Garden Lupine: features of cultivation and use in landscape design
Lupine is an unpretentious and hardy garden plant with a lush inflorescence resembling a colorful candle. When flowers of different shades bloom on the flowerbed at the same time, it resembles the artist’s colorful palette. Growing a plant is not particularly difficult, but compliance with some rules of care is necessary.
Description of the plant and methods of growing it
Lupine is an annual or perennial plant in the legume family, with long roots deepened by 2 meters. There are annual and perennial species. Plant height from 50 to 120 cm Flowering begins in late May and continues until the end of June. Some species are capable of re-flowering. Subject to the timely removal of wilted peduncles.
Lupine has not only decorative properties, it also enhances soil fertility.
The color of the flowers is diverse: white, pink, lilac, purple. Breeders bred varieties combining up to three shades. After flowering on the peduncles, fruits are formed that are used for sowing.
The plant is drought-and frost-resistant, so any climate is suitable for it. The only condition is the correct choice of species and variety. Wild arctic lupine feels great in the northern meadows of Canada. Some species grow in the hot, arid deserts of Africa and South America, and even in the Sahara. The multi-leafed species of the plant is distributed throughout the world.
In the middle lane, both perennial and annual species are successfully grown. The plant prefers sun-protected or semi-shaded areas protected from the wind.
The choice of soil for cultivation
Correct soil selection is the key to the success of cultivation. The plant prefers slightly alkaline or slightly acidic loam. Overly acidic soil is contraindicated for the plant: it will cease to bloom, and the foliage will become faded. Liming of the soil in areas with lupins is carried out every 3-4 years.
Excess alkali in the soil will lead to the development of diseases. To plant flowers in alkaline soil, you must first water the area with a weak acid solution or add peat to the soil.
The flower is not very demanding on soil fertility; it can grow even on sand. For bright and lush flowering, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are added to the soil.
Important! Nitrogen is not introduced under the plant, since it itself produces this substance in symbiosis with nodule bacteria on the roots. From top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers, the plant begins to wilt and may die. For the same reason, a flower cannot be planted in soil that has been fertilized with compost.
The use of lupine in landscape design
Mixed lupine planting is widely used in garden design
Tall, lush inflorescences are a real find for a landscape designer. Multi-colored candles look spectacular on a flower bed, an alpine hill, along garden paths.
In some flower beds, lupine plays a major role.
Flowers look spectacular in single and group plantings. Tall varieties serve as a backdrop for stunted annuals and perennials.
Long lupine roots can reach two meters deep
The plant looks decorative during the flowering period, but its foliage is no less interesting. Rapidly growing and forming a dense rosette of beautifully shaped leaves, the plant well masks unsightly communications in the garden. Low-growing varieties are used as a border of flower beds.
Lupine is often used in a flowerbed of continuous flowering.
Annual lupins can be grown in tubs or flowerpots. For perennials, this option of growing is not recommended: a powerful, long root will not be comfortable in a limited space.
Annual species are used in agriculture as a feed plant. Feed varieties do not have a decorative effect and mainly increase the leaf outlet. The green part of the plant is rich in protein.
Perennial species are wonderful siderates. They are sown to enrich the soil with nitrogen during the growth of the plant, due to root nodules, and after the death of the aerial part and its decomposition in the soil. The culture also prevents erosion and shedding of soil, so it is planted on the slopes.
Popular types and varieties with photos
By origin, plant species are divided into two groups: Mediterranean and American. Varieties belonging to the American group are grown on the territory of Russia. The most common species are volatile and multi-leaved.
Annual varieties are unpretentious and resistant to disease.
Yellow, Lupinus luteus
Yellow lupine is grown as a feed crop and used for decorative purposes.
Mediterranean view up to 1.5 meters high with a fluffy stem. Flowers with a whorled arrangement.
Hartwega, Lupinus hartwegii
Lupine hartweg is used in flower beds and is used for decoration of bouquets.
Low, about 60 cm, plant. The color of the flowers is pink or blue. As a perennial, it can be grown only in regions with a warm climate, where the temperature does not drop below zero.
Tiny, Lupinus pusillus
Tiny lupine forms a beautiful carpet of greenery and flowers
Creeping appearance with small flower tassels.
Pink Fairy, Pink Fairy
Attractive appearance of a lupine. Pink sorceress holds on to the frost.
The height of the plant is 30 cm. It blooms profusely, exuding the aroma of sweet peas.
White, Lupinus albus
White lupine is used as a fertilizer, fodder crop, as well as for decorative purposes
Tall variety. The flower stalk can reach a height of 2 meters. Flowers are snow-white.
Perennial lupins are grown not only for decorative purposes. This is a biological ameliorant that improves soil properties.
Silver, Lupinus argenteus
The flowers of silver lupine have saturated shades, close to the top with a white color.
Low-growing variety, no more than 25 cm.
Saturated apricot color gave the name to the species Lupine Apricot
The height of the plants is about 90 cm. The flowers are white-orange.
