Gourmet early - sweet grapes with a floral aroma
Despite the existence of many well-established grape varieties, often new hybrids are gaining popularity due to their higher, unusual qualities. These hybrids include Gourmet early breeding V.N. Kraynova, which has an impressive size of brushes and berries, as well as an unusual taste.
Early Gourmet Grapes Growing History
Gourmet early - a relatively "young" variety that appeared about 10 years ago. Initially, the hybrid was named Novocherkassky Red, then it was assigned the code 1-12. The author is a famous amateur breeder V.N. Kraynov, who received a new hybrid from the parent pair Kishmish Luchisty and Talisman. From the same pair, a whole line of hybrids with various properties was obtained, which V.N. Krainov gave the general name Gourmet. Novocherkassky red got its final name Gourmet early, and the rest of the hybrids from the same line were called Rainbow, Gourmand, Flashlight, Elegant.
The original name of the variety was Novocherkassky Red
The early gourmet quickly gained popularity and since 2006 has been recognized as promising for cultivation in southern Russia, Ukraine and Moldova. Since 2016, an early Gourmet was included in the State Register of the Russian Federation under the name Gourman Kraynova with access to cultivation in all regions.
According to the description from the State Register, Gourmet early is a table variety with a very early ripening period (berries reach full ripeness after 110–115 days from the beginning of the growing season). Bushes are characterized by medium growth. Strong light brown vines are covered with medium-sized three- or five-lobed leaves with a mesh-wrinkled surface. The flowers are female type, flowering occurs in early June.
Flowering begins in the first decade of June in the southern regions and in the second half of June in the middle lane
Bunches form rather large (on average 500–600 g, sometimes 1000–1300 g) and have a conical shape. The elongated oval berries are very large in size (weight 7–11 g). Thick but thin skin, which can be colored pink in various shades, covers the fleshy flesh. When shading brushes, berries can acquire a lilac hue.
Gourmet clusters are made up of very large pink berries
The taste of grapes has a pleasant harmony due to the high sugar content (15.6 g per 100 cm3) and a sufficient amount of acid (4.9 g / l). A characteristic feature of the grapes is a muscat flavor and a light floral aroma. Tasters give the taste of fresh grapes a score of 9.1 points.
Each berry contains 2-3 medium-sized seeds.
Gourmet grapes early on video
No wonder the early gourmet is popular among winegrowers - he has many positive qualities:
- stable high productivity (6–8 kg from 1 bush, 200–201 kg / ha);
- marketable appearance and great taste of berries;
- good preservation of berries on the bush;
- high resistance to fungal diseases (mildew, oidium, gray rot);
- resistance to transportation and storage.
The disadvantages of the Gourmet early include the female type of flowers, which is why planting of pollinating bushes is necessary. The hybrid is considered a cover crop, although its winter hardiness is not so low - up to -23 ... -24 ° C.
Features of planting and growing
Good yields from the Gourmet can be achieved only by observing all the rules of agricultural technology. In general, the rules for planting and growing this hybrid are the same as for other grape varieties.
One of the main requirements for growing grapes is the choice of a site with fertile soil and deep groundwater. It is advisable to plant grapes on a hill so that the roots of the plant do not suffer from stagnant moisture.
Since grapes were and remain a thermophilic plant, the site should be well warmed up by the sun and have protection from drafts. The southern and southeastern sides of the site are best suited for planting.
With a lack of sunlight, the functioning of the leaves is disturbed, the conditions for laying the fruit buds deteriorate, the yield decreases and the susceptibility to diseases increases. For these reasons, grape bushes should not be planted between fruit trees or in the shade of buildings. The distance from the trees should be at least 6–7 m, from bushes and other grape bushes - 3–3.5 m. To improve the lighting conditions, the bushes must be placed on trellises and subjected to shaping.
The gourmet, like most other grape varieties, is propagated well by root-own cuttings and grafting. It should be borne in mind that Gourmet cuttings are poorly resistant to root phylloxera; therefore, in areas with an increased risk of infection with this disease, Gourmet is best propagated by vaccination. For vaccination, cuttings are harvested from the ripened part of the vine, with 2-3 eyes. You can store them in the refrigerator or cellar, waxing the end and wrapping it with a damp cloth.
Paraffin helps keep moisture in the cuttings
Vaccination is done in spring, usually in April. The stock is cut down completely, leaving a small stump, the surface of which is smoothed to smoothness. The center of the stump is gently split and inserted into the cleavage with the wedge-cut end of the handle (2 handles can be installed). The place of vaccination is tightened with stripes of fabric and coated with clay.
