Gooseberry planting - when, where and how to plant correctly, time and date of planting
The people called the “northern grape” the well-known prickly shrub - gooseberry. He became famous for useful properties, high productivity, unpretentiousness and ease of cultivation. And therefore, even now it is rarely possible to meet a summer cottage on which 2-3 bushes of this plant would not grow.
When to plant gooseberries
It is believed that the most favorable time for planting gooseberries comes at the end of September and ends by mid-October. Of course, like most other shrubs, it can be planted in the spring, but the success of such an event (easy survival of a seedling and its good growth in the first year of life) is much higher during autumn planting.
Gooseberry planting in spring
Gooseberry seedlings planted in the spring can take root for a long time, because the heat sets in quickly, the soil dries up, and the roots have not yet had time to settle in new conditions. Therefore, before planting, a young bush is best placed in a solution of any synthetic biostimulator - Epin, Zircon, Kornevin (concentration and time are indicated in the instructions). In spring, planting in a pit prepared from autumn with nutrient soil should be done as early as possible. Well, if you can do it in the first half of April. It is important that the seedling has not yet moved away from the winter hibernation. When the buds begin to bloom, the chances of successful survival will be significantly reduced.
It is best to plant the seedlings in the spring obliquely, about 45o relative to the ground, although they usually don’t do this with gooseberries. The inclined position of the bush will help it to quickly build up the root system. This will accelerate the formation of new basal shoots, and the plant will more easily take root in a new place. Overhead shoots should be significantly shortened, at most - up to 15–20 cm, leaving 3-4 buds on each branch (it is not recommended to cut the shoots during autumn planting).
Gooseberry planting in the fall
In autumn, you should try to finish planting the gooseberries so that 2-3 weeks remain before the first serious frost. Otherwise, young fibrous roots most needed for subsequent growth may freeze. It is advisable to choose a calm, cloudless day so that the tender roots do not dry out on the seedling in the open air.
Wherever a seedling is purchased, it must be delivered to the landing pit not too dry or damaged.
With autumn planting, the survival rate of gooseberries is almost 100%. Before the onset of frost, the roots have time to grow stronger and grow, and in the spring they begin to grow rapidly, as soon as the soil thaws and a positive temperature is established. The earth manages to compact and settle to the extent of serious autumn frosts. After this compaction, it is advisable to add a small amount of mulch under the bush.
Gooseberry bushes should be replanted only in the fall, so that they reliably take root in a new place.
- After choosing a suitable place and preparing the soil, old and unnecessary branches are cut off with a sharp secateurs near the ground, leaving no more than 6–7 young, healthy and strong shoots with a smooth, undamaged bark. These shoots are shortened by about a third.
- To easily and without damage remove the bush from the ground, they dig a circular trench around the entire circumference of the bush about 30 cm from its base. The thickest roots, if they interfere with the excavation, can be chopped off, this will not hurt gooseberries in the fall.
- With a shovel or with the help of a crowbar, a bush is removed from the ground, together with a large wet lump, they are laid on the litter (dense fabric, burlap, oilcloth) and transferred to a new landing site.
The technology of plant transplantation does not differ from the planting of young seedlings, only it is much more convenient to do this together.
The density of planting of gooseberry bushes depends on the variety, terrain, climate, but the average distance between the bushes in a row should be about 1.5 m. Usually the bushes are planted in rows, between the rows leave a space of 2 m wide.
Gooseberries can be used as hedges
Predecessors and neighbors
Gooseberry bushes should be protected by any tree plantations, especially from the prevailing winds. In winter, these trees help to accumulate more snow, contribute to less freezing of the soil, in summer they reduce the drying effect of air currents. The best predecessors for gooseberries are potatoes and any vegetables, but not berry bushes.
The wall of the house will protect the bush well from the winds. But the remaining weeds will soon impede the development of a seedling that has grown so well.
You can plant tomatoes next to gooseberries, which are the natural enemies of many garden pests, and red currants. Around the bush often plant any fragrant herbs (mint, lemon balm, dill) or garlic - they repel aphids well. Raspberries or cherries should not be placed nearby: they will drown, they will germinate even inside the gooseberry bush.
