Galahad: a popular Russian grape variety
Growing grapes in your garden is a rather complicated matter, but very interesting. Recently, new domestic varieties and hybrids have appeared that are adapted to the temperate climate and are distinguished by excellent taste. The most successful achievements of Russian breeders include Galahad grapes.
Description of Galahad grapes
Halahad (sometimes found under the name "Halahard") - a hybrid of grapes popular among gardeners. Despite the name, it is of Russian origin. Created with the participation of varieties Talisman (also known as Kesha), Delight, Muscat Delight in the All-Russian Research Institute of Gardening and Viticulture. Galahad appeared in the public domain relatively recently, only in 2007, but Russian gardeners have already appreciated the novelty. This variety is also gaining popularity in neighboring countries.
Galahad is a promising Russian grape variety that has already been appreciated by many gardeners
Galahad was specially developed for cultivation in the European part of Russia and in other regions with a temperate climate. This is due to good frost resistance - up to -25ºС.
Galahad belongs to the category of early self-pollinated varieties (bisexual flowers). The ripening period of the fruit is about 100 days. Harvested in the first decade of August, in the southern regions - even at the end of July. Closer to the north, the ripening period is increased by 10-15 days. Practice shows that 65–70% of the formed berries ripen.
High yield is one of the undoubted advantages of Galahad grapes
The bushes are vigorous, the stem is massive, the shoots are powerful, developed. In the absence of constraints, the vine can reach a length of 30–40 m. To facilitate care, its growth, as a rule, is limited to 2.5–3 m. The leaves are large, salad-colored with golden green veins. The productive life of the plant with proper care is 130–150 years.
The clusters are large, weighing from 0.6 to 1.2 kg, in the shape of an almost regular cone, slightly loose. The berries are elongated (oval or ovoid), large (weighing 10-12 g and a length of 2.5-3 cm). With proper care, their size increases, reaching 3.3-3.5 cm in length.
Large loose brushes of regular shape are formed on the vines of Galahad grapes
Unripe fruits are painted in a milky green color, as they ripen, they change their color to golden amber. Grapes can be harvested as soon as a dull “wax” coating of bluish-blue color appears on the berries. The skin is dense, but not so thick as to spoil the taste. Brownish spots on it - this is the norm, and not some kind of exotic disease. It is not worth delaying the harvest. Overripe fruits quickly crumble.
The berries of the Galahad grapes are elongated, large, with a dense but not rigid skin
Video: Galahad grapes
The main sweetness of the berries is gained in the last week of ripening. Taste qualities by professionals are not rated very high, at 8.9 points out of 10 (when using a five-point scale - by 4.3 points). But amateur gardeners are quite satisfied with a pleasant sweet taste. The fruits are resistant to cracking, even if the summer is very rainy, they are well stored and tolerate transportation.
The ripening of berries is indicated by a layer of wax coating and a characteristic golden color
Galahad - table grapes. Accordingly, it is intended primarily for fresh consumption. But all kinds of preparations for the winter (compotes, jams, jams) and desserts also turn out very tasty.
Landing procedure and preparation for it
Like any other grape, Galahad loves heat and sunlight, with a deficit of which the yield is greatly reduced, the berries are smaller, the taste is significantly spoiled. When choosing a place, it is worth considering that the shoots are very tall, they will need a lot of space. The cold wind does not pose a special threat to Galahad. But it is desirable that at some distance from the landings, without shading them, there should be a stone or brick wall. Warming up during the day, at night it will give off heat.
To regularly receive a plentiful harvest of grapes, you need to choose an open sunny place for it
The most suitable place for planting grapes is the southern or southeastern slope of a gentle hill. Any lowlands are categorically not suitable for this culture. From there, melt and rain water do not leave for a long time, and cold, moist air accumulates in the same place. A common disease of grapes - root rot - most often develops in waterlogged soil. Therefore, it is worth excluding areas where groundwater approaches the surface closer than 2 m.
Galahad is generally unpretentious in terms of soil quality. It successfully survives on peaty, sandy, and loamy soils, including those with a high lime content. The only thing that he categorically does not tolerate is a saline substrate.
