Grapes in central Russia: the best varieties and tips for growing

Back in the middle of the last century, growing grapes in central Russia seemed unlikely. After all, these creepers love the sun and warmth, which is so lacking in areas located near Moscow. Only by perseverance, patience, deep knowledge and many years of work of breeders this barrier was overcome.

From the history of grapes

According to historians and archaeologists, viticulture is at least eight thousand years old. The ancient peoples of Asia and Africa feasted on the sun berries, then it ended up in Europe and conquered both Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire.

Vintage Image

The grape still had a long way to go in the Black Sea and the North Caucasus. Only at the beginning of the XVII century the first vineyard appeared in the Astrakhan region, and then, at the behest of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and in the Moscow region, where it was grown by cover method.

At the beginning of the XVIII century, Tsar Peter initiated the first steps of viticulture on the Don - near the villages of Razdorskaya and Tsimlyanskaya.

Cossack selling Tsimlyansk wine, 1875–1876

In the last quarter of the same century, vineyards appeared in the Derbent region, Prikumskaya and Tver regions, and in the second half of the XIX century - in the Kuban.

Grapes in central Russia

The first successes in promoting grapes in the northern regions were achieved by the works of Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin, who crossed American, Amur, North Chinese and Mongolian grape varieties, trying to get a variety more resistant to frost. As a result, he was bred Russian Concord, Bui Tour, Arctic, Metallic.

Now there are many varieties that can be grown in the middle lane. Grape breeders and winegrowers practice in this region, where the summer is rather short, to plant grapes with a short ripening period.

Only in the register of the State Commission of the Russian Federation for the Testing and Protection of Breeding Achievements (FSBI “State Sort Commission”) there are several dozen such grape varieties recommended for cultivation in all regions.

Grape varieties with a short ripening period approved for cultivation in all regions - table

Grade Direction of use Ripening period
universaldining roomtechnicalvery earlyearlymid early
AlexanderXX
Aleshenkin giftXX
AlievskyXX
Amur breakthroughXX
AnnushkaXX
Agate DonXX
AnthraciteXX
AnnieXX
Summer scentXX
BashkirXX
White earlyXX
BogotyanovskyXX
HeliosXX
Gourmet KrainovaXX
Long awaitedXX
ErmakXX
Zelenolugsky rubyXX
KaragayXX
KatyrXX
CocktailXX
KubatikXX
Libya KXX
LunarXX
LyubavaXX
Lucy redXX
Madeleine pineappleXX
ManychXX
Dream SquintXX
Moscow whiteXX
Moscow countryXX
Moscow steadyXX
Muscat MoscowXX
TendernessXX
LowlandXX
In memory StrelyaevaXX
Teacher's memoryXX
In memory of DombkowskaXX
Firstborn SquintXX
Gift TSHAXX
TransformationXX
Early TSHAXX
Rochefort KXX
RyabinskyXX
Skungub 2XX
Skungub 6XX
StirrupXX
ChrysoliteX
Anniversary NovocherkasskayaXX
Anniversary SkuinyaXX
AnniversaryXX

Of course, it makes no sense to describe them all. Objective and independent information about them is given in the register of the FSBI "State Commission".

Grapes in central Russia - video

Vine growers, of course, grow not only those varieties that are in the register of the State Commission for Selection Achievements, but also are in the process of testing. Unlike varieties, such grape varieties are called forms. When choosing to grow such plants, the accumulated practical experience plays an important role.

Based on the experience of practicing winegrowers, we consider the grape varieties that feel best when grown in open ground in the middle lane - Ivanovo, Ryazan, Kostroma, Bryansk, Tula, Tver, Kaluga, Vladimir, Lipetsk, Smolensk, Pskov, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod regions and Moscow region.

Regions of central Russia

When embarking on the cultivation of grapes, beginners in this field should take into account that the tips and recommendations are generalized. A lot, for example, when choosing a variety depends on the specific place where the vine will be grown. Even within the Moscow region, climatic conditions and soil composition are very different in its southern and northern parts.

