French Florina - an excellent winter grade of apple trees
Florina is a French variety of winter apple trees that has found distribution in the southern regions of Russia, where it is used for industrial cultivation. Gardeners will be interested to know its characteristics, especially planting and growing.
French winter consumption grade. Obtained by multiple saturating crosses of apple varieties Jonathan, Rum Beauty, Golden Delishes, Starking on the seedling Malus floribunda 821.
Saturation crossbreeding - multiple crossbreeding of hybrids or forms with one of the original parental forms.
They grow Florina in areas with a warm and temperate climate, it is widely distributed throughout Ukraine, where from the mid-1970s it was on production tests and in the late 1980s it began to be cultivated in industrial gardens of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. At the end of 1989, an application for admission was filed and in 2000 the variety was included in the Russian State Register for the North Caucasus Region.
The tree is medium-sized, up to three meters high, and on dwarf rootstocks and poor soil - 1.8 meters. Crohn is widely round, medium thickened. Strong skeletal branches extend from the trunk at an angle of 45-80 °. Young apple trees have a high shoot-forming ability. Fruiting - on the glove and the ends of annual shoots. Long flowering occurs in the middle. Self-fertility is average. As pollinators, apple varieties Idared, Gloucester, Golden Delishes, Liberty, Merlouz, Granny Smith, Red, Ruby Dukes are most suitable.
Long flowering of the Florin apple tree occurs in the middle
Immaturity on dwarf rootstocks - 2-3 years, on medium-sized stocks - 4-5 years. In the early years, 5–10 kilograms of fruit can be harvested from an apple tree, and by ten years, yields reach 60–70 kilograms. The average yield in industrial cultivation is 115 kg / ha. Florena is prone to overloading crops in some years, after which she rests next season.
Winter hardiness of the variety in its region is average. Drought tolerance is also at an average level. Florina has a stable immunity to scab, moniliosis, powdery mildew and a bacterial burn. Almost not affected by aphids, but susceptible to European cancer.
Fruits are one-dimensional, with an average weight of 140-160 grams. The shape is rounded or flat-rounded with wide smooth edges. The surface of the apple is yellow-green with a pronounced integumentary color over almost the entire surface in the form of a bluish-red blush. It is continuous, as well as blurry-striped. The surface is covered with medium wax coating. The flesh is greenish-white or light yellow, juicy, tender, crisp, medium density. The taste is sweetish and slightly sour. At the end of the shelf life, apples acquire the taste and aroma of melon. The tasting score is 4.8 points, although some consider this rating to be overvalued.
The fruits of the Florin apple tree are one-dimensional with an average weight of 140-160 grams
Harvesting is usually started from the end of September to the end of October. Shelf life of apples is 200 days in a cool room (until May), and in refrigerators - until July. The beginning of consumption is January. Fruits are intended for fresh consumption, have high transportability.
Summarizing, we highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of the Florin apple tree. The advantages, of course, are more:
- Long term consumption.
- Good taste of apples.
- Excellent presentation and transportability.
- Early maturity.
- Compact tree sizes for easy care and harvesting.
- High immunity to most fungal diseases.
The list of disadvantages looks more modest:
- Limited growing area due to insufficient winter hardiness.
- The tendency to disease of ordinary (European) cancer.
- Insufficient self-fertility.
- The tendency to overload the crop and the frequency of fruiting.
Video: review of the apple tree Florin
Planting Florin apple trees
For planting and growing an apple tree of the Florin variety, as for most others, loose loam, sandy loam, chernozem with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction (pH 6.0-6.5) are best suited. The proximity of groundwater and waterlogging of the soil is not allowed. It is better to place the apple tree on a small south or southwest slope, where melt and rainwater will not accumulate and the soil will not be waterlogged. The site should be sunny, well-ventilated, but without drafts and cold northerly winds. It is better if it is protected from the north or northeast by dense tall trees, building walls, a fence, etc. P.
The distance to neighboring trees or buildings should not be less than three meters. When group planting, the apple trees in a row are located at a distance of 3 meters, and between rows of 3.5-4 meters, depending on the size of the agricultural machinery used.