High-quality planting material is the key to a plentiful harvest in the future. When choosing, you need to pay special attention to the roots. They should be flexible, elastic, without growths, cracks, traces of mold and rot. The leaves of healthy grapes are not limp and not wrinkled, buds are elastic. The roots on the cut are white, the shoots are greenish. Saplings are purchased only in nurseries or in specialized stores. Buying at markets, agricultural fairs, from the hands of strangers is a big risk.
Grape seedlings need to be purchased only from reputable suppliers and carefully inspected before purchase
You can plant grapes in spring and autumn. But Galahad is most often grown in temperate climates, so spring is a suitable option for him. In autumn, it is impossible to predict exactly when frosts will begin. And seedlings need at least 2.5 months to adapt to new living conditions. If planted in spring, when the threat of freezing frost is over, over the summer the seedlings will have time to form a developed root system and provide themselves with everything necessary for a successful wintering.
Another argument in favor of spring planting is at this time a much wider choice, it is easier to get the desired variety.
Galahad grapes are powerful vigorous vines, so when planting between them you need to leave enough space
The optimal time for planting lignified seedlings is the end of April or the beginning of May. Greens are planted later - in the last decade of May or even in June.
The root system of Galahad is powerful, developed. Therefore, the optimal depth of the landing pit is 75–80 cm (in light sandy soil it increases to 1 m), its diameter is 70–75 cm. If it is planned to land in spring, it is best to dig a hole in the fall. In any case, she needs to be allowed to stand for at least 2-3 weeks. With the simultaneous planting of several seedlings, long trenches are being dug. A drainage layer of at least 10 cm thick is required at the bottom. Suitable material is pebbles, expanded clay, clay shards. For the first time, a seedling will need support, it should be at least twice as high as it. It is placed in the pit before landing, and not after it. Otherwise, the roots may be damaged.
A layer of drainage is mandatory at the bottom of the landing pit for grapes, this is necessary so that the water does not stagnate at the roots
Also, a piece of plastic pipe of not too large diameter is inserted into the bottom of the pit so that it rises 10-15 cm above the ground. This will be needed for watering.
Fill the planting pit with layers, alternating fertile soil or humus and fertilizers. The thickness of the soil layer is 12-15 cm. Three of them will be needed. Between them are two layers of simple superphosphate (180–200 g) and potassium sulfate (130–150 g). A natural alternative to mineral fertilizers is a three-liter can of sifted wood ash. All this must be tamped, watered abundantly (50-60 liters of water) and left until spring.
Humus - a natural remedy to increase soil fertility
When planting between grape bushes, leave at least 2 m. The distance between rows of plantings is 2.5–3 m. You also need to provide a place for support. The simplest option is poles with several rows of wire stretched parallel to the ground at a height of 60–70 cm, 100–110 cm and 150–180 cm.
For proper formation, vines are tied to supports
Step-by-step landing procedure:
- The roots of a seedling for a day are immersed in a tank of water at room temperature. You can add several crystals of potassium permanganate to it (for disinfection) or any biostimulant (this positively affects the immunity of the plant).
- After this, the roots are carefully examined, dried and blackened cut completely. The remaining ones are shortened by 2-3 cm. Then the roots are coated with a mixture of manure and powder clay with the addition of potassium humate. She needs to be allowed to dry for 2-3 hours.
- The seedling is placed at the bottom of the planting pit so that the growth buds are oriented to the north. If the plant is longer than 25 cm, it is placed at an angle of 40–45º. The roots are straightened so that they are directed down.
- The pit is covered with small portions of chernozem mixed with sand (1: 1), periodically shaking the seedling so that there are no voids. Be sure to monitor the position of the root neck - it should be 3-5 cm above the surface of the soil when the hole is completely filled.
- Tamp the soil gently with your hands. The grapes are abundantly watered, spending 30-40 liters of water per plant. The soil may settle slightly, in which case it will need to be added to the trunk.