The difference is really big. Where I live (the city of Naro-Fominsk), the temperature difference with the northern regions of the region is huge! If our snow can melt at the end of March, for example, then in the northern part it can lie for another month. The southern regions win almost a month for farming !!! And this is not enough. The composition of the soil is also different.

Svetlana

Grape Multicolor: An Overview of the Best Varieties

Exposition of grapes grown in the middle lane

To describe the varieties of grapes grown in the northern regions, the materials and advice of practicing winegrowers Natalya Puzenko, Viktor Deryugin, Yaroslavl winegrower Vladimir Volkov, Olena Nepomnyashchaya - a full member of the Moscow Society of Nature Testers (viticulture section), the owner of a vineyard in the north of the Tver region, were used.

Grape variety Aleshenkin gift

This grape variety is also called Alyoshenkin, Alyosha or No. 328. It is recommended for household cultivation throughout the country by the Federal State Budgetary Institution "State Commission" and has a positive assessment of almost all experienced wine-growers.

Its medium-sized bushes carry loose large clusters in the shape of a wide cone. Oval white berries are medium in size. Inside them is poured pulp with clear juice.

The variety has increased resistance to diseases and pests. They recommend planting it according to the 1.5x2.5 scheme, forming it in the form of a multi-arm fan on a vertical trellis, adjusting the load on the bush within 40-50 eyes.

Variety characteristics Aleshenkin Dar - table

Ripening period from the beginning of vegetation110–115 days
Cluster weightfrom 550 g
Berry size3-5 g
Sugar content16%
Acidity8.7 g / l
Tasting rating7 points
Hectare yield8.5 tons
Bush yieldup to 25 kg
Sleeve fruiting period5-6 years
Seedless berriesup to 25–40%
Resistance to fungal diseases and pestsincreased

This grape variety is recommended for homestead cultivation throughout the country FSBI "State Commission" and has a positive assessment of almost all experienced winegrowers

I want to stand up for Aleshenkin. We do not grow many varieties, but Aleshenkin is considered very good. At least to take into account that we have thirty-degree frosts every winter, then he suffers a winter sheltered very well. And he has time to ripen, which makes the northern wine-grower happy. Of course, when there is a choice, it is possible to poke fun at the choice of varieties, and for us fishless and crayfish are fish.

Reg

Grape variety Pamyatki Dombkowska

This grape is also called ChBZ - black seedless winter-hardy or BW - early black seedless. It is recommended for cultivation in personal vineyards.

Its vigorous bushes give large winged clusters of medium density in the form of a cylinder, converging on a cone. The flowers are bisexual, that is, they do not need pollinating varieties.

Round black berries with pink juicy pulp have no seeds, have a good taste, sometimes covered with a touch of wax. The color of the juice is dark pink.

This grape variety is formed in the form of a multi-arm fan, tied to a vertical trellis. Bushes are planted according to the scheme of 1.5x3 m, the load is given up to 50 eyes.

Grapes in Memory of Dombkowska has increased resistance to pests and diseases, frost resistance.

Variety characteristics of the Memory of Dombkowska - table

Ripening period from the beginning of vegetation110–115 days
Grape Brush Sizeup to 20x30 cm
Cluster weightfrom 370 g to 700 g
Sugar content18.6%
Acidity9 g / l
Tasting rating7 points
Hectare yield8.7 tons
Bush yieldup to 13 kg
Seedless berries100%
Resistance to fungal diseases and pestsincreased

This grape is also called ChBZ - black seedless winter-hardy or BW - early seedless black

ChBZ has been grown here in Magnitogorsk, and indeed in the Chelyabinsk region, for many decades. Like Aleshenkin. The variety is proven, quite hardy and vigorous. You can try and uncovered. Remove 70 kg or more from the bush. Taste -? - is no longer Alpha. Eats up.

Victor

You can definitely go to the gazebo. With regards to wine - so, in my opinion, not very, but it is a matter of taste. In our conditions, mildew is added, and frost resistance is very high.