When grafted to the cleft, it is necessary to ensure good contact of the handle with the stock
If you want to plant root-bearing cuttings, it is quite possible to train them yourself. For this, the chubuk are cut slightly longer than for grafting (4–5 eyes, length 30–35 cm), the thickness of the chubuk should be 8–12 mm. In February, Chubuki begin to germinate. To do this, cut off the waxed end and make several punctures with an awl in the lower part to facilitate root growth. It is recommended to treat the Chubuki with a growth stimulant, for example, immerse them for 2-3 days in a honey solution (1 tablespoon per liter of water).
Prepared chubuki are placed in jars of water or immersed in containers with moist soil. Germination should occur in a room with good lighting and air temperature + 17 ... + 19 ° C.
After about 4 weeks, the buds swell on the chubucks and the leaves bloom, and then young white roots grow. By the time of landing in the ground, the Chubuki become root.
Germination of grape cuttings on video
Landing in open ground is carried out in late April - early May. The main condition is that the soil reaches a temperature of + 12 ... + 15 ° C. If a drop in temperature can be expected after planting, the seedlings must be covered for the period of cooling.
A pit for planting a size of 0.8 m by 0.8 m is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting. A layer of broken brick is laid at the bottom as drainage, and then half-filled with compost mixed with soil and superphosphate (2 tablespoons).
It is believed that the taste of grape berries will improve significantly if the grapes are planted in areas where parsley is sown.
But in place of the uprooted old vineyard, planting cuttings is not worth it - they will develop poorly, since the soil in such places is already severely depleted.
You can dig a pipe at the edge of the pit to water the grapes under the root.
If planting is carried out in cold regions, you can dig up dark glass bottles around the pit to warm the soil
When planting, care must be taken, since young grape roots are very fragile. The seedling is carefully sprinkled with earth, compacted and watered with 2-3 buckets of water. Then it is advisable to mulch the trunk circle so that the moisture remains in the soil longer.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Planting grape seedlings on video
Another great way to propagate grapes are layering. The author successfully received in a short time whole rows of grapes in this way. Long vines are dug shallowly in the right places and ensure they are constantly pressed to the soil with pieces of stone or bricks. The key to success is regular watering digging. In addition, you can not rush to separate layers from the mother bush. The author made such a mistake on the first attempt to propagate by layering and as a result received a frail bush, which required a lot of additional care for normal development.
Grape Care Rules
An early gourmet does not require any special care, but he needs regular pruning, top dressing and watering.
Pruning is carried out in spring and autumn. In the spring, the vines that died during the winter are removed and trimming is performed. The gourmet does not like overload; to ensure a good harvest, it is recommended to cut the vines into 6–8 buds, providing a total load on the bush in the amount of 30–35 eyes and 20–24 shoots. It is most convenient to form a bush in the form of a fan and place it on an ordinary single-row trellis.
The process of fan shaping takes 3-4 years
Autumn pruning is done in late October - early November. Extra growth and unripe shoots are removed. In regions with cold winters, Gourmet bushes after autumn pruning are sheltered for the winter. For this, the vines are removed from the trellis, tied in bunches, laid on the ground and tied with straw, film, agrofibre or other warming materials.
To ensure optimal wintering conditions, you can cover the vines on top of the film with a layer of earth
Watering grapes is needed regularly, especially in the first year after planting. A young seedling is watered every 7-10 days, loosen and mulch the soil in the near-stem circle to preserve moisture.
Adult bushes are watered 4–5 times during the summer. A high need for moisture is observed in grapes during budding, before flowering, during the period of ovary growth and after harvesting. During these periods, and you need to organize watering at the rate of 50-60 liters of water per bush. Water is fed into irrigation furrows cut half a meter from the stem. The best option for irrigation is drip irrigation, which allows you to maintain a constant level of soil moisture. In a dry summer, mulching the soil helps maintain an optimal microclimate around the bush.
Watering grapes on video
Gourmet loves early nutrition. The first food for the young bush is provided by fertilizers introduced into the planting pit. Usually they last for 2-3 years. Subsequently, it is necessary to regularly make organic and mineral dressings for grapes. Fertilizing is mandatory for the crop after planting. Before flowering, phosphorus and potassium compounds are added. At the end of flowering, foliar dressing with microelements (manganese, zinc, iron) is performed.
