Grapes of the Century variety - for true lovers of raisins
For many centuries, grapes have enjoyed great love and attention among people. Few people can be indifferent to these magical berries. Over the long time this culture has existed, people have bred a huge number of diverse species and varieties. Grapes of raisins Century deservedly occupies an honorable place among them thanks to the amazing taste and amazing appearance. Looking at the ripened golden brushes, poured with life-giving juice, you understand that it is not for nothing that grapes are called sun berries.
The Century Grapes came to us from far away - from across the ocean. Its original name is Centennial Seedless, which translates from English as "a seedless century." We also know this variety as Centeniel sidlis. Century belongs to the group of raisins.
One of the achievements of California state agriculture in America is the experience in the production and selection of new table grape varieties. In 1966, at the Davis station in California, as a result of crossing two varieties, a hybrid form was obtained (GOLD x Q25–6 (Emperor x Pyrovan 75)). In 1980, it was officially registered as a new variety.
Grapes of the Centennial variety have gained popularity in the CIS over the past decade, but during its existence did not pass the variety test in the territory of the Russian Federation and was not entered into the register of selection achievements.
Description and characteristic
Kishmish Century is massively grown all over the world. It grows in Belarus and Moldova, is popular in Australia, South Africa, Chile, Argentina and some states of America. In Russia, the Century variety is recommended to be grown in the territories of the southern and central regions. For the northern regions, it is practically unsuitable, since it does not withstand low temperatures in the winter, and during the growing season it does not have enough heat for the full development of plants.
Century - table seedless grape variety (raisins), early ripening, ripening berries 120–125 days from the start of the growing season. Removable maturity occurs around mid-August. Berries of raisins can be consumed both fresh and for making raisins.
Table: The main characteristics of the Century grape variety
|Direction of use||Table, for making raisins|
|Growth power||Vigorous bushes|
|Weight||0.4-1.5 kg (sometimes up to two kilograms)|
|Color||Yellow, yellow green|
|Character of taste||Light nutmeg|
|Acidity||6 g / l|
|Frost resistance||-23 ° C|
Own bushes of this variety are strongly grown, they need stable support. The grafted raisins have medium-growing bushes, they are characterized by a powerful vine with short internodes, which gives them stability. Despite the considerable thickness, the vine ripens well and becomes dark brown in color.
Cuttings and seedlings of this variety have a good survival rate. The bushes begin to bear fruit in the third or fourth year after planting. Signal clusters may appear already in the second year of life.
The first harvest on a three-year-old bush of grape varieties Century
The clusters are large and very large, weighing 0.4-1.5 kg (some reach two kilograms), can be of medium density and dense, there is no peas. The shape is elongated, conical, winged, with two or three wings. The declared characteristics indicate that in order to avoid shedding berries, the crop must be harvested on time, but many winegrowers note that the clusters can be on the bushes until frost without harming them.
Bunches of grapes Century large and very large, conical shape, winged
The berry is quite large, an average of 6-8 grams. To increase the size, thin out the berries in clusters and remove individual parts of the cluster after a flowering period. The flesh with a slight crunch melts in the mouth. The skin is thin, almost not felt when eating. The sugar content of 13% and the acidity of 6.0 g / l gives a harmonious taste to the berries. The shape is oval, the color is yellow-green with removable maturity. If during the ripening period the berries are exposed to direct sunlight for a long time, then dots and small brown spots, the so-called “tan”, may appear on them.
As a result of prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, brown spots and dots form on the berries
When overripe, the berries do not crack and do not crumble. In a section, the surface of the berry is even and smooth. This variety belongs to the first (highest) class of seedlessness.
Depending on the mass of rudiments (seed primordia) found in the berries of a group of raisins, the varieties are divided into 4 classes of seedlessness, where the first class characterizes the almost complete absence of rudiments, and the fourth class implies a mass of more than 14 mg.
In the berries of the Century grapes, there are completely no rudiments
Berries of the Century grape behave well in processing. Raisins from them are very high quality - aligned, excellent shape, wonderful color.
Raisins from grapes A century is very high quality
Due to the good ratio of sugar and acidity, the berries have a balanced taste - delicate, not sugary, with a barely noticeable acidity and nutmeg aroma. In the southern latitudes, notes of tea rose are noted in the taste, which gives it originality. If the clusters are long in the bushes, then the sugar content may increase, and the nutmeg will disappear. And also, according to winegrowers, the presence of a nutmeg flavor may not appear on insufficiently fertile soils (sandy loam, loam) and in more northern regions.