Krasokhina

Grapes of Victor Deryugin

Viticulture practitioner Viktor Deryugin successfully grows vines in the suburbs (Ramensky district).

Viticulture practitioner Viktor Deryugin successfully grows vines in the Moscow region (Ramensky district)

In his opinion and experience, in the suburbs should grow grapes ripening for 105-110 days from the start of the growing season. Seedlings grown in containers should be planted when the threat of freezing frost has passed. You can do this all summer, but preferably in early June. If the seedling has an open root system, then the time of planting is shifted to autumn (until the end of October) or early spring after the snow melts.

Among the reliable and proven varieties of winegrower include Agate Don, New Russian, Phenomenon and others. Of the novelties, it recommends the varieties Super Extra, Charlie, White Wonder, Beauty.

On its site, such varieties and forms as F-14–75, Laura, Shunya, Nadezhda Aksayskaya, Victoria, Super Extra, Nakhodka AZOS, Victor, Pervozvanny, Phenomenon (Pleven steady, Augustin), Muscat summer, Gala grow well and bear fruit, Aleshenkin, Cherry, Charlie.

Photo Gallery: Varieties of grapes grown by V. Deryugin in the Moscow Region

Well-known wine-grower Yevgeny Polyanin very well said about her: “If they told me that I can only keep one variety, I would choose Laura”

Vine ripens before harvest - a sign of high frost resistance

It tastes like the beloved variety of Arcadia, but an earlier ripening period, therefore, unlike Arcadia, it grows outside the greenhouse in the conditions of the Moscow Region

A decent variety and, given its pedigree, promising for growing in the north

The large size of the berries and the very early ripening period, the variety is the clear leader in these indicators

This year, the grapes ripened in my area on August 12-17

Individual berries reached 38–40 mm in length. And I recorded ripening in my area on August 15–20

Ripening early: August 18-23. The berry is beautiful, oval, amber

A truly phenomenal combination of sustainability, yield and taste

Early ripening, excellent taste, wood matures very well (guarantee of good winter hardiness)

Bunches and berries are very large. High disease resistance

This variety was one of the first to mature. He has more advantages than disadvantages.

The form of early ripening. Last summer, it matured on August 20

Bunches of large sizes. The taste is pleasant, harmonious. Vine ripen perfectly in our conditions

This form ripened last summer, the very first (August 5-10)

Agate Don

Don Agate is a table grape with vigorous bushes resistant to frost and disease. Shoot ripening is good. The variety can be grown in a non-covering culture. The recommended load on the bush is up to 45 eyes when pruning for 5-8 buds.

Agate Don flowers are bisexual, there is no problem with pollination. It is recommended to normalize productivity by removing unnecessary brushes, so that the ripening period is not prolonged, the quality of the berries does not decrease.

Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties

5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia

How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats

Agate clusters are moderately dense, sometimes loose. They are large, have the shape of a cone. The taste of round dark blue berries is simple. Inside, they have two seeds.

Characteristics of the variety Agate Donskoy - table

Ripening period from the beginning of vegetation120 days
Sum of active temperatures2450 ºС
The number of fruitful shootsup to 80%
Cluster weight400-500 g
Average berry size22-24 mm
The average weight of the berry4–5 g
Sugar content13-15%
Acidity6–7 g / l
Tasting rating7.7 points
Frost resistance-26 ºС
Fungal disease resistanceincreased

Don Agate - table grapes with vigorous bushes, resistant to frost and disease

My Agate Donskoi is the most stable in a vineyard near Moscow

Alexander Zelenograd

Hello everyone. A few words about Agate Donskoy. If we take the sum of such advantages: wintering, all kinds of stability, fruiting, load on one bush - then my BP is the leader this year. A lot of varieties froze, continuous peeling due to the heat, sea of ​​tops and few berries! And at Agat Donskoy everything is OK! Minus - of course taste, but it suits me.

