Grapes Delight: characteristics, methods of cultivation and methods of reproduction
Grapes are a tasty and healthy delicacy that has been known to mankind for more than 7 thousand years. Grapes contain antioxidants, many vitamins and minerals. This plant is considered a southern sun-loving crop. However, there are several thousand grape varieties, the characteristics of which differ in different growing conditions, and in terms of ripening, and the amount of harvest. Among this variety of grape cultures, there is a variety under the loud and promising name Delight.
The history of the cultivation of grape varieties Rapture
Grapes Delight appeared as a result of complex selection, its parents are three varieties at once: Dawn of the North, Dolores and Russian Early. From the first of them, Delight received such a property as excellent frost resistance, from the second - resistance to transportation, and from the latter the quality of the ripening of the crop in the early stages passed.
The variety was bred by Russian scientists, included in the State Register in 1992.
Over a considerable period of cultivation, Vostorg has established itself as unpretentious, tasty, giving a high yield and perfectly tolerating cold winters grapes. It is successfully cultivated in central Russia, the regions of the Urals, as well as in Siberia and the Far East. The enthusiasts of the countries of the near abroad - Belarus and the Baltic States - also love Enthusiasm.
Vostorg grapes are grown in central Russia, the regions of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The variety has bright distinctive features, and they are really able to lead the gardener in complete delight.
Appearance and quality of the plant:
- bush of medium height, has a thick trunk and powerful branches. The leaves on the vine are large, light green in color with pronounced notches;
- a bunch of large or very large, often regular conical shape, but may be shapeless, which is not a defect and does not affect the quality of the crop;
- self-pollinated variety;
- has immunity to most diseases - various fungi, rot, mildew, oidium. But vulnerable to phylloxera;
- possesses excellent resistance to winter frosts to -25 ° C even in the absence of additional shelter;
- tolerates dry periods;
- maturation reaches almost 100%;
- can be grown both in small private gardens and on an industrial scale.
Description of the fruit and yield characteristics:
- On average, 120 centners of the crop can be removed from 1 ha of the vineyard, while one brush reaches a weight of 500 g to 2 kg;
- short ripening period - 110-120 days, which allows you to get a crop in a short summer;
- the berries have a regular oval shape. They are painted in white or slightly greenish color, which on fruits facing the sunny side can turn into golden;
- the weight of one grape ranges from 6 to 12 g;
- the peel on the fruits is dense, when harvested, the berries do not deform, due to which they perfectly transfer movement over long distances;
- the fruits have juicy and crisp flesh, sweet, delicate taste, while having high sugar content for grapes - 20–26%;
- there is no need to quickly harvest after ripening, the clusters are perfectly preserved on the vine for up to 2 months;
- berries are used for fresh food, as well as for the production of wines, juices, raisins.
Grapes are eaten not only as an independent product, but also as part of fruit salads or as an additional ingredient in meat dishes.
Delicious Delight is loved by both children and adults.
Planting and growing
Delight is not a very whimsical variety. To get a quality crop, you must adhere to the general rules for growing grapes.
Place and time for landing
The best site for planting will be a site on the south or south-west side, which is not obscured by tall trees and various buildings, without drafts and stagnation of cold air masses. The soil for the future vineyard should be fertile - chernozems and loose loams are an excellent option. To provide grapes with nutrients 2 years before planting, the soil is regularly fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers. The earth should be moderately moist, an excess of water will provoke decay of plants. Therefore, the depth of groundwater should be from 2.5 m.
Wetlands for growing grapes are not suitable.
Delight can be planted in spring and autumn. But experienced gardeners prefer autumn planting more. The reason for this is the frost resistance of the variety. Both young seedlings with their own root system and grafted plants tolerate their first winter equally well, they only need to be additionally covered. With the onset of heat, they will begin active growth.
Planting grapes in the spring allows the bush to adapt well to a new place and to develop the root system in the best way. But in this case, it is necessary to provide the seedlings with good care - especially timely watering, since the spring soil is only beginning to accumulate moisture and will not be able to fully provide the young grapes with it.
