Garter of grapes - methods, terms and other features
Growing grapes is quite an exciting and useful activity. Grapes have long ceased to be a delicate, southern plant - today many varieties are zoned and successfully grow and bear fruit not only in central Russia, but also in Siberia and beyond the Urals. And every gardener who decides to grow a seedling of this fruit vine turns into a winegrower and learns a new science for himself.
Do I need to tie the grapes
When growing grapes in young winegrowers, the question arises: should it be tied up. There is only one correct answer. The vine grows very quickly and clings to the antennae for everything that comes in the way - for the neighboring vine, leaves and for itself. In summer, untied vines can intertwine so that it will be difficult to process the plants if necessary, and harvesting will not be an easy task.
The tied vines receive enough light and are well ventilated, and this is the main condition for obtaining a rich harvest
Proper garter helps to distribute grapevines on the trellis in such a way that each of them will receive enough sunlight and air, and during flowering, nothing will prevent complete pollination. In a chaotic, unregulated vineyard, due to poor ventilation, various diseases often arise, and insufficient lighting leads to a partial loss of yield. Clusters with this cultivation do not develop at full strength, and the berries are smaller and lose their taste. In addition, the garter holds the vines on the trellis during strong winds. By tying the grapes, the gardener evenly distributes the vines on the trellis, keeping them in the same plane. As a result, the shoots do not mix up with each other and each of them, receiving its portion of light and heat, develops well, bears fruit, and manages to prepare for winter.
Grapes neatly tied to the trellis not only look well-groomed - it is protected from the occurrence of diseases
When to tie the grapes
Grapes are tied up in the spring - a dry garter, and in the summer - a green garter. The first time the procedure is carried out after removal of the shelter. Overwintered shoots inspect and remove frozen or damaged parts. Dry garter is very important to carry out before budding. The fact is that picking up vines can damage the kidneys, which at this time are quite delicate and vulnerable.
Green garter is carried out in the summer in several stages. The shoots are tied to the trellis as they grow, and this has to be done several times during the summer. The first green garter is carried out when young shoots grow by 40-50 cm. Young vines need to be tied very neatly - despite being flexible, they break easily.
Video: Green garter in many ways
Types of Trellis
In the year of planting, a young grape seedling is tied to a peg. This is enough, since in the first year the forces of the plant are directed to rooting, and the vines grow slightly. Active growth of shoots begins in the second year and there is no need to do without garter. For the proper development of the bush you will need a trellis.
The construction of the trellis is a simple matter and even an inexperienced gardener usually copes with this task. The simplest is a single-plane trellis. All that is required for her is metal or wooden poles 2.5 m long and a wire galvanized or coated with polymer. The second is preferable, since it not only does not rust, but also does not overheat in the sun.
Pillars are dug along the vineyard at a distance of no more than 3 meters from each other, placing them in the center of the ridge. Screws are screwed into poles at a distance of 0.5 m from the ground and above every half meter. Then, between the posts, three or four rows of wire are pulled, attaching it to the screws.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Single-plane trellis - suitable for beginner growers
To install a two-plane trellis, poles are dug along the edges of the vineyard, and then everything happens according to the described scenario. Instead of a pair of pillars, sometimes one is made with transverse slats, and the wire is attached to the ends of these crossbars. When growing grapes on such trellises, the vines are sent on both sides, which makes it possible to grow more shoots on one plant.
Two-plane trellis allows you to get more yield from one bush
Grapes Garter Methods
Different materials are used for gartering grapes - twine, cord, wire and various hooks. Each method has its supporters and opponents. The nylon tape 4–5 cm wide, cut from pantyhose, remains the best material. Such garters are easy to attach and do not pinch the vine when it grows, as the nylon is stretched. In addition, this material is strong enough and will not tear by the end of summer.
Types of mounts for vines
Experienced growers, especially if their crops are grown on an industrial scale, are constantly looking for a quick way to garter. You can understand them, because when you do not have 2-3 grape bushes, but 100 or more, it will take a lot of time to tie knots. And here everything is used - home-made hooks and rings of wire, prepared on long winter evenings, all kinds of cambrices, clips and even a stapler.
Photo gallery: ways to mount the vine
- A plastic hook reliably holds the grape shoot on the wire
- From pre-prepared pieces of soft wire, fast fastening is obtained
- Factory cambrics are easy to use and reliable enough.