Anatoly BC

Phenomenon

Phenomenon, sometimes referred to as Augustine, Pleven is stable - a table variety of early ripe harvested grapes. Its bushes have great growth power and high resistance to frost.

The flowers of this grape are well pollinated because they are bisexual, resulting in the formation of large clusters of moderate density, having the shape of a cone.

Large oval berries of white with a slight yellowness have a noble harmonious sweet and sour taste, which is highly appreciated by tasters.

Ripe clusters without loss of appearance and quality of berries can remain on the bush for up to three weeks. The phenomenon well transfers transportation over considerable distances.

Variety characteristics Phenomenon - table

Ripening period from the beginning of vegetationmid august
Cluster weightfrom 400 g
Average berry size22-24 mm
The average weight of the berry8 g
Sugar content20%
Tasting assessment of fresh grapes8.2 points
Yield per hectare (tons)average 9.3, maximum 18.4
Yield of an adult bushup to 60 kg
Frost resistance-22 ºС
Fungal disease resistanceincreased

Phenomenon, sometimes referred to as Augustine, Pleven steady - table variety of early ripe harvested grapes

A wonderful variety in terms of a combination of economically valuable traits. He "got wound up" in 1995 with me. All these years he was the most stable and trouble-free. Enumerate the merits of anything, they are all listed above. Milda, if she touched, then in the fall, when you quit treatments already (yes, I’m not particularly fond of them). And it beat only the young tops, unripened yet. Well, well, except that it was he who died out in one year, it seems, in 2006, when our frosts broke all records - it reached -31.2. The bunch is very marketable, the demand is stable. And I didn’t notice any particularly hard peel - everything is in order with the water regime. He could have kept silent, listening to more knowledgeable ones, but he is worth it to say a good word about him.

Oleg Marmuta

A word about Amur grapes

According to Olena Nepomniachtchi, varieties bred by Alexander Ivanovich Potapenko , the patriarch of selection work with Amur grapes, are interesting for growing in non-covering culture: Amur breakthrough, Marinovsky, Amethyst, Amur triumph.

Amur breakthrough

The Amur breakthrough grape, also known under the copyright names of Odin and Potapenko 7, stands out because it can withstand frosts to -40 ºС without shelter. The variety was created by the famous grape breeder Alexander Ivanovich Potapenko and his wife.

A.I. Potapenko with a bunch of grapes Amur breakthrough

This versatile mid-early grape. For its breeding, the Amur initial forms were used.

Bushes have a large growth force, can be formed on the gazebo. In this embodiment, with a good supply of perennial wood, an adult bush can produce up to one hundred kilograms of grapes. The vine ripens well at the same time as the crop, regardless of the load of the shoots.

The dark purple round berries of the Amur breakthrough have a juicy flesh with a peculiar taste. Bunches can have a different size, which is very dependent on the growing conditions of the grapes.

The Amur breakthrough, which has a high yield, ripens by the end of August, is well transported, and is not damaged by wasps. This grape is used fresh and for harvesting, making juice and wine.

Variety characteristic Amur breakthrough - table

Ripening period from the beginning of vegetationend of August
The average weight of a cluster of varieties Amursky breakthroughfrom 150-200 g to 500-600 g, sometimes up to 1 kg
Grape weight average4 g
Annual growth2.5 m
Sugar content23%
Frost resistanceup to -40 ºС
Fungal disease resistancehigh

The Amur breakthrough is very moisture-loving, requires timely watering. For the cultivation of this grape variety, acidic soils with high moisture and air permeability are preferred.

The variety easily tolerates undercutting, plastic adapts to new growing conditions during transplantation.

Since the Amursky breakthrough begins to vegetate earlier than other varieties, young shoots can be damaged by return frosts inherent in the climate of the middle zone, but this does not affect fruiting, since substitute shoots grow, on which the crop is formed.

When cultivated in the middle lane, experienced growers recommend sheltering young vines, despite the high frost resistance of the variety, which is fully manifested in mature vines. In the future, the Amur breakthrough grapes are advised to be removed from the trellis for the winter in order to use the snow cover as a shelter.