Planting time is chosen in early spring, before the sap flow begins (when the buds have not yet swollen, and the soil has already warmed up to + 5-10 ° C). In the southern part of the growing regions, autumn planting of an apple tree is also allowed. In this case, it is started immediately after the end of sap flow before the onset of cold weather.
Seedlings should be purchased in the fall and, in the case of spring planting, they are stored in the cellar at a temperature of 0— + 5 ° C or dug into the ground in the garden. Before storage, the roots are dipped in a mash of mullein and clay, which will protect them from drying out. The best age of seedlings is 1-2 years.
If seedlings with a closed root system are purchased, then their age can be large - up to 4-5 years. In addition, such plants can be planted at any time during the growing season - from April to October.
Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted at any time during the growing season
Step-by-step landing instructions
In order not to have problems in future growing apple trees, it is necessary to prevent probable mistakes during planting. To do this, step by step to perform the following steps:
- Prepare a landing pit in advance, not later than 2-3 weeks later. In the case of spring planting, a pit is prepared in the fall. For this:
- It is necessary to dig a hole with a diameter of 0.8-1.0 m and a depth of 0.6-0.8 m. Rule: the poorer the soil, the larger the volume of the hole. The upper fertile layer (if any) is folded separately and used later for planting.
- If the soil is heavy, difficult to permeate, a layer of crushed stone (expanded clay, pebbles, broken brick, etc.) with a thickness of 10-15 centimeters is laid on the bottom of the pit to create drainage.
If the soil is heavy, difficult to penetrate, a layer of crushed stone (expanded clay, pebble, broken brick, etc.) with a thickness of 10-15 centimeters is laid on the bottom of the pit to create drainage
- Fill the pit with a mixture of chernozem (you can take the soil set aside when digging the pit), bottom peat, humus, coarse river sand, taken in equal amounts. And also add to this mixture for each bucket 30-40 grams of superphosphate and 300-500 grams of wood ash.
Superphosphate is always added to the landing pit.
- Immediately before planting, in 3-4 hours, the roots of the seedling are soaked in water.
- From the landing pit, you need to extract some of the soil so that the roots of the seedling can freely fit into the formed hole.
- A small mound is poured in the center of the hole.
- At a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the center, a peg 0.8-1.2 meters high above the ground is hammered.
- A seedling is taken out of the water and its roots are fluffed with the powder of a growth stimulant and root formation (Heteroauxin, Kornevin).
- Lower the seedling into the hole, placing the root neck on top of the mound, and the roots spread evenly along the slopes. At this stage, you need an assistant.
- While one person holds the plant in the desired position, the second falls asleep in the hole, carefully compacting the ground. In this case, it is necessary to ensure the location of the root neck at the soil level.
- Further, with the help of a plane cutter or a chopper, a near-shaft circle is formed in the form of an earthen roller located along the diameter of the landing pit.
- It is watered abundantly for tightly fitting the roots around the soil and eliminating the air sinuses that inevitably form when backfilled.
Water the sapling with plenty of water for a tight fit around the roots of the soil and eliminate sinuses
- After the water has been absorbed, the plant is watered with a 0.1% Kornevin solution in order to better root. This operation should be repeated after 15-20 days.
- The tree is tied to a peg using a cloth tape.
- The central conductor of the seedling is cut to 0.8-1.1 m, and the side shoots are shortened by 30-40%.
- After this, the trunk circle must be mulched with suitable material (freshly cut grass, rotted sawdust, compost, etc.). The layer thickness is 10-15 centimeters.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Apple-tree Florina is rather unpretentious in leaving. Like others, it needs regular watering, especially at a young (up to four to five years) age. With the growth of the root system, the number of irrigations is reduced to 3-5 per season, depending on weather conditions. Most of all, the plant needs moisture in the first half of the growing season:
- Before flowering.
- After flowering.
- During the formation of ovaries and fruit growth.
- In autumn, before leaving for the winter (water-loading irrigation).
