 eyes on the bush. To increase productivity, it is necessary to regulate the load of bunches, in which one bunch is left for one shoot.
Diseases and Pests
With a high resistance to diseases and pests, the variety of Memory of Negrul does not need any special protective measures. There is evidence that this grape was successfully grown with absolutely no treatments. But still, it’s better not to take risks and prevent a disease or pest damage than to deal with them later.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, fungicides are traditionally used. To prevent pest damage, acaricides and insecticides are used. Standard preventive treatments are carried out in certain phases of the growing season using a complex of necessary preparations:
- Young shoot in the phase of 3-4 leaves - treatment with fungicides and acaricides.
- Before flowering - treatment with fungicides and insecticides.
- After flowering (berry size 4-5 mm) - treatment with fungicides.
Berries of the memory of Negrul memory attract birds. Since birds can cause great damage to the crop, special attention should be paid to methods of protection against them. There are several of them:
- physical exception;
Fencing grapes with a net (physical exception) is the most effective way of protection, but also the most expensive. You can isolate the bushes completely or put on each bunch a special mesh bag.
With the help of a large mesh, the bushes are completely insulated; mesh bags are put on to isolate individual clusters
The acoustic method involves the use of various devices (loudspeakers, firecrackers, etc.) that periodically emit loud, frightening birds sounds. Thus, you can scare away birds in isolated areas, since it is unlikely that the neighbors will be delighted with such events.
The visual method can complement the previous one, since by itself it is less effective. In this case, you can use the scarecrows installed on the ground. Also, various objects are hung over the grapes that can move from the wind, such as: large balloons of bright colors with an imitation of the eyes of birds of prey, shiny ribbons made of plastic or foil, and more.
The biochemical method uses repellents - chemicals to scare away birds. But this method is not yet recommended, as it has not yet been fully developed and therefore is not effective enough and can also be harmful to birds.
Grapes in Memory of Negrul has a very high rating among those who cultivated this variety for several years. The vast majority of survey participants on the site dedicated to grapes //vinograd.info/ rated it as a very good, almost reference variety.
I have been growing one bush of this variety for about 15 years. Ripens every year by about September 10th. The berry is beautiful nipple-elongated, in wetter summers the berries are longer than in hot ones. For the prevention of disease, two preventative treatments are sufficient. Harvest annually stable. As a disadvantage, with heavy rain during the ripening period, some berries may crack.Grygoryj
The bush of Memory of Negrul is 6 years old. Silnorosly - stretched it to 6 meters. It ripens remarkably. It ripens interestingly - it stands, it stands green and suddenly in a week - everything turned black. We start already on the 20th of August. Stored well too. Just recently ate the last. Moreover, manages if you do not keep track of maturation and stepsons. In general, whatever they say about him, but the variety is not bad. I am silent about stability - it does not get sick at all and hibernates under a film. Yes, I have not scored a brush over 800 grams. The load may affect - for 4 years - 25 kg, for 5 and 6 - 30 each.alex chumichev
I have grown one PN bush on a 2-plane trellis for more than 15 years, gives good crops every year, practically does not get sick, the berry does not crack. My vineyard is located on the southern slope, the soil is loam, maybe this plays a positive role in the development of the bush. There is one minus - it does not give growth at all. I tried to make wounds on the stem, it was useless. Therefore, at my PN all the sleeves grow on one side and it is very difficult to bury it. But PN is worth it.Vlarussik
About 15 kidneys per fruiting, as it turns out by filling the place on the trellis and cut. In general, I want to say again for PN (for some reason, people twist their noses, the taste is not the same, then there is no nutmeg, etc.) - awesome grapes for their ripening period, both for themselves and for the market. It’s enough to count the fingers on one hand with the blue color of the berries that dominate the market at this ripening time (we practically do not have them in the city), and the elegance of loose clusters with oblong berries has no equal. I’ve been observing PN for about 15 years, and maybe more, so there are no deviations in the description of Negrul, all the x-ki as given by the breeder, so it really is.norman
Well, here is my Negrul Memory ready. As expected 2 weeks earlier. The largest bunch was a little more than a kilogram. The bulk is in the range of 600 grams to 800 grams. The berry during staining increased significantly. Some berries exceeded 4 cm. After the last rains, some berries burst at the nose. That's amazing for so many years for the first time, always thought it was not cracking. As before, the wasps did not like it, but the sparrows tried it. In past years, this is not observed. Well, what about the grid as assistants for next year.Samposebe
The vine of Memory of Negrul hibernated like this: she didn’t take off the trellis at all. The "official" temperature in Dnepropetrovsk, presented on the site //meteo.infospace.ru/ (minimum -24.4 in the morning of 02.02.2012), is measured at the Dnepropetrovsk airport, about 2 km of the open field from this bush. I plan to continue to grow it non-covering, we do not have such frost every year.Jack1972
His memory of Negrul in Odessa in the city, where there are no chilling and piercing winds, where everything is closed by fences and buildings, I never hide. He never froze in any winters. What can not be advised in the same Odessa in the field or in the village. There where there is an open area and good wind blowing. Where the freezing strong wind increases frost. Be sure to cover! Therefore, each person growing grapes himself must feel this fine line, to cover or not! This is my opinionMasha
Long pruning of PN helps increase yield. My 3.5-meter bush on a single-plane trellis, on a thin layer of earth, without a landing pit, without normal fertilizer (last autumn my conscience finally sank - I dug 20 kg of good mullein around each bush), but with two or three dressings with a solution of granules on the basis of bird droppings and two or three foliar top dressing with microelements in 2015 gave about 30 kg of berries (counted all the clusters - 70 pcs). For my conditions, this is very good. Мне кажется, что все минусы ПН — от хозяина куста, ну и иногда от совсем уж гадкой погоды. Этот сорт никто не сможет скомпрометировать, как бы ни старался. Плюсов всегда будет несоизмеримо больше минусов. Не сомневаюсь: товарищ Негруль на небесах знает о том, какой замечательный сорт винограда назван в его честь и радуется ему вместе с нами.РомКо
Сорт Памяти Негруля с великолепным сочетанием неприхотливости и высоких потребительских качеств — подарок для начинающего садовода. При своей нетребовательности к уходу он очень пластичен и отзывчив к самым простым приёмам агротехники, благодаря которым значительно увеличивается урожайность. Кусты, имеющие декоративный вид благодаря крупным гроздям с оригинальными ягодами, будут не только украшением дачного участка. Можно будет долго лакомиться вкусными ягодами, доставая виноград из погреба в морозные зимние дни.