In severe frosts, up to a third of the vine can die, but, thanks to the high growth force of the Amur breakthrough, the remaining part is quite enough to completely restore the plant and get a good harvest.

Video: A.I. Potapenko and Amur breakthrough grapes

Growers reviews

This is an independent direction, which Alexander Ivanovich gave a short and capacious definition - RUSSIAN WINTER-RESISTANT GRAPES. Here is the fruiting of one of the 300 selection seedlings brought to MOIP .... from the Author. Fruiting in the Tver province, 200 km north of Moscow.

Victor Deryugin

I expected much more from Potapensky varieties. Something at the level of table varieties. Dyuzhe strongly praised them all. Therefore, such indignation and disappointment arose among me ... If we talk about them as techies of average maturity. Then a completely different matter. In this regard, they are suitable. Juice is given easily. It is painted green. My Agat Donskoy cracked after the rains, I had to put it into the wine a little immature. So the color of the juice and the taste are very similar to the juice from Potapensky Amur. True, they do not crack from rains and wasps do not touch them. The Potapensky and Shatilovsky Amur people are not sick with mildew, I have no oidium yet. However, if they are suitable for an uncovered, arched culture, then this changes a lot. I have not tested it yet, I cover all grapes without exception. PS I must say that this is the first fruiting of the Potapensky Amur people. We can say the signaling at 3 kg from two bushes. Perhaps in time my opinion will change. And the year was not typical.

Alex_63

Frost resistance according to Volkov

Vladimir Volkov with Vovchik grapes

One of the most important qualities of grapes suitable for cultivation in the middle lane, Yaroslavl winegrower Vladimir Volkov considers the frost resistance of the variety. He notes that frosts are well tolerated by vines of those varieties whose shoots have time to mature well and get rid of excess moisture. In particular, this quality is most clearly shown by grapes, the ancestors of which were Amur varieties. They have a broken autumn shoot may seem completely dry. This feature of these types of grapes allows them to easily survive the harsh winter, even under a light shelter from straw and snow, like the variety Sharov Riddle.

in the Yaroslavl region, this grape ripens by early August, among the first in 100–105 days of vegetation

According to the winegrower, in the Yaroslavl region, this grape ripens by early August, among the first in 100-105 days of vegetation. The clusters are not very large - up to 0.5 kg. The medium-sized round dark blue berries with a thin skin have a dense and juicy flesh. The highest frost resistance is -34 ºС, since the shoots mature perfectly and early.

The collection of V. Volkov now has more than fifty grape bushes. He grows them in open ground, but harbors them for the winter. Землякам он советует для выращивания сорта винограда, около четырёх десятков которых Волков проверил на практике. Среди них уже упоминавшиеся раньше Алёшенькин, БЧЗ, Виктор, Вишенка, Красотка, Новый русский, Первозванный, Супер экстра, Чарли, Шуня.

При этом виноградарь отмечает, что такие сорта, как называвшиеся другими виноградарями Лора, Надежда АЗОС, Плевен (Феномен, Августин), приемлемые в других областях средней полосы, для ярославской земли совершенно не подходят, они не могут выращиваться в открытом грунте.

Ранние сорта винограда в открытом грунте средней полосы

Подводя итог всему сказанному, следует отметить, что по поводу выращивания в открытом грунте винограда в Средней полосе мнение виноградарей совпало с рекомендацией ФГБУ «Госсорткомиссия» по таким сортам, как Алёшенькин дар, Агат донской, Феномен (Плевен устойчивый, Августин), Амурский прорыв, Памяти Домбковской. Их в первую очередь и можно рекомендовать начинающим виноградарям.

Поздние сорта винограда в открытом грунте средней полосы

Климатические и погодные условия этого региона с морозными зимами, поздними заморозками весной, отсутствием осеннего тепла не позволяют выращивать здесь в открытом грунте виноград, созревающий в поздние сроки. Такие разновидности этой южной лианы могут здесь культивироваться только в теплицах.