Soil and light
It is advisable to place well-moistened places with breathable soil under the gooseberry. If prolonged stagnation of moisture is possible, then the growth of the bush will be weak, and the risk of disease damage is great. In low places, gooseberries are often affected by powdery mildew, especially older varieties. Gooseberries are much more drought tolerant than currants, and open, warm areas are better for him.
Preparing the soil for planting
With a sufficient amount of fertilizer applied, gooseberries give high yields even on sandy soils, but it is better that they be light loam. The shrub also tolerates increased acidity, tolerates soils with a pH value up to 5.5.
On the site, as usual when planting shrubs, first of all, it is necessary to carry out planning, to eliminate unnecessarily high hills and deep depressions. Having scattered organic and mineral fertilizers (and in case of too acidic soil - and lime), it is necessary to dig a site well to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel, removing the rhizomes of weeds, especially perennials. Only a few days after this, it is necessary to start digging the landing pits.
How to plant gooseberries
Before planting, gooseberry seedlings should have at least 4–5 thick roots (up to 20 cm long) with a well-developed lobe, and one or two external branches 30–40 cm long above the roots.
- During autumn planting, pits are prepared 2-3 weeks before planting, and in spring, the previous fall. In the spring it will be difficult to do (the soil is too wet after winter). Pits are dug with a depth of 40–45 cm and a width of 50–60 cm. It is necessary to preserve the upper, fertile layer of soil, and the lower (often this is heavy useless clay) should be removed altogether (onto paths, outside the garden). If several bushes are planted at once, it is more convenient to dig out not even a hole, but a landing furrow (trench) of the required length.
- Fill the dug hole with approximately 75% fertile soil, after mixing it with fertilizers. It is worth knowing that gooseberries especially “love” potash fertilizers, so you should not spare for him the usual ash from a fire. If we talk about purchased fertilizers, then about 40 g of potassium sulfate, up to 200 g of superphosphate and 2 buckets of rotted manure are needed per pit. You can shed a hole with one or two buckets of water (if the weather is dry), and then wait 2-3 weeks.
- Before planting, the damaged parts of the roots and branches of the seedling should be trimmed with a sharp secateurs, and dip the roots in a clay mash.
Before planting, the roots of a seedling can be dipped in a mixture of water and clay
- Unlike currants, gooseberries, especially in autumn, are planted with almost no tilt. The root neck is buried 5-6 cm below the soil level.
- The seedling should be placed in a pit, spread the roots, cover with earth, gradually compacting it with your foot or hand. Periodically, the seedling is shaken a little to eliminate the voids inside the soil to be poured.
The soil when planting a bush needs to be compacted
- When you no longer see the roots, pour 5-10 liters of water into the pit. It is absorbed - fill the hole to the top, make a hole (pouring the sides of the earth) and pour another half a bucket of water.
To prevent water from spreading, make a hole around the bush
- If it is dry (especially in spring), mulch it with at least dry soil, or better - peat or good humus. After a few days, water and mulch repeat.
Gooseberry bush immediately after planting
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If a gooseberry bush is already growing in your garden, then it is not necessary to acquire new seedlings. The culture can be propagated by cuttings.
- In mid-June, you need to carefully examine healthy bushes.
- Choose strong lateral growths from last year and cut short tops (5-6 cm long).
- Tear off all leaves, except the top two, and plant it with a slope in a greenhouse (at a distance of about 7 cm, one cuttings from the other).
- Water, cover with frames and shade.
- Do not open the frames for the first week, but only ventilate the greenhouse in the evenings. And then, until the fall, systematic cultivation and watering is necessary. Frames and shading should be removed after rooting the cuttings.
In open ground, rooted cuttings are transplanted to a sufficient distance (15–20 cm) in early October. And after a year you can count on good seedlings.
How to shape a standard gooseberry
Growing gooseberries in a standard form allows you to get a small tree instead of a shrub.
Large-fruited varieties that are not afraid of powdery mildew are chosen for this method of cultivation. Gooseberries are planted as usual (preferably in the fall), but then they leave one main strong shoot for him, the rest are cut right at the roots. You can create a standard only from a mature seedling, which is well rooted and clearly went into growth.