- When the moisture is absorbed, the trunk circle is tightened with a black plastic film or mulched. The seedling is not too tightly tied to the peg. The shoot is shortened, leaving 3-4 “eyes”. For the first 2-3 weeks, it is covered with a cropped plastic bottle, creating the effect of a greenhouse. Then the shelter is removed.
- For the first season, it is recommended to build a canopy of any white covering material to protect young seedlings from direct sunlight.
Video: how to plant grapes correctly
Crop Care Recommendations
If you do not pay proper attention to planting, it is impossible to get a plentiful harvest.
Grapes need abundant watering. For each plant, 30–40 L is consumed every 10–15 days. Of course, the intervals between irrigation are adjusted depending on the weather.
But for the first time, grapes are watered very moderately when the winter shelter is finally removed. For one plant, 4–5 l of water heated to 25–30 ° C with the addition of wood ash (1.5 tbsp) is consumed. Also, watering must be carried out 5-7 days before flowering and immediately after it. Stop them as soon as the berries begin to pour, acquiring a characteristic shade of the variety. This usually happens about a month before the harvest.
When watering grapes, you should avoid getting drops of water on the leaves, it is advisable to also build a canopy to protect from rain
Water the grapes so that drops of water do not fall on the leaves and brushes. This can trigger the development of rot. For protection, experienced gardeners even recommend a canopy over the vines. The best option is to supply water through pipes vertically dug into the ground. Drop drip irrigation is also acceptable, but it does not always allow the soil to be wet to a sufficient depth. The roots of the grapes go deep into 4–5 m.
The plant also needs moisture in order to properly prepare for winter. If autumn is dry and warm, in the middle of October they carry out the so-called water-charging irrigation. For each plant, 60–80 liters of water are consumed. After about 1-2 weeks, the plants can be sheltered for the winter.
Plastic pipes dug into the ground allow moisture to be transported into the deeper layers of the soil.
Halahad reacts positively to almost any fertilizer, organic or mineral. The landing pit, prepared in compliance with all recommendations, contains nutrients that the grapes will last for the next 2 years. Fertilizers begin to be applied in the third season after planting.
- In early spring, as soon as the soil has warmed up enough, it is gently loosened, while applying Nitrofoska or Kemira-Lux dry. Complex fertilizer can be replaced with a mixture of 40 g of simple superphosphate, 25 g of potassium sulfate and 45 g of urea.
- The second time the grapes are fed 7-10 days before flowering. Infusion of fresh cow manure, bird droppings, nettle leaves or dandelion is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 or 1:15 (if it is litter) and 15 g of potassium and 25 g of phosphorus fertilizer are added for every 10 liters. The consumption rate is 12-15 liters per adult plant.
- The third top dressing is 5-7 days after flowering. Simple superphosphate (40–50 g) and potassium sulfate (20–25 g) are distributed over the soil during loosening or a solution is prepared.
Galahad also applies to foliar top dressing. Of the liquid complex fertilizers, Rastvorin, Florovit, Master, Novofert, Plantafol, Aquarin are best suited for it. Treatments are carried out 2-3 times per season.
Novofert - a complex fertilizer containing all the necessary micronutrients
Excess nitrogen should be avoided. Firstly, it weakens the immunity of the plant, and secondly, it prevents the ripening of berries, stimulating the active formation of green mass. The vines simply have no power left on the brush. Any nitrogen-containing fertilizer is applied until mid-June.
As soon as the shoots reach the bottom wire, they are tied up, trying to make the bend smooth. Otherwise, the conductive system of the plant will suffer, it will not be able to adequately provide itself with food. The young shoots of this season are tied to the next level wire at an angle so that the sun illuminates them evenly. They should not be attached to the support at the very top, but somewhere in the middle between the second and third growth buds from the end. To prevent the vine from rubbing, lay straw or bast between it and the wire.
Only sharpened and sanitized tools are used for trimming.