A short minaret is ideal for a central arrangement in the design of the garden
A low-growing variety with a height of 50-60 cm. The color of the flowers is lilac, pink, lemon.
Lupine fireworks has bright slender pyramidal ears
A plant with red-pink, cream-yellow, white-pink or lilac flowers. Height - about 120 cm.
Arboreal, Lupinus arboreus Sims
Shrub with fragrant flowers needs shelter from frost
A plant native to North America. Plant height - about 2 meters. The flowers are red, white or yellow.
How to grow a flower and how to propagate it
In the wild, the plant propagates easily by self-seeding and the growth of basal processes. This property of the flower should be taken into account when growing it on a flower bed, otherwise it will clog the entire garden area. Cultivars are recommended to be grown by dividing the bush, sowing seeds for seedlings or in the ground.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
The fastest way to obtain a flowering lupine in the area is propagation by cuttings-cuttings.
The division of the bush is used in late spring or early summer, when the perennial begins to form a leaf rosette.
The soil around the plant is well moistened, then young rosettes are separated from the main bush, carefully dig them out and planted in a new place.
Cuttings of plants are carried out in spring or summer.
In spring cuttings, a branch with a renewal point is cut off at the root outlet. In summer, a side shoot is used as a stalk.
Shoots are formed in the axils of the leaves. Cut cuttings are planted in pots with a peat-sand mixture for rooting. After 25-30 days, the stalk launches roots, and it is planted on the prepared site.
Sowing of lupine seeds for seedlings begins in late February. To obtain friendly seedlings and strong seedlings, proper soil preparation is important.
The plant does not need to dive, seedlings are immediately transferred to the soil
The mixture for sowing is prepared from turf soil, sand and peat in equal quantities. The plant forms a long root, which is easily injured during transplantation. Therefore, it is preferable to take containers for sowing seedlings deep.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Tip. If crushed tubers of last year’s flowers are added to the sowing mixture, the seeds will sprout quickly and amicably.
Seeds are pre-disinfected in a 50% solution of the drug Fundazole. The hard shell of the seed prevents the formation of sprouts, so it is recommended to prepare it for germination in one of the following ways:
- Rub with sandpaper, being careful not to damage the inside contents. After removing part of the shell, the seeds are immersed in warm water for 10-12 hours so that they swell.
- Subject to temperature shock. To do this, they are frozen in the freezer, and then immersed in boiling water for a minute. The temperature contrast leads to cracking of the hard shell.
- Treat with chemical composition. Seeds are soaked for 10 hours in a ten percent solution of lime or for 20 minutes in a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. After treatment with chemicals, the seeds are thoroughly washed.
Prepared soil mixture is poured into seedlings, make grooves with a depth of 1.5–2 cm and evenly distribute seeds in them. The distance between plants is 1–1.5 cm.
To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, the crops are covered with glass or film. The crop box is set in a warm, bright place. Germination temperature - + 20–25 ° C. Shoots appear after 14-15 days. After their appearance, the shelter is removed from the box and put it in the most bright place.
Seedlings are planted in open ground after the onset of heat, when the threat of frost passes. With timely sowing for seedlings by this time 4-5 leaves are already formed. Later planting will lead to injury to the root, which will affect the survival rate of the plant. The plants on which the 7th leaf was formed take root twice as bad.
Before planting in open ground, seedlings are tempered. To do this, seedlings are taken out for a walk, gradually increasing the time spent on the street. During hardening, seedlings are placed in a shaded, windless place.
The most suitable time for planting seedlings is the beginning or middle of May. If there is a risk of frost after planting, plantings are covered with non-woven material.
Important! Experienced flower growers are not advised to grow lupine seedlings in room conditions. Plants in this case are weak and with small flowers. The best option for sowing seedlings to accelerate flowering is the use of a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Sowing seeds in open ground
The flower rises well when sown directly in open ground. The optimal sowing dates are in early or mid-April. At this time, the soil is already warm enough, but still retains a sufficient amount of moisture for seed germination. Minimum soil temperature for sowing + 5–8 ° C.
Lupine seeds look like small beans
For the development of the autonomic organs of lupine, a temperature of 12-15 ° C is needed. At the same time, the plant can tolerate a nighttime drop in temperature to 4–5 ° C.
Important! When sowing seeds, flowering begins in the second year. The seed propagation method does not guarantee that varietal shades of the mother plant will be preserved. The most persistent are pink and purple shades. White color during subsequent sowing is practically not preserved.
For sowing, the site is dug up and phosphate-potassium fertilizers are applied. Seeds of 2-3 pieces are placed in holes at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other. If several sprouts sprout in each hole, leave the strongest, the rest are removed.
Seeds can be sown in the open ground before winter. In this case, flowering will begin next season, but only in August. When sowing, the plot is sprinkled with a layer of peat 3-4 cm high.
Outdoor Lupine Care
Plant care consists of watering, fertilizing and weeding. Loosening the soil around the plant is not necessary, since its roots penetrate deep into the ground and do not need oxygen.
