Gooseberries - pests, diseases and ways to combat them
There have been periods of success and loss in the history of gooseberry breeding in Europe. It is known that the fruits of a wild-growing shrub were eaten, but a real gooseberry boom developed in England, where a moisture-loving bush brought from the mainland took root and, with careful care and careful selection, yielded a crop of fragrant and tasty berries. The triumphant return of culture to Europe and its spread on the American continent was overshadowed in the twentieth century by the defeat of powdery mildew. But not only she threatens gooseberry bushes.
Gooseberry diseases: description and methods of treatment
When growing gooseberries, it is important to take good care of it - healthy bushes are less susceptible to disease. If you do not pay enough attention to the prevention of gooseberry diseases, you can lose both the crop and the plants themselves.
As a result of the fatal defeat of the American powdery mildew (spherical), many well-known ancient varieties of gooseberry disappeared. The modern variety was provided by hybrids of European varieties with American native varieties that were immune to the sphere library. However, the disease still affects gooseberry bushes, as well as related black and less often red currants.
With a spherical library, whitish plaque forms on gooseberry leaves
Sphereotka is a fungal disease. The causative agent is a powdery mildew that infects the entire plant and covers it with a whitish coating. Young leaves affected by the spherical library curl, twigs twist. The ovary falls. Over time, the whitish hue changes to brown. Sick berries do not develop and lose their presentation and taste.
Over time, the whitish hue of the sphere library changes to brown
The sphere library can lead to the death of the plant. The causative agent winters well and begins to spread disputes with the onset of warm weather. Unfortunately, it is not possible to completely get rid of the fungus. The task of gardeners comes down to the early detection and prevention of the effects of powdery mildew. Another way to prevent gooseberry disease is to purchase planting material in large proven nurseries and select disease resistant varieties: Commander, Krasnodar Lights, Malachite, Northern Captain, Ural Grapes. It so happened that the non-studded gooseberry varieties are immune to the spherical library.
Measures to combat the causative agent of powdery mildew:
- in early spring, apply 1% solution of copper sulfate for processing bushes, you can repeat the treatment 2 or 3 times at intervals of one to two weeks, but so that they are finished 15 days before harvesting;
- at the first sign of fungal infection, the bush is immediately treated with a solution of soda ash so that the spreading spores can not cause damage to the crop. Prepare the product by adding to 10 l of water 50 g of soda ash and 50 g of grated laundry soap for better adhesion. Plants are abundantly irrigated with the resulting solution. It is advisable to carry out the treatment once before the flowers bloom, then repeat the spraying ten days after flowering;
- in the early stages of the disease tansy infusion helps. 50 g of dry tansy pour 10 liters of water and leave for a day. The resulting solution is simmered on fire for two hours, cooled, decanted, treated with gooseberries and the soil around the bush twice - in autumn and spring;
- effective in the early stages and infusion of wood ash. 1.5 kg of ash is poured into 10 liters of water, insisted in a dark room for seven days, stirring occasionally. The solution is decanted (the remaining ash can be dug up with soil), 50 g of grated laundry soap are added to stick better, and the bushes are treated 3-4 times at the beginning of June with an interval of two days;
- diluted slurry is also used for spraying - in fact, the bush is irrigated with nitrogen fertilizer in combination with bacteria. Dilute 1 liter of manure with three liters of water, insist for three days, decant the solution, and after adding another 3 liters of water, spray the bushes, after mixing the resulting liquid well. You can simply dilute 700 g of urea in 10 l of water. Spray with these solutions a gooseberry bush and a tree trunk in early spring.
As a preventative measure:
- gooseberry bushes are not planted in lowlands and in places with a surface occurrence of groundwater, avoid excessive watering;
- in early spring, before sap flow, gooseberry bushes are shed with hot (95 ° C) water;
- next to gooseberry bushes they plant tomatoes, potatoes, this prevents the development of the sphere library;
- do not fertilize the plant with nitrogen fertilizers after the leaves bloom;
- do not allow bush thickening, remove weak shoots and do not leave fallen leaves under the plant in autumn;
- dig the soil under the bush and add 1–1.5 cups of dry ash under the root to enhance immunity.