Винные сорта винограда для открытого грунта

В практике виноградарей, работающих в средней полосе, выращиваются технические сорта раннего созревания, но подбираются такие, чтобы этот срок в конкретной местности наступал позднее, на сколько это возможно. Это дает ягодам время набрать максимум сахара.

По свидетельству Олёны Непомнящей, которая выращивает винограды в Тверской области, в том числе и технические, виноделы этого региона широко используют сорта винограда с проверенной зимостойкостью: Добрыня, Прим, Август ЧП, Ранняя зорька, Кристалл, Брускам, Мускат золотистый Россошанский, Рондо, Магия, Мариновский.

Два из них входят в госреестр — Кристалл (очень раннеспелый) и Брускам (среднеранний сорт), но «Госсорткомиссия» рекомендовала их к выращиванию в Северо-Кавказском, а Кристалл — ещё и в Нижне-Волжском регионе. Кроме того, в госреестре указаны ранние и среднеранние технические сорта, рекомендованные для выращивания по всей территории страны: Алиевский, Ермак, Зеленолугский рубин, Маныч, Стременной.

Испытания (2014), проведённые Олёной Непомнящей, позволили ей рекомендовать как технические для средней полосы следующие сорта:

  • выведенный в Венгрии виноград Bianka — устойчивый к болезням и морозам до -27 ºС сорт с некрупными гроздьями около 0, 2 кг весом, жёлто-зелёными сочными ягодами, имеющими гармоничный вкус и сахаристость 23%;
  • немецкий виноград Siegerrebe –устойчивый к болезням сверхранний сорт, выдерживающий морозы -23 ºС, из ягод которого получаются прекрасные ароматные вина;
  • Solaris — ещё один сорт немецкой селекции со сверхранним сроком созревания, морозостойкостью до -24 ºС и сахаристостью ягод 22–28% даёт вина с оттенками орехов и ананаса;
  • Regent или Алан чёрный (Германия) – сорт среднераннего срока созревания с отличным иммунитетом к заболеваниям, стабильными урожаями, сопротивляемостью морозам до -27 ºС, сахаристостью 21%, содержанием кислоты 9 г/л;
  • Leon Millot — устойчивый к морозам до -29 ºС сорт винограда, выведенный в США и Франции, сахаристость ягод достигает 22%, а полученное из них лёгкое вино пахнет фруктами и немного шоколадом;
  • отечественный сорт Ключевской — среднеранний, устойчивость к морозам до -29 ºС, сахаристость 23%, вкус винограда гармоничный;
  • Шатилова 2–72 (белый мускат) – ещё один российский ранний универсальный сорт устойчивый к болезням, переносит морозы до -28 ºС, в ягодах с нежным мускатным вкусом, сахара 19%;
  • Дальневосточный Новикова –сорт винограда российской селекции, ранний, морозостойкость до -28 ºС, устойчивый к милдью, во вкусе чёрных виноградин ощущаются тона черники, аронии, лёгкий мускат;
  • Экспресс — универсальный устойчивый к болезням ранний российский урожайный сорт винограда, морозостойкость до -30 ºС, сахаристость 23%, при изготовлении вина надо использовать винные дрожжи;
  • Аметистовый — российский виноград среднераннего срока созревания переносит морозы до -35 ºС, урожайный, сахара 22%, устойчивый к милдью, но требует профилактики заболевания оидиумом.

Прежде чем приступить к выращиванию винограда в одной из областей средней полосы, необходимо тщательно проанализировать климатические, погодные и почвенные характеристики предполагаемого места посадки растения и уже в соответствии с этим осознанно выбирать подходящий сорт. Наилучшим советчиком для принятия правильного решения может стать местный опытный виноградарь, который на практике знает особенности конкретной местности.

Recommended

Technical grape varieties: how to "grow" tasty wine
2020
Pear Lada: all about a variety tested for decades
2020
Wooden picket fence: the technology of erecting the most popular fence
2020