It is impossible to prevent the formation of a crust on the surface of the soil, as it prevents the flow of oxygen into the root zone. They get rid of the crust by regular loosening (especially after watering and rains), but it is better to use mulching. Florina does not like stagnation of water in the basal zone - from this her roots can vanish. Such a problem can occur in early spring during the snowmelt. At this time, snow should be removed from the trunk in a timely manner and drainage grooves should be made.
It is impossible to prevent the formation of a crust on the surface of the soil, as it prevents the flow of oxygen into the root zone
Florin apple tree is fed from the fourth to fifth year after planting. Usually this is due to the beginning of fruiting, when food from the landing pit is already beginning to be in short supply. It is advisable to add humus or compost in the amount of 5-10 kg / m2 at least once every 3-4 years. If this is possible, then this can be done more often, while reducing the dosage of mineral nitrogen fertilizers. Urea, ammonium nitrate or nitroammophos is introduced annually in the spring at a rate of 30-40 g / m2. Potash fertilizers are best applied in liquid form, dissolving potassium monophosphate in water during irrigation at the rate of 10-20 g / m2 per season. This norm is divided by 2-3 times and introduced during the formation of ovaries and fruit growth with an interval of 10-15 days. Superphosphate is traditionally added for autumn digging at 30-40 g / m2.
Photo Gallery: Mineral fertilizers for the apple tree
- Urea - a traditional source of nitrogen for plants
- Ammonium nitrate is used for spring dressing
- Potassium in the form of monophosphate - the best option for the apple tree
- Nitroammophoska contains both nitrogen and phosphorus
You should not neglect folk remedies. An excellent source of potassium and trace elements is wood ash - it can be applied at any time of the season. Depending on availability, you can spend from 0.2 to 0.5 liters per square meter. It is also good to use liquid organic top dressing during the period of growth and ripening of fruits. To do this, you can insist nettle, meadow grass (1: 2), mullein (2: 10), bird droppings (1: 10) in water for 5 to 10 days. After this, such a concentrate is diluted with water and watered the tree. Liquid organic dressing can be carried out 3-4 times with an interval of 1-2 weeks, using one liter of concentrate per square meter.
How to prune Florin apple trees
First of all, after planting, you should worry about the formation of the crown. Due to the medium height, florine is better suited to a cup shape. Its advantages:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- Uniform illumination and heating of the entire surface of the crown with sun rays.
- Good ventilation.
- Facilitating tree care as well as harvesting.
To form such a crown, no special labor and specific knowledge is required - this process is quite accessible to the beginning gardener. All you need to do is a few simple steps:
- In the early spring of the second year (before the onset of sap flow), 3-4 strong shoots are chosen on the trunk of the plant, which will be left as skeletal branches. They should be at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other and grow in different directions.
- Selected shoots are cut off by 20-30%, and all other branches are cut completely using the “ring” method. To do this, use a sharpened garden pruner or a garden saw.
When removing shoots, they use the whole “on the ring” method
- The central conductor is cut off over the base of the upper branch.
- All sections with a diameter of more than 10 mm are protected by a layer of a garden var. It should be chosen on the basis of natural components - the presence of petrolatum and other oil products is highly undesirable.
To protect cuts and treat tree wounds, you need to use a garden var based on natural ingredients
- In the next 2-3 years, it is necessary to form 1-2 branches of the second order on each of the skeletal branches, which should grow inside the crown, filling it evenly.
- Throughout the life of the tree, they make sure that the skeletal branches remain equal in length and not one of them begins to dominate, taking on the role of the central conductor.
Due to Florina’s tendency to thicken, her crown needs to be thinned out annually, getting rid of tops, crossing, interfering with each other, shoots. This operation is called regulating pruning and is carried out in early spring.
In order to prevent diseases, sanitary pruning is carried out annually in late autumn. At this time, dried out, as well as diseased and damaged branches are removed. If there is such a need, sanitary pruning is repeated in early spring.
As indicated, Florina suffers from periodicity of harvest due to overloading in some years. In order to avoid this problem and ensure annual fruiting should normalize the crop. This is done both by removing excess flowers and ovaries, and by additional thinning of fruiting branches. Usually they do this during the period of the beginning of fruit growth and the active formation of young shoots.