In the first 4–5 years, Galahad grapes need only formative pruning. The optimal load on an adult plant is 30–35 “eyes”, not more than 6–8 pieces on each vine.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In the summer, pinch the vine, adjusting its length. You also need to remove all weak, deformed shoots, cut off the leaves that obscure the brush. With a lack of heat and light, the ripening of the grapes is delayed.
The main forming pruning is carried out in the fall, when all the leaves fall. But you can’t pull it before the onset of cold weather. At low temperatures, the wood becomes brittle, and the plant can be seriously damaged.
In a young plant, pruning aims to form a sufficient number of vines that will bear fruit in the future
It is best to break it into two stages. First of all, weak, thin, twisted shoots and tops are cut. After about two weeks, the young growth is removed on the young plant, leaving 6-8 of the most powerful and developed branches. With adult grapes, it’s a bit more complicated: from the old sleeves to the growth point, the entire shoot located below the first wire is cut. On the shoots attached to the second wire, they get rid of all the side stepsons, pinching the tops of the remaining ones, shortening them by about 10%.
If you leave most of the work in the spring, you can ruin not only the harvest of this season, but in general the whole vine. After pruning, the grape literally “cries”, the damage done to it heals for a very long time and is difficult. Drops of apiary fill "eyes", they turn sour, do not open, can rot. Therefore, in the spring, they limit themselves to cutting off broken shoots under the weight of snow or frozen out shoots.
The adult vine is formed so as to evenly distribute the load on the plant and not exceed it
Once every 8–10 years, the vine needs rejuvenation. To do this, on the first or second wire, choose two healthy powerful shoots. The one below is cut off, leaving 3-4 “eyes”. It will be a new "trunk". The second (it is desirable that it is located on the opposite side) is shortened to 8-12 “eyes”, forming a fruit arrow.
In the southern regions with a subtropical climate, Galahad, which has good frost resistance, winter without shelter. But where harsh winters are by no means uncommon, they will certainly be needed.
To prepare for wintering, vines of grapes are carefully removed from the support
The soil is cleaned from a pallet of foliage, fallen berries, other plant debris. Then it is carefully loosened and the layer of mulch is renewed. The base of the trunks is covered with peat or humus, forming mounds with a height of at least 25 cm. The vines are removed from the supports and laid out on the ground or in specially dug shallow trenches. From above they are pulled in with burlap or any covering material that allows air to pass through, then they are thrown with spruce branches. As soon as enough snow falls, it is raked to the shelter, constructing a snowdrift. During the winter, it will be necessary to renew it as it settles several times, while breaking up a layer of infusion on the surface.
Covering material must pass air
In spring, the shelter is removed no earlier than the air temperature rises to 5ºС. If there are spring back frosts in the region, you can first make several holes in the material for ventilation, and completely remove them when leaf buds begin to open.
When the shelter is already removed, you can protect the grapes from frost by making bonfires near the plantings. Also helps watering with Epin diluted cold water. The procedure should be carried out 1-2 days before the expected cooling, the effect lasts about 1.5 weeks.
Do not rush to take shelter from grapes, especially in those regions where spring return frosts are not uncommon
Video: recommendations for pruning and preparing for the winter
Diseases, pests and their control
The Galahad grape variety has good immunity. He rarely suffers from such a culture-dangerous disease as gray rot. To protect against mildew and oidium, as a rule, three preventative treatments per season are sufficient.
- The first is carried out 7-10 days after the winter shelter is removed. Vines are sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid or copper sulphate. If after that they acquire a bluish tint for several days, this is normal.
- As soon as the leaves bloom, the procedure is repeated using a 1% solution.
- After flowering, the grapes are sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (25-30 g per 10 l of water).
During the growing season, soil in the garden can be dusted once every 2–2.5 weeks with sifted wood ash and crushed chalk.
Bordeaux liquid is one of the most common fungicides, you can buy it or make it yourself
To protect grapes from fungal infections, not only Bordeaux liquid and vitriol can be used, but also modern copper-containing preparations. To protect the vines, as a rule, fungicides of biological origin are enough - Baikal-EM, Bayleton, Fitosporin-M, Gamair, Trichodermin. If infection could not be avoided, Skor, Chorus, Quadris, Kuprozan are used. The solution is prepared in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, it also determines the frequency of processing.
