Gooseberry cultivation: from variety selection to harvest
Gooseberries are unpretentious and fruitful, grows well and bears fruit by itself, so gardeners pay little attention to it and do not appreciate its fruits. Meanwhile, in Russia, culture was grown in the royal gardens, and gooseberry jam is still called "royal". From ripe fruits, an unusually tasty wine is obtained, which is treated only to the most dear guests. Growing a crop on a garden site requires compliance with some rules of care, in which case it will be possible to fully enjoy healthy berries.
Gooseberry Growing History
The homeland of wild gooseberries is North Africa and Western Europe. This berry, unlike grapes, was not known to the ancient Romans and Egyptians, however, it also has a long and complicated history. In Kievan Rus, gooseberries were grown already in the XI century, until the XIV century, it was actively distributed in the royal and monastery gardens. But they were semi-wild bushes with small and sour berries. They were called "bersen", which is translated from the Tatar as "dog rose."
The French cultivated gooseberries. This is mentioned in the church psalms of the 13th century. The first description of the culture was given by the French doctor and botanist Jean Ruelle in 1536, and the first botanical illustration dates from 1548. Its author is a German scientist, one of the "fathers of botany", Leonart Fuchs.
Wild gooseberry - the founder of many cultivars, grows among shrubs, on rocky slopes
The modern name for gooseberries appeared due to its thorns and similarity in this sense with a thorn bush. According to the Gospel, a crown of thorns was laid on the head of Jesus during his reproach. In different European countries, gooseberries were called the “Christ of Thorns” (Krisdohre), “the berry of the Thorns of Christ” (Kristólbeere). The root of the “Kryzh” in Old Russian was also directly related to the cross.
Breeding large-fruited varieties engaged in the British. They managed to increase the weight of berries 4 times. By the 17th century, almost all known varieties were of English selection. Russian botanists also took an interest in cultural gooseberries; European seedlings began to be imported into our country and replaced by small-fruited and unproductive bushes. But at the beginning of the 20th century, a terrible disease was introduced from the USA to Europe - powdery mildew, which destroyed all unstable cultural plants. Therefore, the first English varieties that gave berries larger and tastier than modern ones did not reach us. All breeding work began anew.
Varieties that can be found in modern gardens
The oldest varieties that have come to us are bred in the middle of the last century. About 50 varieties are listed in the State Register. Each is adapted to certain climatic conditions, has its own advantages and disadvantages.
This is one of the oldest varieties; it was listed in the State Register in 1959 for all regions except the Ural. The bush is characterized by powerful growth. In the 50s they were already able to develop varieties resistant to powdery mildew, Russian is one of them. In addition, in the winter this gooseberry tolerates temperature differences, in the summer it regularly gives good crops without any pollinators - up to 10 kg from a bush. The berries are large, each weighs 4-6 g, in full ripeness it turns dark red. The taste is sweet and sour, very pleasant. From the gooseberry variety Russky, desserts and winter billets of high quality are obtained.
The berries of the Russky variety are large, red, with pink veins
A clone of the Russky variety entered the variety test in 1964. It is more winter-hardy, therefore it is recommended for cultivation in the North-West and Ural regions. The bush can get powdery mildew, but with good care it is more productive. The berries are large - 5–7 g; in technical ripeness, green, ripening, turns golden. The pulp is also tasty and more tender than that of the Russian. When grown on an industrial scale, up to 140 centners are harvested per hectare.
Russian yellow is one of the most productive varieties. Branches strewn with golden berries
Early gooseberry, zoned for the Middle Volga. The bush resembles grapes only in large and carved leaves. The rest is ordinary gooseberries with small (2.4 g) green berries. Productivity is almost 10 times lower than that of Russian yellow - 16 c / ha. However, Ural grapes are famous for other advantages - it has a refreshing aroma of berries, a high content of vitamin C in them, winter hardiness of shoots and excellent resistance to diseases and pests.
The Ural grape variety has large and beautiful leaves, and the berries are small, but aromatic and tasty.
The variety was created for the West Siberian and Middle Volga regions. Its powerful shoots are not afraid of frost and do not suffer from powdery mildew. The berries are colored green and yellow, large (up to 8 g), but are not as abundant on the branches as the varieties Russian and Russian yellow, so the yield is much lower - 60 c / ha. But the berries are very tasty, they received the highest rating from experts-tasters - 5 points. The aroma, unfortunately, is absent.
The northerner in abundance of berries is inferior to many varieties, but the fruits are large, with excellent taste.
Bred at the end of the last century for the South of Russia. If all the previous varieties are vigorous, but compact, then this, on the contrary, is low and sprawling. As befits the southern gooseberry, the Kubanets bush has thick shoots, large leaves and sweet berries with an average weight of 5.6 g. The yield is impressive - up to 160 kg / ha, but the tasting score is not high - 4.4 points.
A characteristic feature of the variety Kubanets is a long stalk
The variety was created specifically for the Moscow region. Obtained by mixing pollen of four varieties: Date, Brazil, Green Bottle and Maurer Seedling. The result was a vigorous gooseberry with almost black ripe sweet berries. It was possible to combine the exotic look with high resistance to frost, powdery mildew, and fireworms. Small berries - up to 3 g, but the shoots are strewn with them, so the yield is high - up to 148 kg / ha. Taste is estimated at 4.3 points.