Young grapes will soon grow in a large garden
Methods of propagation of grapes
Grapes are propagated by seedlings or grafted onto a stock. The second method is more preferable, since in this case the risk of phylloxera disease is almost completely eliminated. Vaccination also has several other advantages:
- the grape bush is developing rapidly, since there is no need for the cuttings to grow their own root system and grow in wood (all this gives it rootstock);
- grafted grapes begin to bear fruit the next year;
- vaccination is practically not tied to the time of year, it is worth excluding only the winter period;
- the procedure allows you to rejuvenate grape plantings or save the bush after any damage, for example, caused by elements or animals;
- if the size of the stock allows, several varieties can be rooted on it, thereby saving space in the garden.
For rootstock choose tall or medium-sized variety. Berlandieri x Riparia Kober 5BB rootstock, which is resistant to cold temperatures and fungal diseases, as well as phylloxera, is best suited for Enthusiasm.
If the vaccine is planned in the spring, then the preparation of cuttings must be started before the onset of frost:
- Future scions are cut with a sharp disinfected knife from a healthy, well-bearing bush. In length, they should be about 10-12 cm, in thickness - not less than the size of an ordinary pencil, have 2-3 eyes.
Cuttings are cut from a healthy, well-bearing bush
- You can disinfect cut plants by keeping them for half a minute in a 3% solution of copper sulfate, and then dry.
- Store prepared cuttings should be at a temperature of not more than 5 ° C, wrapped in a damp cloth or polyethylene. Suitable places may be a refrigerator, not a damp basement or cellar.
Shanks before vaccination should be stored in a damp material in a cool place.
- Do not forget to periodically inspect cut branches during the winter and to remove mold using potassium permanganate if it suddenly appears on plants. Drying of cuttings is also not allowed. If they have lost moisture, they should be placed in water for 30 minutes, and then wrapped again with the material in which they were stored.
In the spring grapes are inoculated only after buds appear on the scion, for their development the prepared branches are put in a bucket of water. The air temperature should be stable and at least 15 ° C. The optimal time is considered morning or evening in warm, but not hot weather.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Before the procedure, you can lower the cuttings for 15-20 minutes in a solution of a growth-promoting drug, for example, Epin or Kornevin.
The stock for spring vaccination is prepared in the fall and consists of pruning the old bush and scrubbing the hemp. There are several ways to get vaccinated.
Used if stock and scion are approximately the same thickness. On the scion make an oblique cut 1.5–2 cm above or below the nearest kidney. A similar cut is done on the stock. Both branches connect among themselves in places of cuts. Then this place is wrapped with fabric material and fixed with twine or plaster. This method is recommended for experienced gardeners, as it requires some experience to ensure the correct fit of the cuts. Otherwise, there is a risk that the scion will not take root.
It is the most popular way of grafting not only grapes, but also various fruit trees. Suitable even for beginners in the gardening business. The branch on which the vaccination will be done is cut off with a secateurs at a distance of 5 cm from the node. Then, using a knife, a transverse incision is made 3-4 cm deep, into which the tip of the handle sharpened under the wedge is placed. The cleavage is pulled together and fixed with a twine, and the place of vaccination is covered with a cloth.
Video: splitting and budding vaccination
Split underground grafting
This method can be used in the early stages, for example, if you need to be vaccinated before the beginning of May. The scion trunk is dug by 20 cm, the excess roots are removed. In the center of the cut, make a cross section (splitting) of 4 cm, into which 1–2 scion branches are inserted. The ends of these branches are wedge-shaped, as in the previous method. The vaccination site should be covered with clay, you can cover with polyethylene. Above the vine is sprinkled with sand, which will provide the bush with protection from cold temperatures or sudden spring frosts.
It is a more advanced way of splitting. The vaccination hole is not made with a knife, but with a drill, which must first be disinfected. The shtamb used in this method should be wide, the depth of the hole is the same as with a conventional splitting. The branch for vaccination is cleaned of bark in the place that will be inserted into the drilled part. After the scion and rootstock are combined with each other, this part of the vine is covered with chips and fastened with clay. The advantage of the method is that the drilled hole provides a snug fit between the parts of the plant. And this, in turn, increases the survival rate of grapes.
Grape summer vaccination
In summer, vaccination can be carried out “black to green” or “green to green”. In the first case, material harvested in the fall is used. Sprigs need to be revived by placing in water for several days. For vaccination use only those scions on which the kidneys will appear during this time. It is recommended to use the splitting method, paying attention to the coincidence of the growing season of stock and scion. A suitable period would be from mid-June to mid-July.
