Grape varieties Original: characteristics of the variety and features of agricultural technology
Grapes - the oldest culture cultivated by man. Grape clusters are still mentioned in the Old Testament. And fermented grape berries caused a conflict between Noah and his sons. Today, thanks to the efforts of scientists, breeders, the grapes moved from the warm Mediterranean climate to cooler territories, including the central and northern regions of our country. The variety of varieties of this culture is amazing: in our time there are about 4300. And today we will talk about the variety Original that is popular in Russia.
The history of the cultivation of grape varieties Original
The variety was bred in Ukraine at the Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking. V.E. Tairova in 1987. It was first included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation for the North Caucasus Region in 2009. The original was obtained by crossing varieties of Datier de Saint-Valle and Damascus rose, and he managed to get only the best qualities of his "parents". From Datier de Saint-Valle, the Original inherited frost and disease resistance, and the Damascus rose gave it an amazing berry shape and great taste.
The original got its name thanks to the berries, which, due to the elongated-ovoid shape, really look very peculiar. Also, because of their shape, grapes stick out in clusters in different directions, resembling a hedgehog. This is one of the largest fruit varieties - the weight of berries reaches 6–7 g. The bunch grows to gigantic sizes and weighs 500–600 g, and under favorable conditions its mass can be 1 kg or more.
The pink-skinned fruit contains one or two seeds. The pulp is juicy, has a simple, but at the same time harmonious taste.
The leaves of the Original are large, pubescent on the underside, medium-dissected. The vine is vigorous.
The original is a table variety with a yield coefficient of 1.2–1.7. The rooting rate of cuttings is average. The growing season lasts 135–145 days, so they begin harvesting in late summer or, in the more northern regions, in early September. The variety's transportability is average due to the weak attachment of berries to the stalks.
The bush withstands frosts down to –21 ° C and requires shelter for the winter.
Studies have revealed in the variety Original the average resistance to diseases: mildew, oidium, rot.
In order for the ripening of berries in clusters to be uniform, it is recommended to remove part of the leaves during the summer, which will allow nutrients to concentrate in grapes.
Photo Gallery: Original Grape Appearance
- The weight of one bunch of grapes. The original often exceeds 1 kg.
- The grapes of the Original variety, painted in light pink color, can be up to 7 g in weight
- Original grapes harvested in late August - early September
Planting grapes Original
You should not wait for a rich harvest, if you initially make a mistake when choosing planting material. When buying grape seedlings, you should first of all pay attention to the root system - it must be well developed. Take a closer look, the seedling should have at least three strong large roots, and the “beard” of small roots should be light and thick. Be sure to ask the seller to cut one spine. The cut should be bright and moist. This is an indicator that the seedling is alive and ready to move to your garden. If possible, it is better to invest in a seedling with a closed root system.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Grapes are a thermophilic plant, so for its planting, choose an open area next to shrubs or small trees. They will protect plants from cold winds.
We do not recommend growing other crops in the vineyard. The proximity of grapes with beans or tomatoes will only prevent the plant from developing.
Grape seedlings are planted in the spring, before the sap flow begins, or in the fall - before the first frosts begin. It is necessary to dig holes with a diameter of 30-40 cm, depth - on the bayonet of a shovel. The soil from the hole should be mixed with rotted humus and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
It will be useful to soak the grape roots before planting in any growth stimulator (for example, in Kornevin) before planting. The hormones contained in the preparation stimulate the development of the root system, which will increase the survival rate of the seedling.
Now it's time to proceed with the landing:
- From the prepared soil mixture at the bottom of the hole we form a mound.
- We install a seedling on this mound. We carefully straighten the roots on the “hillsides”.
When planting grapes, you need to carefully straighten the roots
- We fill the hole half with the earth. Tamp the soil with your foot and spill one bucket of water. Now microscopic particles of the earth will densely envelop the root hairs of grapes and will be able to effectively transfer moisture to it.
- We install a peg around which in the future our vine will curl.
- We fill the hole with the remaining soil so that the top of the seedling is covered with soil 5-6 cm.