Watering and feeding
The plant is drought tolerant, but with regular watering it more actively forms a leaf rosette and blooms profusely. Watering should be regular and moderate. It is especially important to moisten the soil in the first year of growing perennial species. As the plants grow older, the amount of moisture is reduced.
Important! If, due to the abundance of moisture, exposure of the root neck has occurred, the stem needs to be spudded. Lupine planted next to an artificial or natural body of water can not be watered: a powerful root will obtain moisture on its own.
Feed the plant begin in the second year of life. Instances up to a year of feeding are not needed and even harmful, as they can disrupt the formation of the root system.
The first top dressing is introduced immediately after the start of bud formation. The following fertilizers are used for top dressing:
- a mixture of superphosphate and potassium chloride (20 g / 5 g per square meter);
- 2 tablespoons of wood ash for each bush;
- when growing on sandy soils - top dressing with dolomite flour and magnesium.
Lupine independently forms a rounded rosette of the correct shape, so he does not need to trim. During flowering, flowering stems are removed. The purpose of this event is to stimulate re-flowering in August and prevent self-seeding.
A plant from the age of 4 begins to age. The center of the outlet dies, so the flowering becomes sparse. Old bushes are removed, new specimens are planted in their place.
Attention! If it is necessary to collect plant seeds for its propagation, several peduncles are left until the fruit fully ripens. To prevent spontaneous rashes of seeds, a tissue bag is put on the peduncle. The seed stalk should dry completely. The extracted seeds are well dried and stored in paper bags.
Autumn care and wintering
Perennial species in the open ground can survive even the most severe frosts. To prevent freezing of the rhizome, the site is covered. If the weather is dry in the fall, water-loading irrigation is carried out.
After repeated flowering in August, the aerial part of the plant is cut. All plant debris is removed, as pests and diseases can linger in them. Then the area with lupins is mulched with peat or sawdust. Immediately after the snow melts, excess peat is removed from the shoots.
Strong temperature changes are detrimental to lupins.
In regions with a harsh climate (Ural, Siberia) perennial species require more serious shelter. After mulching with peat, the plot is covered with spruce branches or dry foliage. The coating layer is removed immediately after the start of snow melting. It is impossible to delay this event: under the layer of foliage or spruce, the rhizome will be waterlogged and may rot.
Growing problems and methods for solving them
The flower is affected by diseases and pests if the rules for caring for it are not followed or the requirements for the selection of the plot are violated. The following conditions are harmful to the plant:
- sharp change in temperature;
- low light;
- waterlogging of the soil.
A common problem is yellowing of the leaves. The causes of this phenomenon are alkaline soil, lack of moisture, excess nitrogen in the soil. Liming the soil and timely watering helps to prevent this problem.
Sowing lupine early contributes to less disease.
In adverse conditions, diseases develop:
- Powdery Mildew It affects the plant when combined with cold and high humidity. A white coating appears on the leaves. The plant is sprayed with Topaz, Fundazole or copper sulfate.
- Gray and brown rot. It develops against the background of waterlogging of the soil and thickened plantings. The plant begins to fade, dry out, a grayish or red coating appears on the leaves, brownish spots. Treatment is carried out by spraying with drugs Fitosporin, Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate.
- Fusarium Fungal disease manifested during budding. Leaves begin to turn yellow, then turn brown, curl. The fungus is destroyed by spraying with the preparations Fitosporin, Bactofit.
Lupine is practically not attacked by common garden pests. But some insects can settle on the plant and cause serious harm to it:
- Phytophages: wireworm, sprout fly, larvae of May beetles. These pests can attack the seeds immediately after sowing in open ground. To combat them, the site is treated with an insecticide before planting.
- Aphid. It attacks inflorescences during budding. If black dots are found on the peduncle, the plant is sprayed with Aktara, Actellik, Spark, Alatar.
Useful reviews of gardeners
Experienced gardeners are willing to share with the features and important nuances of growing on the garden plot.
A perennial bush can not change the color of the flowers, from that it will be the color that it was originally. But his children, grown from seeds, will be of all kinds of colors, if nearby (in the reach of pollinating insects) there are other plants of the same species, but of different colors.
I got accustomed to the lupins in my area. Now they emerge self-seeding, and learned to rejuvenate old bushes. Indeed, after 3-4 years, the rhizomes of adult plants begin to bulge out of the ground, the bush weakens and no top dressing helps him anymore. It is necessary to sow new ones, but from the seeds plants of a different color can be obtained, since there is a splitting of maternal characters. In the spring from the desired plant, with a knife I separate the bud with a piece of rhizome and plant it under a jar, then the flowers in the new bush will be like those of the mother plant.
Lupine does not like transplantation, since he has a root root. Therefore, it is not sown through seedlings. Germination of seeds occurs in the light. They do not overwhelm him with the earth, and when he rises, then they heap the earth.
Unpretentious lupine can be annual or perennial. Due to its variegated color, it is widely used in landscape design. The plant requires a minimum of attention and is easily propagated by seed and vegetative means.