Video: Century grape review
The yield of raisins is average, but stable. The flower is bisexual, which contributes to good pollination and intensive formation of the ovary. To increase productivity, it is recommended not to allow the fatliquoring of the vine, which may occur due to underloading of the bush. The normalization of inflorescences, as a rule, is not applied, since the fruiting of the shoots is not high enough. According to the reviews of vine growers, raisins of the Century, subject to appropriate agricultural practices, can produce high yields.
Frost resistance of -23 ° C makes it impossible to grow this variety in the northern latitudes. In other regions, bushes must be sheltered for the winter. There is evidence that relapsing frosts can kill buds that have begun to bloom.
Resistance to fungal diseases is average, like all American seedless varieties. Therefore, sometimes the standard three treatments are not enough and there is a need for additional spraying with fungicides. Of particular sensitivity is the fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae.
Wasps and birds do not damage berries. Instability of root shrubs to phylloxera is noted, which affects exclusively American varieties obtained by crossing, and does not touch European cultures. Inoculation of raptor agaris Century on phylloxera-resistant stocks is recommended. The variety is quite resistant to other pests.
Transportability of raisins A century is not very high. The variety is ideal for local consumption. With long-term storage, the berries lose their presentation due to the acquisition of a brown tint, but their taste does not deteriorate. The variety, according to farmers, is well suited for sale in a market where it is in great demand.
Advantages and disadvantages
If we analyze the main characteristics and properties of Centennial grapes, we can distinguish its following advantages:
- early ripening;
- stable yield;
- large clusters;
- lack of peeling;
- large berries (for seedless varieties);
- harmonious taste;
- the complete absence of rudiments in berries (first class of seedlessness);
- berries do not crack;
- no need to normalize the crop with inflorescences:
- brushes can hang on bushes to frosts;
- from berries you can make high-quality raisins;
- not damaged by wasps and birds;
- good rooting of cuttings and survival of seedlings;
- rapid onset of fruiting;
- a powerful vine of grafted plants is able to maintain an upright position.
This variety also has some disadvantages:
- insufficiently high productivity (it is necessary to stimulate an increase in productivity);
- insufficiently high frost resistance (requires shelter);
- medium resistance to fungal diseases;
- instability of root plants to phylloxera;
- the appearance of brown spots on the berries due to exposure to direct sunlight;
- with a long stay of brushes on the bushes, the presentation is lost;
- not transportable enough.
Features of agricultural technology
In its consumer qualities, raisins Centennial has only advantages, but when growing it you can encounter some difficulties. To get a good harvest, you just need to consider some of the features of this variety.
Planting grapes Century is possible both in spring and autumn. The landing site is chosen with good lighting and free air access. You can not plant grapes on the eastern and northern slopes, as there is a high risk of freezing of the vine in severe frosts. If the bush is planned to be planted near the wall of any building, then this should be the sunny side. It is also very important that the landing site is not flooded with melt and groundwater.
The size of the landing pits depends on the quality of the soil. If the soil is heavy, then pits are made up to a depth of 80 cm and a size of about 60x80 cm. On light soils, a depth of 60 cm and a size of 40x40 cm are sufficient. Landing pits are prepared in advance. A drainage layer should be placed at the bottom of the pit. Then a layer of fertile soil is mixed with humus or compost. It is also advisable to add wood ash and superphosphate fertilizers.
If grapes are planted in the fall, then 1-2 buckets of water are poured into the planting pits and wait for it to be absorbed. Then the roots of the seedlings are disinfected, soaked in a clay "talker", put on the bottom, sprinkled with earth to half the pit and again pour 1-2 buckets of water. During spring planting, ordinary water, which is poured onto the bottom of the pit, is replaced with hot water to warm the soil, and warm water is poured into the half-filled pit. After that, completely fill the pit with earth, ram it and make a near-stem pit.
During the growing season, grapes need to be watered once every 2 weeks. Moisture to the plant is most needed during budding, after flowering and during the growth and filling of berries. During flowering, grapes are not watered, as this leads to shedding of flower stalks.
Grapes are watered in any of the ways that provides moisture directly to the roots, without getting on the stem and leaves. Two types of irrigation are recommended - ground (drip or in grooves under bushes) and underground (using various irrigation systems). Irrigation (from a hose over bushes) is not used.
It must be remembered that the raisin Century better tolerates a lack of moisture than its excess. High humidity can lead to the development of fungal diseases. Excessive watering may cause problems with the ripening of the vines. In this case, it is recommended not to allow waterlogging, as well as to feed the plants with ash infusion.