It is very important that when planting, the roots of the seedling are not bent up . If the root system is too long, it is better to shorten it a bit with scissors.
Video: proper planting of grape seedlings in the open ground
Original grape care
The original is easy to grow and does not require any special care measures.
Frequent watering of grapes is not needed: it is watered once a week at the rate of 10 liters of water (one bucket) per bush.
It will be useful to do the cropping procedure. In the first year at the end of June, three to four shoots will form in the young vine. Only one of them should be left, then the plant will spend all the energy exactly on its growth.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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When pruning, leave only one young vine shoot
Several times during the season it is necessary to feed the grapes. To do this, you need to dig a shallow (40 cm) ditch around the plant at a distance of at least 0.5 m from the stem. This measure will provide optimal delivery of top dressing to the roots. During the growing season, several top dressings are carried out:
- the first top dressing is carried out in the spring, before removing the winter shelter. 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 5 g of potassium salt are dissolved in 10 l of water (this is a portion for one bush);
- grapes are fertilized with the same composition before flowering;
- during fruiting, they are fed with the same composition, excluding potassium salt;
- after harvest, on the contrary, potash fertilizers should be applied to help the plant survive the winter.
It is necessary to regularly loosen the soil and, of course, do not forget to weed weeds throughout the summer season.
The root system of grapes does not tolerate winter frosts, which often leads to the death of some roots in the surface layers of the soil.
The surface of the root system of grapes is sensitive to frost.
To avoid this, it is recommended to carry out the following procedure in late July - early August:
- In the morning, around the grapes they dig a shallow hole 20 cm deep.
- Carefully remove all roots with a pruner or garden knife as close to the shoot as possible.
- Then the hole is covered with earth and spilled well.
Diseases and methods for their treatment
Variety Original has an average resistance to most grape diseases, so it is useful to know the most common and be able to deal with them.
Table: The most common diseases of Original grapes
|Downy mildew||Mushroom of the genus Peronospora||The most common grape disease. The leaves are covered with yellowish spots and a whitish, cotton-wool-like web of hyphae. Affected areas die quickly without proper treatment. It is impossible to completely cure the disease, but its harmful effects are blocked by specialized drugs|
|Powdery mildew||Mushroom of the family Peronosporaceae||With the disease, the leaves of the grapes become covered with a gray coating, the skin of the grapes becomes thinner, and they become unsuitable for eating. The disease progresses very quickly if there are favorable conditions for pathogenic microorganisms: high humidity and a temperature of about 25 ° C. If you do not take measures to combat the disease in time, then with a high probability you will be left without a crop, and in a couple of years, you may have to say goodbye to the vineyard|
|Alternariosis||Mushroom of the genus Alternaria||The main symptom of the disease is the presence on the leaves of a light brown spotted “corrosion”, which corrodes the leaves in the direction from the edge to the central veins. The disease affects all parts of the plant. Wet, protracted spring contributes to the spread of alternariosis|
|Bacterial cancer||Agrobacterium bacteria||The main symptom is neoplasms on the shoots of grapes. The most dangerous grape disease. Unfortunately, it will not be possible to cure it, the vineyard urgently needs to be uprooted. Moreover, at this place it will not be possible to grow it for another two to three years.|
|Gray rot||Botrytis fungus||A gray coating covers all parts of the plant, as a result of which the fruits become unusable and become unfit for food|
|White rot||Coniothyrium fungus||The most noticeable sign is a white coating covering the stalks and berries. Affected grapes quickly lose their marketable appearance. Most often, white rot affects plants affected by hail or burns.|
|Black rot||Mushroom of the genus Guignardia||A brown spot with a white center appears on the berries. Soon, the whole grape changes its color to black. In the fall, such berries fall and, together with foliage, form the focus of the disease next year. For a very long time, the disease develops in the absence of external symptoms visible to the naked eye|
Photo gallery: the most common grape diseases
- Black rot of grapes - a fungal disease that reduces crop
- Bacterial grape cancer affects shoots, it is incurable
- Powdery mildew on the fruit of the grape thins the skin of the fruit and destroys the crop
- Alternaria grape most often affects the plant in rainy cold weather
- Powdery mildew on leaves - the most common grape disease
- Gray rot appears as plaque on grapes
- White rot of grapes more often affects plants after hail or burn
Most diseases that affect the Original variety are fungal in nature, and they are often easier to prevent than to cure. Here are some simple rules that you must follow to avoid epidemics in the vineyard:
- if possible use only mineral fertilizers. Organics is a classic hotbed of fungal diseases;
- be sure to clean and burn leaf litter in the fall. It is desirable for greater efficiency to do this outside the garden;
For the prevention of diseases of grapes, leaf litter needs to be burned, since it can overwinter fungi that cause diseases
- excess moisture is the main condition for fungal diseases, so do not forget to regularly loosen the soil and do not allow excessive thickening of plantings;
- Do not plant grapes in heavy, poorly aerated soil.