With the “green to green” method, it is not necessary to prepare grafting material in advance. Branches are used that are cut from the vine right before grafting. Time - June and July.
The green-to-green vaccination does not require pre-preparation of the material
Autumn grape grafting
Vaccination in the fall can be carried out from late August to early October. Keep in mind that the air temperature must not be lower than 15 ° C. For grafting, an old bush is used, which I would like to update. The stock is cut almost to the base, removing branches to the maximum. The slice is wiped with a damp cloth and treated with a disinfector, then a splitting is done on it. The scion is prepared, as in the spring - by placing in water with a growth stimulator, after which the appearance of the kidneys and antennae. Using multiple cuttings will increase the chances of success. To maximize the preservation of moisture and provide additional protection from the cold after the procedure, it is necessary to sprinkle the plant with a mixture of earth and sand or to fill it with straw, sawdust, spruce branches.
With the autumn vaccination, the next year it is possible to get a crop.
Grape seedlings come in two types: lignified and vegetative. The first are one-year-old plants with a woody trunk, with a developed root system and buds. They are planted from the end of March until the last days of April. Vegetative seedlings have been growing in pots since February, and their root system is still young and immature. You need to plant these bushes in warmer times - the end of May or June.
Step by step process of planting grapes:
- A pit is prepared for planting, which has the same parameters in width and depth - 60–80 cm.
The pit for planting grapes has the same parameters in width and depth - about 60–80 cm
- A drainage layer is laid at its bottom, then a nutrient substrate from a mixture of earth and humus, which should be tamped.
- On top of this layer are added 300 g of superphosphate and 3 l of wood ash mixed together.
- The final stage is backfilling the soil in half with sand to form a small mound.
- Grapes are planted about a month after the preparation of the hole, when a hill of land settles.
- Before planting, the roots of the seedling are kept in a clay mash, then the bush is installed in the hole.
Seedlings with a closed root system are installed in a hole with a lump of earth on the roots
- The roots should be well spread and covered with earth.
- When the top layer is tamped, the plant is watered with three buckets of settled water.
- After some time, the soil can be loosened and covered with mulch.
Affordable grape seedling planting scheme
Grape Care Delight
Care for the Delight does not cause great difficulties for the gardener and includes watering, fertilizing and pruning the vines:
- Despite the fact that Delight tolerates dry periods well, moisture is required for it, especially during the flowering and fruit setting. At this time, and also if the weather is very hot, you need to water the grapes 1 time in 3 days. However, if the growing region is characterized by a large amount of natural rainfall, it is necessary to drain excess moisture using a drainage system;
- This grape variety responds well to top dressing. It can be fertilized with potassium-phosphorus compounds diluted in water. Frequency of top dressing - 1 time per month;
- delight pruning can be carried out both in the spring (before the buds open) and in the fall, leaving up to 10 eyes on the shoots. The fewer eyes will be left (but not less than 3-4), the larger will be the brushes and berries. If pruning is done in the fall, it is better to leave a third of the shoots more than recommended. This will enable the plant to recover faster after a harsh winter without losing yield. Also, before the flowering begins, pinch the shoots so that the grapes do not grow, and most of the nutrients are inflorescences;
- Grapes Rapture refers to varieties that do not need to be covered for the winter. But for young plants, it is still recommended to do this.
I have been growing enthusiasm since 2000. The variety is very reliable, only last year peas, and so no problems. I have never seen Mildyu for all years of cultivation on him, but he is very friendly with oidium. Last spring, I had two freezing frosts, many varieties suffered from it, and Rapture did an excellent job of this. It hangs for a very long time, sugar is gaining very well, the vine ripens almost to the very tips. On my site sheltered, there are no surprises after the winter.Antipov Vitaliy
Delight is suitable for my site - it is resistant to diseases, early ripening, the color of the berry is closer to amber, it tastes good, but its regenerative ability is not very good - frozen rooty bushes in the winter of 2006 “reanimated” in early July. For the winter I use light spunbond shelter for Delight.Andrew
With minimal time and money, Rapture grapes are more than capable of thanking their host. If you live in central Russia or more severe regions, then this is not a reason to deprive yourself of hand-grown sweet berries. And also, it is possible to make delicious juice or homemade wine from them.