Organic and mineral fertilizers are traditionally used to feed grapes. The Century variety is no exception. Organic fertilizers (humus, manure, compost) are applied in the autumn once every 2-3 years. From mineral fertilizers, it is recommended to apply phosphoric and nitrogen fertilizers in spring, and potash in autumn. You can make wood ash, which contains a lot of potassium.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The use of gibberellin to increase the yield and size of the berries of raisins Century specialists are not recommended. It is believed that this leads to poor planting of berries and a decrease in the fruitfulness of shoots for the next year.
Gibberellin is a growth stimulator based on phytohormones. The collective name of a large group of growth regulators.
However, there are reviews of winegrowers who do not confirm this opinion. They note the positive effect of this drug on increasing the size of berries when sprayed twice (before and after flowering).
Shaping and trimming
Own bushes of raisins of the Centennial are distinguished by high strength of growth, therefore, they need strong support. It is better to form strong-growing covering shrubs in a fanless, stemless form with the number of sleeves from four to eight. This will provide them with good lighting and ventilation, as well as facilitate the process of hiding the sleeves for the winter. Trellis is used for support. They can be single-plane and two-plane. If the bush has four sleeves, then a single-plane trellis will be sufficient, when there are six to eight sleeves, it is better to install a two-plane.
The grafted bushes form thick shoots with short internodes, so they are quite stable and, as a rule, do not require support.
To increase the yield of this variety, long pruning of shoots is recommended, since at their base the fruiting of the eyes is low. However, some growers received high yields when pruning 6–8 eyes. Inflorescences are usually not normalized due to the low fruitfulness of the shoots.
Do not rush to pick foliage, because due to heating in direct sunlight the berries lose their presentation. If, nevertheless, the berries suffer from an excess of the sun, it is necessary to shade them with nets.
Diseases and Pests
Kishmish Century is not resistant enough to fungal diseases, so standard two or three treatments with fungicides during the growing season may not be enough. Plants may require additional treatments. The variety is most vulnerable to mildew, slightly less affected by oidium. It is more resistant to gray rot. Grape growers note that this is not a variety that can be neglected when grown.
Of the pests, the greatest sensitivity is manifested to leaf phylloxera. This species of aphid can cause great damage to grapes. Unfortunately, there is no effective way to combat this parasite. Aphids have a very complex development cycle, during which its various forms are formed, affecting the roots, vine and leaves.
Photo gallery: phylloxera-affected roots, vine and leaves
- Phylloxera-infected grape root
- Phylloxera-Infected Vine
- Phylloxera-infected vine leaves
Fighting phylloxera is very difficult. If aphid infection has already occurred, then the affected foci are destroyed using carbon disulfide, which is characterized by volatility and flammability. It affects not only phylloxera, but also kills grape bushes.
Phyloxera is a global viticulture problem.SH.G. TOPOPALE, K.Ya.DADU
Winemaking and Viticulture, 5, 2007
For prophylaxis against winter eggs, they are treated with 5–6% emulsion of carbolineum. In spring, against the leaf form, phylloxera can be sprayed with oil emulsions with lindane. These emulsions do not harm bushes, vines, stems and leaves, but they do not guarantee complete protection against the pest.
In order to prevent this harmful aphid from defeating the vineyard, experts advise planting Centennial grape cuttings, like other American seedless varieties, on phyloxera-resistant stocks. The most effective measure for controlling phylloxera is grafting grape cuttings onto a phylloxera rootstock.
To other pests of grapes in grapes Century is not observed hypersensitivity.
The Centenary grape was highly praised as a result of a survey of registered users on the forum of the site //vinograd.info/, well-known among wine growers. This suggests that the variety is worthy of attention, despite some of the shortcomings. Practical experience indicates that, following certain recommendations, these shortcomings can be successfully dealt with and, as a result, a high yield of quality raisins can be obtained.