Folk methods of controlling powdery mildew are not limited to those listed, but if the disease cannot be controlled, the following drugs are used:
- Acrex is a non-systemic acaricide against spider mites and a fungicide against powdery mildew. The solution is prepared at the rate of 10 g per 10 l of water, applied twice: before flowering and after harvesting. Highly toxic to humans and bees, it is not recommended for use in flowering plants and later than 3 weeks before harvest;
- Vectra is an antifungal drug. Dilute 3 mg in 10 l of water, apply three times per season: after flowering, 2 weeks after the first treatment, immediately after harvesting;
- Caratan 57 is a contact fungicide and acaricide, it is easily washed off, and has little toxicity to humans and animals. Apply 0.8% or 1% solution before flowering or after harvest, the frequency of application depends on the degree of damage to the bushes. The interval between treatments is 24 days;
- Cumulus is a fungicide containing colloidal sulfur, effective as an acaricide. Not toxic to plants, can be used up to six times during the growing season of gooseberries. To prepare the working solution, 20-30 g of Cumulus are taken per 10 liters of water;
- Quadris - works well with the initial manifestations of the sphere library, in advanced cases it is ineffective. May be addictive, do not use more than two times. Safe for plants, insects and humans. Use in the form of a 0.2% solution in the early stages of infection, the deadline for use no later than a week before harvest;
- Nitrafen No. 125 - 1-3% solution of Nitrafen is used against spherical library and gooseberry anthracosis, also has insecticidal properties, and is medium toxic to humans. Apply twice: before budding and during the formation of the ovary, subject to the necessary protective measures;
- Topaz - a fungicide, is considered safe and therefore recommended for use throughout the growing season. The working solution is obtained by dissolving 2 ml of Topaz in 10 l of water.
Topaz is the safest fungicide to control powdery mildew
In the fight against fungal and bacterial plant diseases, the systemic microbiological preparation Phytosporin is successfully used, which is active not only against the sphere library, but also powdery mildew, various types of rust, alternaria and others. During the season, Phytosporin can be applied three times: before budding, after flowering, and after falling of foliage.
To achieve sustainable results in the treatment of gooseberries, it is recommended to combine various groups of drugs with alternative methods of protection. The combination of drugs is also necessary because with monotherapy, addiction often occurs, which means that the effectiveness of the action decreases.
This fungal disease initially appears on the leaves in the form of small dots merging into brown spots. Subsequently, the affected leaves are deformed, dry out and fall off, the berries lose their taste. The fungus affects all aerial parts of the plant. Not only gooseberries, but also currants are subject to anthracosis, therefore all berry bushes of this genus must be treated at the same time.
Anthracosis manifests itself in small brown spots
Prevention of anthracosis is compliance with agricultural standards:
- when planting, they maintain a distance between bushes of at least 1.2–1.5 m;
- do not allow excessive soil moisture and excessive watering;
- in the fall, old and thawed shoots are cut, avoiding bush thickening;
- monitor the condition of the plant, regularly remove the affected leaves and cut diseased branches;
- weeds are systematically weeded, all plant debris around the bush is removed in the fall, since the fungus is preserved there.
To prevent anthracosis, gooseberries are treated with a solution of copper sulfate in the ratio of 40 g per 10 l of water in early spring. Spraying can be repeated 2–4 times with an interval of 2 weeks if the plant is affected by a fungus.
Treatment with Hom is also a prophylactic, but can also be used for treatment. 40 g of Homa are diluted in 10 l of water and treated in early spring bushes at the rate of 2 l of solution per 10 m2. Leaves must be shed both on the inside and on the outside. When signs of anthracosis appear, treatment is carried out 1 time per month. From the beginning of flowering, treatment of bushes with drugs is stopped to prevent poisoning. Spraying is repeated after flowering has ended and, if necessary, after harvesting.
In the case of severe damage, the drugs Fundazole (fungicide and acaricide) are used, and Previkur, which has a fungicidal, protective and growth-promoting effect.
Other gooseberry diseases
Other gooseberry diseases include alternariosis, columnar (or goblet) rust, and septoria. They also affect young shoots and gooseberry leaves. Measures for the prevention and control of these diseases are similar to those for anthracosis. Conclusion: proper agricultural technology provides better plant protection.
Photo Gallery: Other Gooseberry Diseases
- With alternariosis, dark spots appear on gooseberry leaves
- Column rust affects both gooseberries and currants
- Gooseberry Septoria is also called White Spotting.