- A simple clip fastens the vine to the wire
- A twisted clip is an excellent mounting option for both horizontal shoots and vertical shoots
- Knitted tape grabs the vine and wire and fastened with a stapler - easy, fast and simple
There are several ways to tie knots. The choice depends on the method of garter and material - for example, it is more convenient to attach the vine horizontally by wrapping it to the trellis with aluminum or insulated wire. When tying inclined and vertical shoots with twine or knitted tape, various nodes and loops are used.
The choice of knot depends on the method of garter and material.
Dry and green garter
During dry garter, wintered vines are tied to the first and second trellis wires. They are always directed horizontally or obliquely. This is due to the fact that new shoots will go from the buds located on these vines, but only the upper buds will wake up in a vertical arrangement, the rest will not develop. The vine, directed horizontally along the stretched wire, is tied tight enough so that it can withstand gusts of wind.
With a horizontal arrangement, it is necessary to carefully twist the wire around the vine and only then tie it up. This method will reliably fix the escape, and the need for numerous mounts will disappear by itself. It is enough to tie the vine in two places.
With a dry garter, the vines are tied to the wire, giving them a horizontal position
As the shoots grow back, they carry out a green garter. Young branches are tied vertically to the wire, placing them at a sufficient distance from each other. To avoid damage to the vines from swaying, you need to attach quite tightly. If the grapes were tied to the trellis correctly, then as a result each vine will receive the necessary portion of light, heat and space for growth and development.
With a green garter, young shoots growing in the summer are tied to the wire only vertically
Garter with a fan-shaped bush
There are many ways to form a grape bush. For central Russia, where plants have to be covered for the winter, a fan shape is a classic option. Formed according to this scheme, the bush consists of sleeves emerging from the base of the plant. Located in the same plane, but at different angles, the shoots are easily removed from the trellis, stacked in a trench and take cover for the winter.
In the year of planting, by the end of the growing season, 2–4 vines remain on the young grape seedling. During the first pruning in the spring of the second year, two strong shoots are left - the sleeves and shortened to 2–4 buds. If 4 kidneys are left, then any two of them are blind. By autumn two sleeves with two shoots should remain. In the spring of the third year, two buds are again left on the overwintered vines. The vines are tied to the trellis horizontally, and shoots emerging from the buds are tied vertically. The bush of grapes formed and tied in this way resembles a fan. Hence the name of the formation - fan.
Fan-shaped bush formation is better than others for growing grapes with shelter in the winter
I have eight grape bushes growing on my site, though only two varieties. The fact is that I grew it from cuttings that I cut in a friend's cottage. This was my first rooting experience, but they all took root. I distributed it to friends, I had to plant the rest at home - I don’t know how to sell, but my hand does not rise to throw it away. My husband made a good trellis, a little more than two meters high. I form bushes with a fan, I tie them up with something - with soft wire and knitted stripes. Everything keeps well, the vines are not injured, the only thing that takes a lot of time, and also in the autumn, you need to unwind everything - the same time. And as every gardener is looking for his own way, I also found. Orchids grow in my house and once special clothespins and clips were bought for them to attach a flower stalk to a stick. I remembered about them when I knitted knots on the grapes and decided to try. The shoots, which I direct horizontally, are perfectly attached to the wire with these clothespins. I had to buy it - it’s good they are inexpensive, but my 10 pieces were not enough for everything. The clothespin device itself seems weak, but due to the teeth closed with a “crab”, it reliably holds the vine and, importantly, it does not squeeze it during growth. The most pleasant thing happened in the fall. Clothespins are easy and simple to remove and what is surprising - they looked like new ones - neither the rains nor the heat affected them. I don’t know when the grapes will grow, probably these little latches will not work, but while the bushes are young and the shoots are relatively thin - everything is fine.
Clips for orchids perfectly hold horizontal shoots of grapes on a wire
All work related to growing grapes, from planting to shelter for the winter, is pleasant and not burdensome. With the seeming complexity, care for this culture is beyond the reach of even a novice gardener. The only thing required is to try to learn as much as possible about planting and caring for the grapes. There are no trifles - everything is important, and even such a simple operation as garter shoots, you need to do it right.