Own bush bears fruit for the 2nd year. It is already possible to note the characteristic features of the variety: 1. Mighty growth force. Neither the Red Enthusiasm nor Augustine (for example) stand nearby. 2. Huge clusters: about 1.5–2.5 kg each. On one of the lozins the thickness of a thumb left 2 clusters for the experiment - it pulls normally. 3. Berries are calibrated, peas are completely absent. 4. The clusters are quite dense, but not critical. However, what is alarming: 5. Last year, although the natural load was very small, the nutmeg did not wait. This year the berries look and taste almost ripe. However, there is still no muscat (I warn a possible remark: there is no overload of the crop). Until I lose hope, I wait. 6. Despite the fairly correct schedule of professional treatments, this is one of a small (fortunately) number of varieties (forms) that have unpleasantly surprised ripe or almost ripe berries in the last weeks (and this is practically without rains). I remove the rot, took measures, accomplish your goal. 7. Against the background of professional treatments in the first 2 months of summer, the foliage was affected by anthracnose and mildew, clearly above the average level in the vineyard. The berries, however, are completely pure.Vladimir Poskonin
This year, the bush was fruiting on chernozem, there really was medium, unobtrusive muscat, my father had muscat on the sandy loam, but it was very weak, but last year it was not, maybe last year’s abnormal heat affected. With a "tan" - not really ... This is perhaps the only significant minus of this variety for industrial planting. This year, berries that are unprotected from direct sunlight were covered with a “non-market” tan (photo to the university). It is advisable not to overexposure the berry on the bush or to shade it, for example with white agrofibre, well, or as Stranishevskaya said - it is right to keep the crown of the bush! Otherwise, the sugar in the berry is growing, and the price for it is falling.Sergey Gagin
Of my available rattle so far, by far the best. In appearance, taste, marketability - out of competition. Cons - I would like more stability (I have enough oidium) and with the ripening vines, everything is not good, even where the oidium did not walk. I don’t want to look for minuses anymore, because there are more pluses. I really like the taste, this year for the first time there was nutmeg - soft, delicate, such as I love (even in October I felt it). Appearance without comment- ГК, РРР were not used, but why are they needed here. Selling like hot cakes (set a specifically maximum price to hang - it didn't work out very well). So add and recommend.Anatoly S.
Senteniel sidlis has very fattening vines, so not always the main vines should be left for fruiting, but it is better to transfer to the first stepson vines for the crop. In my conditions, it even pulls overloads with the complete ripening of the vine and ripening of the berry in mid-August. On fattening vines, with a short pruning, the bunches are not even always planted, and if they are planted, they continue to fatten the vines, but not the bunches. It needs to be loaded in full, the grade is a hard worker.Irich I.V.
I want to summarize a little what was said and seen earlier. The key disadvantages of this variety are (in decreasing order of importance): 1) the tendency to be affected by itching, as a result of which the growth of shoots is significantly delayed in some years (this year I had just such a picture - see photo); 2) low resistance to fungal diseases; 3) unaesthetic (according to the majority of forum users and consumers) tanning spots due to sunburn; 4) low frost resistance. I believe that these shortcomings are completely overlapped by positive characteristics: high taste and visual characteristics of the berries and bunches, resistance of the berries to cracking, high technological variety (I support the opinion of I. A. Karpova). To the above, I will add another magnificent aesthetic appearance of the leaf, pagon, bunch, bush as a whole under load and without it. High agricultural technology is the key to this variety.Andriy Brisovich
Ksh century. planted in 2012, it grew decently, but it ripened very poorly and in 2013 it repulsed only a few buds on which several signals were tied, left everything well and good, because even with a load the bush showed incredible growth power. Выгнал длинные и очень толстые лозы, при этом междоузлия на основных побегах остались такими же как на фото (несколько сантиметров), что, как я понимаю, характерно не только для этого «американца». Но главное в Столетии конечно же не это, а ягода: полное отсутствие рудиментов, размер, форма, цвет и вкус очень и очень понравились. Гроздочки были небольшие, но ведь это только сигналочки. В этом году лоза вызрела прилично, хотя не так как хотелось бы, но всё же весной, надеюсь, проблем не будет. По устойчивости, конечно не богатырь, при 3-х обработках были болячки, но ведь и сезон какой был. Планирую весной несколько кустов перепрививать.Анатолий С.
Один из лучших товарных кишмишей. Плодоносит у нас 4 года. Поспевает к 15–20 августа. Стабильно урожаен, сильнорослый. Красивые ягоды массой 6–8г, при обработке ГК 9–11, плотные, хрустящие, очень гармоничного вкуса, легкий мускат присутствует не каждый год.На песчаных почвах(пробовала у друзей, куст с нашего черенка)вкус немного другой, мякоть такая же плотная, водянистым не был никогда. Требует 3, в этом году-4 обработки от мильдью, от оидиума обычно обрабатывали 1 раз, а этом году один из кустов прихватило, надо 2 обработки, поражения сер. гнилью не было. Висит до морозов! без потери вкусовых качеств и мало поражается осамиЕлисеевы
В последнее время растёт интерес к бессемянному винограду. Многие хотят его вырастить у себя на участке. Виноград Столетие — неоднозначный сорт, его нельзя назвать неприхотливым, но и к особо капризным он тоже не относится. Это довольно пластичный и отзывчивый к применению различных приёмов агротехники сорт. Если учесть все его особенности, то он порадует хорошим урожаем. Для этого, конечно, понадобятся дополнительные усилия, но, когда куст покроется эффектными гроздями, а ягоды нальются спелым соком, будет понятно — труд потрачен не зря.