Gooseberry pests and control
Young shoots with delicate leaves and delicious gooseberries are to the taste and pests. The greatest damage to the berry crop is caused by:
- gooseberry sawfly,
- gooseberry moth,
- currant gall midge,
- currant glass;
- spider mite,
- shoot aphid.
When dealing with the prevention of diseases and the prevention of gooseberry pests, one should not lose sight of the fact that the soil provides shelter for many larvae and pupae of pests. Sometimes it’s enough to dig the soil under the bushes and treat them with protective equipment to get rid of significant problems.
The fact that the plant is struck by a firetight becomes clear as soon as the supposedly ripe berries, entangled in a cobweb, appear on the gooseberry bush ahead of time. This is the result of the work of a larva that eats up the ovary, and then leaves the plant to pupate and grow into an adult butterfly in the thickness of the soil.
Experienced gardeners recommend at this time to cover the soil under the bushes with dense material and thereby prevent the deepening of the larvae.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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On the same principle, another way to combat the departure of a firearm is based. In this case, in early spring gooseberry bushes are huddled up to a height of 10-15 cm, and after flowering begins, when danger is over, the ground is removed. Butterflies cannot overcome such a thick layer of soil and die.
According to gardeners, a good result is given by butterfly traps: windows are cut in plastic bottles, one-third of the fermented juice, kvass or beer is poured, suspended. By the way, if you leave beer glasses on the ground, slugs will also gather there. Manual collection of the affected berries, spraying the bushes on the fifth day of flowering with infusion of ash (the method of preparation is the same as with the defeat of the spherical) and pharmacy chamomile (100 g of dried chamomile flowers, pour 10 l of boiling water, cool and process) helps. In an extreme case, they resort to Actellik, Karbofos or Spark M.
Gooseberry firefly affects gooseberries and currants
In fact, under the name "sawfly" at least two pests are combined, yellow and pale-legged, although there are several thousand of them. The larvae of these insects are very voracious, affecting the leaves of gooseberries and red currants. Sawmills winter in the state of pupae, and in spring the butterfly lays a new masonry on the leaves. The appeared larvae devour the leaves and leave the plant almost naked, with rough coots sticking out. During the season, the sawfly goes through up to three development cycles.
Left without leaves, the bushes die, because the processes of assimilation are disrupted, photosynthesis does not occur in the absence of a green leaf.
For prevention, gooseberry bushes in the spring are treated with odorous solutions containing tar or coniferous extracts, mulching of the root neck of pine needles is used. Spray plants with insecticides before flowering. When pests are detected, biological protective measures are used: they use natural enemies of insects, nematodes. Concentrates are produced by Anthem F and Nemabakt, which contains, in addition to nematodes, bacteria that parasitize garden pests.
Gooseberry sawfly eats leaves of a plant
Gooseberry moth larvae and caterpillars feed on the leaves of the plant, eating them to the veins. Before pupation, the caterpillar braids the leaf and falls to the ground with it. By mechanical collection of affected and suspicious leaves, weeding and mulching of the trunk circle, the plant can be rid of pests. With significant pest damage, the bushes are sprayed with insecticides. For this, the time before flowering, immediately after budding and after harvesting, is most suitable. The manufactured insecticides such as Actellic and Spark M have a wide range of effects, therefore, as a rule, they eliminate several types of pests.
Gooseberry moth caterpillar eats leaf to veins
Despite the telling name, currant gall midge successfully infringes on gooseberry bushes for its offspring. Gall midge is a small insect; for gooseberries, the main danger is its larvae. There are several varieties of gall midges: shoot, leaf and flower. They differ in taste and location of masonry.
Flowers, leaves and shoots affect different types of gall midges
It is easier to prevent a pest from defeating than to fight it. For prevention, the same agrotechnical methods are used as in other cases. Mulch the near-stem circle with the tops of tomatoes or spray the bush with infusion of tops. One way to prepare the infusion: 2 kg of fresh tomato tops are chopped, pour a bucket of boiling water and insist 4 hours. Odorous flowers are planted nearby - Gallicia especially does not like mint. Carrying out autumn pruning, cut the affected branches under the root, without leaving stumps. When working, they try not to injure the shoots.