If prevention does not help and you notice signs of fungal diseases in your grapes, then you have to turn to fungicides. Today it’s already the twenty-first century in the yard, but still copper sulfate remains the most popular and proven fungicide. This is an inexpensive drug, it is easy to find in any gardening store. For spraying grapes using a 0.5% solution: for 10 l of water - 50 g of powder:
- in spring, plantings are sprayed before buds open;
- treatment with sulphate in the summer is carried out with caution, strictly observing a dilution of 0.5% and a dosage of 3.5-4 liters per square meter. m;
Copper sulfate - a proven remedy against fungal diseases
- autumn process vines after leaf fall.
Effective modern fungicides, which have a more gentle effect than copper sulfate, are sold in stores. The most popular of them:
- Ridomil Gold.
Video: treatment of downy mildew on grapes
Original grape growing reviews
I have not been overjoyed with my Original for 7 years. Ripens in early September, although some Ulyashka picks some berries already in the early 20th of August. Even this time-shifted year did not affect the variety — sugar, color, and timing — everything is in order.Sergij Ivanov
And we removed our Original somewhere around September 25, in connection with the departure to Moscow, it was impossible to leave the thieves. This grape made an indelible impression on Moscow relatives and friends both in appearance and taste, everyone was delighted, they said that they didn’t sell it. Upon their return, after October 10, they removed a few remaining clusters: even and rich pink, sweet, ate with pleasure. My daughter is generally fascinated by this variety, she loves long mastoid berries, and the taste is decent. In our zone, the Original ripens beautifully, yet in the Kuban, September-October is still summer (especially this year)!Jane
In my experience:
- ripening tentatively September 10-15;
- it is often lousy pollinated, but peas are mostly discarded. Some clusters, it turns out, turn out to be coniferous. Good clusters - per kilogram;
- in the shaded parts of the bush, the berry does not stain, and in the sun the bunch turns out to be quite acceptable - the berry is greenish-yellow with a pink;
- It bears fruit well in stepsons, but the stepson's crop does not always have time to ripen, sometimes it happens with sourness. What is interesting: at stepchildren it is always perfectly pollinated and an intense pink and even red color is obtained, as on Zagrava about;
- Needs green operations, his growth is strong, and if given free growth, he plows immoderately;
- frost resistance is poor;
- There is no companion for taste and color, as they say, but, in my opinion, the berry is a little liquid. There are no comments to taste - quite harmonious. When overriding, not enough acid;
- Buyers really like the look, and the taste too.
In general, the Original can be tolerated, and if you tinker, then more than.Oleg Marmuta
Hello! My original grows, the berries are light pink in color. Matures late. For 5 years that is growing, it was possible to get a crop and try only last year, the flesh is tender, sweet.Grygoryj
This year, finally, the Original has beheld me. The three-year-old bush for two years, tormented, on the third gave finally a decent vine, which was not ashamed to leave for bearing. Left a couple of clusters, how beautiful he is!Kamyshanin
The original grape variety is distinguished by high productivity, a large, unusually shaped berry, resistance to frost and disease, and also great taste. This variety has rightfully earned its popularity among our gardeners.