As organic fertilizers under the grapes make manure or bird droppings in the form of a solution. These fertilizers contain a fairly large number of nitrogen compounds, therefore, nitrogen fertilizers are not applied separately - their excess can lead to excessive growth of green mass and lower yield.
Fertilizing and feeding grapes on video
How to protect a vineyard from diseases and pests
An early gourmet is considered highly resistant to fungal diseases - mildew, gray rot and oidium. Nevertheless, with increased humidity, diseases can still appear. Therefore, preventive spring treatments with sulfur, Bordeaux mixture or other fungicides will not interfere. Such treatments are all the more necessary because in their absence anthracnose can develop, leading to the drying out of fruits and branches and the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. If the disease appears, the affected areas are removed and burned, and the plant is treated with copper sulfate or Nitrofen.
Grapes affected by anthracnose are covered with brown spots around which the flesh hardens and dries.
Gourmet harvest can suffer from attacks of grape and spider mites, therefore, periodic treatment with insecticides (Actellik, Fosbetsid) and acaricides (Neoron, Apollo) is necessary.
To protect the crop from birds, a small-mesh stack stretched around the bushes will help, and to protect against wasps, mesh bags worn on each brush.
Despite the complexity, the way to protect grapes with pouches remains the most reliable
Harvesting, storage and use of crops
When flowering in the first decade of June, the Gourmet in the southern regions begins to fill in early July, and ripens by mid-August. In colder climates, such as Altai, ripening is delayed to early September.
The berries begin to turn pink in early July
Harvesting is necessary with full ripeness, since it cannot ripen without a bush. The clusters are neatly cut with secateurs and stacked for transportation in shallow wooden crates. It is necessary to lay as tightly as possible, but not crushing berries! The gourmet is perfectly stored - brushes suspended in a cool room can “wait” for spring.
Gourmet berries have a great taste and can be consumed both fresh and used to make juice, preserves, backmes, raisins. Thanks to the unusual combination of nutmeg and floral aroma, the Gourmet is very much appreciated in winemaking.
Beckmes, or grape honey, is not only tasty, but also a very useful treat
Reviews of winegrowers
Gourmet early breeding V.N.Krainova Matures in 105–110 days. Growth power is above average, the vine ripens well, is pollinated stably. Bunches weighing 0.7–1.5 kg, berry weighing 8–10 g. Pink colour. Resistant to major fungal diseases. One of the leaders to taste, in a harmonious bouquet is a very pleasant muscat.Nadezhda Viktorovna, Altai Territory
My Gourmet is early, this year bears fruit for the first time, five clusters, not very large yet very attractive, have already begun to stain the berries. I decided today to try the pinkest berry, and it’s already sweet, I already feel that it’s not just sweet water, but a berry with a special taste. I don’t see any, there are wasps flying around Kodryanka and nobody is next to Gourmet. We are waiting for it to ripen, but I I already think that there will be no disappointmentsNata38, Volgograd
for pollination of an early gourmet, plant varieties with a bisexual flower. Arcadia will do. I did not dust the gourmet, everything is fine with him. Nearby grows the sphinx, argo, reliable, angelica.Andrey Kurmaz, Donetsk region
I read what they write about Gourmets. Specifically about the Gourmet early. Let me add a little. In mid-October he was in Brest with V. Astapenko. This variety, along with the anniversary of Novocherkassk, just hit me! Two months have passed since he matured, but it seemed that this had happened a week, a maximum of 10 days ago. The color is deep crimson, the pulp is dense and MUSCAT! The berries are large, aligned, the taste is extraordinary! I live in the hope that I will get it the same ...A.Kondratiev - bursucok, Daugavpils
But I don’t share the general enthusiasm for the Gourmet, it’s tasty of course, but all the same it’s all sprinkled, and I ran with puffs and processed with chelated boron, nothing helps, like last year, or is it just me. In my opinion, he has a common sore with the Monarch, and in FIG he is such a delicious to me, they called him another sort. And most importantly, I replaced them with 2 bushes that previously did not suit, in general, I changed the awl for soap.Yuri72, Donbass
Gourmet is a universal variety, as it is suitable for growing on individual farms, and for industrial cultivation. Regarding the possibilities of using the crop, this variety is also universal - it is suitable for table consumption, and for winemaking, and for conservation. This variety does not require much effort to grow, compliance with the standard rules of agricultural technology is sufficient to obtain high yields.