Shoots affected by gall midges differ in shape from healthy ones
Currant goldfish affects the shoots of currants and gooseberries, eating the core from the top to the bottom. Its larvae hibernate inside shoots, and at the beginning of summer adult individuals fly out to postpone new clutches on leaflets and bark of twigs. The appeared larvae gnaw passages in the shoots, and the cycle repeats. Affected bushes do not grow and do not yield crops. To combat the pest, the affected branches are cut to the root and destroyed. As a preventive measure, only bushes purchased from reliable manufacturers are planted. When planting, agricultural recommendations are taken into account, weeds, fallen leaves are removed and broken branches are removed in time.
Zlatka eats leaves and takes root
An adult specimen of a glass-case is a butterfly up to 25 mm in wingspan. It affects the bushes of currants, gooseberries, raspberries. Larvae emerge from the laid eggs, which, through cracks and injuries on the cortex, penetrate inside and gnaw passages. Affected shoots look drooping, then die. On the cross section of the branch back passages are visible. Some larvae pupate in May and in two weeks form into a butterfly and fly out, some of the larvae hibernate inside shoots.
Currant glass case infects currants, gooseberries, raspberries
As a precautionary measure against glass, odorous plants are planted in the rows of bushes: nasturtiums, calendula, marigolds, onions, and garlic.
Experienced summer residents noticed that the bird cherry tree attracts glass, so they do not recommend growing it in gardens.
When processing plants, trauma to branches and bark is avoided. Periodically inspect the shoots. In the autumn, after harvesting, gooseberry twigs are slightly bent - the healthy ones bend, and the shoots affected by the glass-box break. They are cut to the ground and burned.
Refers to sucking parasites. It is located on the underside of the leaf, entangled in cobwebs, and feeds on its juices. Affected leaves turn yellow and die. In hot and dry weather, the reproduction of spider mites is especially intense, during the summer season they can give up to 8 generations. As a rule, it is impossible to notice ticks or their eggs with the naked eye.
For the prevention and control of spider mites:
- weeds regularly weed and loosen the soil around the bush;
- высаживают рядом с кустами крыжовника пахучие растения (бархатцы, календулу или паслёновые);
- собирают вручную и уничтожают поражённые листья;
- опрыскивают растения настоями пахучих трав (пижмы, табака, чеснока).
Паутинный клещ не виден невооружённым глазом
При отсутствии эффекта от народных способов лечения прибегают к более серьёзным средствам химической защиты, например, Фитоверму или Вермитеку, применяя эти препараты либо до цветения, либо после сбора урожая ягод. Актеллик более эффективен как противоклещевой препарат, но и более токсичен. Выбор средств защиты зависит от степени и массовости поражения растений вредителями.
Тля, возможно, самый распространённый вредитель наших садов. На кустах розы или листьях кабачков её полчища без разбора пожирают листья, бутоны, завязь. Не щадит она и кусты крыжовника.
Побеговая тля способна захватить куст, погубив растение
Из признанных в народе средств борьбы с тлёй стоит упомянуть о настое горчицы. Четыре столовые ложки горчичного порошка заливают литром тёплой воды и оставляют в тёплом месте на два дня, затем сцеживают и доводят раствор до десяти литров. Опрыскивают все растения, не только крыжовник. Часто одного опрыскивания бывает достаточно. Применяется также чесночно-табачный раствор. А для тех садоводов, кто отчаялся достичь успеха в неравной борьбе с вредителями, выпускают препарат Биотлин, уничтожающий не только тлю, но и ряд других вредителей.
Видео: весенние работы для урожайного крыжовника
Правила работы с пестицидами
Для обеспечения собственного здоровья, безопасности близких и эффективности проводимых мер стоит помнить девять правил, которые выполняют при работе с пестицидами:
- Соблюдать сроки и кратность обработки.
- Не превышать дозировку.
- Правильно смешивать препараты при работе с сочетающимися средствами.
- Выбирать правильное время: рано утром или вечером, после захода солнца, в безветренную погоду, при отсутствии дождей.
- Использовать средства защиты.
- Соблюдать правила личной гигиены.
- Правильно утилизировать остатки препаратов.
- Выдерживать сроки ожидания — от последней обработки до сбора урожая должно пройти 20–30 дней.
- Не покупать препараты с рук, так как могут быть нарушены условия хранения, и не запасаться пестицидами впрок.
Приобретая участок и планируя посадки крыжовника, редко какой дачник реально представляет весь объём работы, которую предстоит выполнять в дальнейшем. А сколько болезней и вредителей подстерегают на каждом кусте! Радует, что мер защиты и средств борьбы ещё больше, да и число ценителей свежей ягоды не уменьшается.