The berries of Black Sea in full ripeness are almost black, covered with a whitish waxy coating
Contrary to the name, the variety was not bred for the whole people, but only living in Western Siberia. It was in this region that it became widespread, which is not surprising - the variety is not afraid of frost, drought and heat, it is resistant to pests and diseases. The berries are dark red, medium-sized (3.2 g), but with a very good dessert flavor. The tasting score is 4.8, but the yield is low - not more than 48 kg / ha.
Folk is covered with red berries that hang on long stalks, therefore it is better known under another name - Smart
How to grow gooseberries
Gooseberries are an unpretentious culture. It is easy to grow it, especially those varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests. Difficulties can be pruned, since almost all gooseberry varieties have spikes and are very tall, which means that they actively give powerful shoots of substitution. Bushes without cutting thicken and run wild.
Gooseberry place and landing
Gooseberries grow well in sunny areas, but also give good yields in partial shade. Because of the thorns, this shrub is traditionally planted away from the paths, for example, under a fence or in the garden, between pears and apple trees. The minimum distance to other bushes, trees and buildings is 2 meters. Gooseberries can be planted on a slope, but not in a swampy place or where melt and rainwater stagnate. Jamming of the root neck leads to the death of the plant.
Classic combination: gooseberry and picket
The best predecessors are annual crops. Do not plant gooseberries after raspberries, currants and other berry and fruit crops that have been growing on this site for many years - the land under them has been depleted and has accumulated diseases. Also, do not place gooseberries in the vicinity of trees and bushes giving growth. The root offspring of another plant will climb into the center of the gooseberry bush, and it will be impossible to get them out of there.
- Dig a hole 50 cm deep and wide. Set the topsoil (on the bayonet of a shovel) to one side, the bottom to the other.
- On the ground layer, pour a bucket of humus or compost and a glass of wood ash, mix and fill this hole with this fertile mixture.
- Now in the center of the landing pit, make a hole in size of the gooseberry roots, lower the seedling, spread the roots and sprinkle them with soil. The root neck should be at ground level or slightly elevated.
- Make an irrigation groove around the perimeter of the crown, water and mulch.
Video: how to plant gooseberries, briefly about caring for it
Watering and feeding
Gooseberry is a drought-tolerant crop, but in hot summers with rare rains it needs to be watered twice a season: in spring, during the period of active growth of leaves, and after flowering, when the berries are poured. Pour water so that the root neck remains dry, that is, into the groove around the periphery of the crown.
Water and feed gooseberries so that water does not flood the root neck
Fertilizers introduced during planting will last for 2 years. From the third year, use complex feeding for berry crops, for example, Agricola, Master, Florovit, Agrovita. Fertilizers for spring and autumn top dressing are sold in stores. You can do with compost or humus. In spring or late autumn, scatter a bucket under the bush and mix with the soil of the upper layer.
The most common gooseberry disease is powdery mildew. If you do not fight it, a white coating from the leaves will go over to the fruits, which, in turn, will turn black, crumble and rot. Moreover, the crop will be spoiled not only the current, but also the next year. On the affected shoots, flower buds are not laid or do not ripen; in winter, most of the bush freezes. The fight against powdery mildew is not so difficult. In any garden store, they sell many preparations from it: Topaz, Hom, Bordeaux mixture, Skor, etc. Gooseberries must be processed before buds open, and then repeated 2-3 times with an interval of 10 days. If after this in summer the signs of the disease still appear, repeat the treatment after harvesting.
White plaque on top of shoots is the first sign of powdery mildew
Folk remedy for powdery mildew is hot water. Watering is necessary before buds open, when the ground has not yet completely thawed. Boil water, pour it into a metal watering can and water the bushes. While pouring and carrying to the place, the temperature drops to the desired level - approximately to + 70 ... + 80⁰C.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The most common and practically the only gooseberry pest is a fire-bomb. The gray butterfly in the wingspan does not exceed 3 cm. It larvae lays in buds and ovaries. It is easy to fight a pest without any chemicals. Affected berries cannot be overlooked. They acquire a dark color and are usually woven together by a cobweb. It is enough to collect these nests and burn to greatly reduce the population of insects. Pupae of the fire-tree winter under the bush, in the upper layer of soil. Destroying them in the earth is also easy. Late in the fall, either dig up the ground under the gooseberry to a depth of 5–7 cm so that the pests freeze out, or, conversely, lay the mulch with a layer of 10 cm. Then in spring the larvae will not be able to surface and die.
Berries affected by the larvae of the firetruck are very different from healthy ones.
Sometimes a spider mite settles on the gooseberry. Yellowing and deforming leaves signal its presence. To control the pest, use acaricides: Actellik (2 ml per 2 L of water), Aktar (2 g per 10 L), etc. Repeat treatment every 10 days, observe the waiting period.