The use of any chemicals is excluded during flowering and 20-25 days before the expected ripening period of berries. During prophylactic treatments, it is advisable to change drugs annually in order to prevent pathogens from developing immunity.
The undoubted advantage of this grape variety is that wasps are completely indifferent to it. Something they are not satisfied with the aroma and taste of berries. But the birds of Galahad really like. The only way to reliably protect the crop is with a fine-mesh net stretched over the shoots or individual small nets worn on the hands. Everything else (scarecrows, sound and light repellers, shiny ribbons) gives an effect at best for 2-3 days.
The only effective anti-bird remedy is fine wire mesh
The most dangerous pest for Halahad is phylloxera or grape aphid. She has two forms - leaf and root. If you can still cope with the first with the help of Confidor-Maxi, Zolon, Actellik preparations, then it is almost impossible to get rid of the second. The only way out is vaccination using pest-resistant varieties (Amateur, Chocolate, Flaming, Danko).
Phyloxera settles on vines in whole colonies, feeding on plant sap
For prevention, in early spring and autumn after harvesting, vines and soil at the roots are sprayed with 7% urea solution or Nitrafen. From folk remedies, during the vegetative season, once every 2-3 weeks, you can use ordinary table salt and baking soda (respectively 300 g and 200 g per 10 liters of water). The solution is sprayed with leaves and vines.
I have Galahad - the only one of the institute's innovations, but which one. Planted last year with a growing seedling. From a tiny two-eyed handle, two powerful sleeves for a year were worn out. Wintered perfectly. This year, on six shoots, he left 10 bunches weighing from 0.5 kg to 1 kg. And most surprisingly, the bush pulled this load. The growth force is very powerful, the pollination is excellent, the shape of the cluster and the berry are very similar to Arcadia. Resistant to mildew and oidium after two preventative treatments. The only drawback that I noticed is that the berries do not hold well on the hand.Galichgrape
If I just brought my Halahad to the market, I’m 100% sure that I would sell it at the highest price, not because of the look, of course, but to taste. There are no competitors at the moment.Anikeenko Maxim
According to the results of several fruiting, I have Galahad for re-grafting. With many of its advantages (does not attract wasps, good stability, does not “bake”), it has berries in terms of ripening and appearance inferior to other varieties. In the northern zone, he shows himself better.Mikhno Alexander
Galahad does not burst, does not rot, watered abundantly all grapes for about three weeks, the berries on it have not yet ripened, but are already completely edible. My opinion is good.Nicolay
Galahad upset me. Nothing outstanding. A medium bunch, a weak taste, a tan spot on the berries, a thick skin with fleshy-juicy pulp. And the maturity is definitely later than Super Extra. In fairness, I’ll add that this is on Kober. Maybe rootstock so affects the flesh.Konctantin
This year, Galahad was ready from August 14. Today, all stepson clusters are plucked. Crisp, taste, balanced, grape. The skin is thick. Sunbathes in the sun. This year just covered with paper, it’s better. Lutrasil never curtained. The color was beautiful, yellow. The load was also good for me, 25 brushes. Brushes up to 1 kg, there are 700 g and 500 g.Tatyana Volzh
In the winter of 2015, Galahad greatly froze. Winter was warm and snowy, but I plan to remove the plant. You should choose varieties that are categorically resistant to any adverse wintering conditions.Anna Solovyova
I planted Galahad in a new place of residence in 2014, and in 2016 gave the first crop. The variety is fully consistent with the description: the berry ripened early, white, large, of high taste, the vine ripened completely.Boris Ivanovich
Galahad grapes appeared relatively recently, but has already managed to win the love of Russian gardeners. This variety is appreciated for its good taste, relative unpretentiousness in leaving, frost resistance, high productivity, ability to stably bear fruit in areas with a temperate climate, good immunity against fungal diseases. If you first study the recommendations for caring for the crop, the cultivation of this grape is even within the reach of a not too experienced gardener.