All buds are excised from the selected shoot, except for a few top ones. The top of this shoot is only slightly trimmed. Then the plant is constantly monitored, branches appearing on the trunk at a low height are immediately cut out. In this way, a neat round crown is gradually formed on the resulting gooseberry tree. Every summer, at the end of June, all lateral shoots are shortened to 4–5 leaves.
To form a gooseberry with a standard shape, it must be regularly cut off, forming a crown at the top of the shoot
Features of planting gooseberries in the regions
Gooseberries are grown in various climatic zones, and the technique for planting them is, in principle, the same. This is a fairly unpretentious shrub that grows in various conditions. However, in the case of extreme climate, there are still some nuances.
Gooseberry planting in Siberia
In Siberia, gooseberries are considered a cover culture. In winter, over the entire territory of Siberia, both annual growth and roots close to the surface of the earth often freeze. In this regard, at the end of autumn, the bushes for the winter are sure to carefully bend, pinning the branches to the soil with any suitable material, so that in the end they are reliably covered with snow. Poorly mature, as a rule, overfed with fertilizers or heavily thickened bushes. Consequently, a feature of the planting of gooseberries in this area is to maintain a slightly larger distance between the plants. In Siberia, gooseberries are planted somewhat earlier than usual - from the beginning of September.
Gooseberry planting in Ukraine
It should be recalled that Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe, and the climate in its various areas varies quite a lot. For example, the optimal planting dates for gooseberries in the center and in the north of Ukraine are in early October. The bush, planted at the right time, is well rooted, in the spring it quickly starts growing, grows steadily, develops and gives the first crop in time. In the south of Ukraine, where the climate is much milder, gooseberries are planted later - from mid-October to the end of November.
Gooseberry planting in Belarus
Gooseberries are grown in every garden in Belarus, and this is a long tradition: after all, one of the best large-fruited old varieties is even called Belorussky. Since the climate in this republic is practically no different from that in the central regions of Russia, the planting technology does not differ in anything specific. Belarusians often practice spring planting, but they do it very early - even in March, as soon as the weather permits.
Belarusian gardeners advise planting black or red elderberry next to the gooseberry, and in the summer regularly scatter its branches under the gooseberry bushes.
Gooseberry planting in the suburbs
Planting gooseberries in gardens near Moscow is best in the fall. In the Moscow region, the organization of the sale of planting material is now well placed. Therefore, it is often possible to purchase a seedling with a closed root system, that is, in a container. In this case, gooseberries can be planted with a whole earthen lump even in summer.
A seedling with a closed root system can be planted even in summer
When planting several gooseberry bushes, they maintain a distance of up to 2 m between them: very large bushes often grow in the Moscow region.
The peculiarity of the Moscow region climate is a sufficient amount of rainfall and the absence of sweltering heat, so the plants quickly build up green mass. Planting pits in the Moscow region are prepared with a diameter and depth of 0.5–0.6 m. In addition to the top layer of soil, 10–12 kg of manure or a mixture of peat and manure (4: 1 by volume) are placed in the pit. Any organic fertilizer is used, but usually mixed with peat, which is not deficient in the region. Peat significantly improves soil aeration, optimally structuring it.
When planting gooseberries in spring, you need to cut the branch in half, on a bud oriented inward, but if planted in the fall, you can do this next spring.
The small fruits of gooseberries remind me very much of a miniature globe, divided into small meridians and parallels. In my childhood, looking at gooseberries, I imagined whole continents and continents that settled on this tiny berry. And even today I tend to think that gooseberries are a miniature copy of the earth.T. Silence
I have many gooseberry varieties growing in my garden, each of which is more acidic or sweeter, but I like all varieties. Great tasty berry that you can tear from the bush and immediately eat. It is a pity that the bush is too prickly. Gooseberries in my garden ripen for a long time. I already want him!Eugene M.
Gooseberry is an unpretentious culture, and you can grow a plant in almost any region of the country. Proper planting, provided with an optimal choice of soil, fertilizers and terms, guarantees health and subsequent fruiting of the bush.