Gooseberry bush formation
Gooseberry bush is formed from shoots of different ages, the oldest should be no more than 5 years. Starting from the year of planting, the young seedling will give a lot of substitution shoots, of which annually leave only the 3-4 most powerful ones. At the 5-year-old bush, in addition to excess young growth, cut out also old, lignified shoots.
In addition, regularly carry out sanitary pruning, removing dried, sick, broken, branches growing inside the bush and down. In the summer, trim the tops affected by powdery mildew. So you eliminate the foci of infection and provoke the growth of healthy lateral branches.
Video: pruning gooseberries in spring
Gooseberry gooseberry, cultivation features
Gooseberries on the stem are obtained in two ways:
- An ordinary bush is formed in one trunk. To do this, the adult fruit-bearing gooseberries are cut to ground level. From the growing shoots, the strongest is selected, the rest of the shoot is removed. To save yourself from the constant pruning of excess shoots of substitution, the ground is covered with roofing material. On the shoot, which was chosen for cultivation in a standard form, remove all buds to a height of 60 cm above the ground. From the remaining upper form a crown.
- Gooseberry stalks are inoculated on golden currants or other stocks that do not produce shoots.
Gooseberry on the stem: an influx is visible in the upper part of the trunk, thickening is the place of vaccination
The stem gooseberry is unstable, as it consists of a long thin trunk and a cap of shoots at its apex. A support, for example, reinforcement or a metal pipe to which the plant is tied, is necessarily installed nearby. Another difference: ordinary gooseberries in winter are completely covered with snow, and the shoots of the standard are located above the snow cover. For this reason, you need to choose frost-resistant varieties.
The rest of the care for the standard gooseberries is no different from the usual. He needs the same fertilizing and watering, the prevention of diseases and pests. It is not necessary to form a bush, but a crown, but according to the same principles: the branches should be located evenly, in different directions, not obscure each other. Annual growths are shortened to stimulate branching, that is, the growth of second-order branches.
Video: gooseberry and currant on a stem without vaccination
Gooseberry propagation methods
Gooseberries are very easy to propagate vegetatively, by seeds and today in a fashionable clonal way in the laboratory. Test tube propagation is practiced by large companies selling seedlings. For an amateur gardener, this is a very costly and dubious way. What is the point of spending money on equipment and nutrient solutions, if you can just dig a branch and get a new bush. But there are naturalists who are trying to propagate gooseberries in all existing ways:
- Rooting horizontal layering is the easiest and most common way. Often, gooseberries reproduce on their own, especially if the bush is sprawling and the branches lie on the ground. But it’s better to help: in the spring, select a lignified shoot, which is located horizontally, squeeze it to the ground and fill it up with the full length of moist soil. Only the tip should remain on the surface. Next spring, dig a branch and divide into seedlings.
- Reproduction of the old bush with vertical shoots. Cut the entire bush. When the young shoots of substitution grow to 15 cm, cover them to half with moist soil. As it grows, repeat hilling 2-3 times. In the autumn, scoop up the ground - each shoot must be rooted. It can be separated and planted in another place.
- Cuttings against the background of the two previous methods look laborious and ineffective, survival rate is low, sometimes it does not exceed 10%. Cut the cuttings in July. Everyone should have 5–7 internodes. Dig 2 cm into loose and moist soil, create greenhouse conditions: humidity - 90%, temperature - + 27⁰C. Rooted cuttings will give new young leaves; those that have not taken root will rot or dry out.
- By dividing the bush, gooseberries are propagated when transplanted to another place. Dig the whole bush and divide into separate shoots with roots.
- Sowing seeds is an interesting but ineffective method. Seedlings do not repeat maternal properties; they come into bearing two years later than seedlings obtained from cuttings and shoots. But the method is very simple. In the autumn, before the onset of cold weather, make a small bed in the garden. Sow gooseberry seeds to a depth of 0.5 cm. For winter, cover with dill or raspberry stalks. Take cover early in the spring, wait for seedlings, and when they appear, water and protect them from weeds.
- Microclonal propagation is that a small part of the plant is taken, mainly from the apical bud, and placed in a test tube in a nutrient solution. Cells begin to actively divide, a seedling grows from a piece of tissue. The main advantage of the method is that from one branch you can grow thousands of seedlings that will completely copy the mother plant.
Video: the most common method among gardeners is reproduction by horizontal layering
Harvesting and Processing
Harvested in several stages as they mature. Fruits of almost all varieties have a dense skin and easily tolerate transportation and storage. Ripe berries can be kept in the refrigerator for up to 4 days, and unripe berries - up to 10. Gooseberries are eaten fresh, frozen, dried, added to fruit compotes, jam and jams are made from it. Fruits are added to meat dishes, sauces are prepared from them. They say gooseberry wine is even better than grape wine.
Ягоды крыжовника содержат легкоусвояемые моносахариды, яблочную и лимонную кислоты, пектиновые вещества, витамины C, A, B, P, а также микроэлементы медь, фосфор, железо, кальций, магний и др. Медики рекомендуют плоды крыжовника при нарушении обмена веществ, ожирении, как слабительное, мочегонное и желчегонное средство.
Видео: вино из крыжовника
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