Harvesting and storage
It is not enough to grow a rich apple crop. The ultimate goal is its long-term consumption without compromising the quality of the fruits and their preservation. The basic rules for the collection and storage of Florin apples:
- Fruits should always be dry:
- Collect them exclusively in dry weather.
- Before laying for storage, they are additionally dried under a canopy or in a dry room.
- Do not wash apples.
- Sort fruits, discarding damaged and rotten.
- For transportation and storage, they are stacked in cardboard or wooden ventilated boxes in three rows (and even better in one row).
It is better to store apples in a wooden box
- Some gardeners additionally sprinkle apples with rye straw, shavings, or wrap each apple in paper.
- When storing between the drawers, it is necessary to install gaskets 4 cm thick to ensure ventilation.
- Storage temperature should be between -1 ° C to +5 ° C.
- It is not allowed to store apples in the same room with vegetables - cabbage, potatoes, beets, carrots, etc.
Features of growing in different regions
As noted earlier, the growing regions of the Florin apple tree are limited to the southern regions of the country. Some gardeners are trying to grow it with varying success in certain areas of the Middle Strip. Attempts to plant Florina in more northern regions, for example, in the suburbs, have failed, due to insufficient winter hardiness of the variety. There are no specific features of cultivation in different regions of the North Caucasus region where the variety is zoned. Florina's agricultural technology is the same throughout this region; its main points are disclosed above.
Diseases and Pests
Florina apple tree is an immune variety. Only one disease is known to which it may be susceptible. Let's consider it in more detail.
Common (European) apple cancer
This is a fairly common fungal disease in Europe. In the CIS, it is most often found in Belarus and the western regions of Ukraine. Less commonly, in the rest of Ukraine, in the southern regions of Russia, in the Crimea. The causative agent - the marsupial fungus Nectria galligena Bres - enters the apple tree through cracks, damage during pruning, freezing, burns, etc. It primarily affects the trunks, forks of thick shoots, and skeletal branches. Progressing, the disease causes deep open wounds on the trunks (boles), along the edges of which extensive bursts (the so-called callus) form. On the branches, the disease often proceeds in a closed form, in which the edges of the callus grow together and only a small gap remains. In winter, young tissue sagging is destroyed by frost. As a result, the wound does not heal and continues to grow, affecting the wood.
Ordinary (European) apple cancer - a fairly common fungal disease in Europe
Prevention is the timely detection of bark damage and their treatment, the prevention of sunburn and frost bark. To do this, in the autumn, the bark of trunks and thick branches is cleaned, after which they are whitened with a solution of slaked lime with the addition of 1% copper sulfate and PVA glue. If necessary, the trunks of young plants for the winter are insulated with spanbond, burlap spruce, etc. When pruning, do not forget to protect the slices with garden var.
If the disease still struck the tree, you should thoroughly clean the dead bark and wood to healthy tissues, disinfect the wound with 1% solution of copper sulfate and apply a protective layer of garden varnish.
Preventive treatments against pests and diseases
Apple-tree Florina is not subject to significant invasions of pests. For complete peace of mind, it is enough for the gardener to regularly carry out standard sanitary and preventive measures. Briefly recall their list:
- Maintaining cleanliness in the garden - timely weed removal, collection and disposal of fallen leaves.
- Late autumn deep digging of trunk circles.
- Lime whitewash of trunks and skeletal branches.
- Early spring (before sap flow) treatment of the tree with DNOC or Nitrafen - prevention of pests and fungal diseases.
- In order to prevent damage to the apple tree by the moth, flower beetle, leaf cover, three preventive spraying with insecticides (Decis, Fufanon, Spark) should be carried out in the following periods:
- Before flowering.
- After flowering.
- 7-10 days after the second treatment.
- In the early spring, it also does not hurt to install hunting belts on the trunks of apple trees, which will delay the crawling of various harmful insects.
Photo gallery: preparations for preventive treatments of the Florin apple tree
- DNOC - potent pesticide
- Nitrafen is used for early spring treatments against fungi and pests.
- Decis copes with the moth
- Fufanon - an insecticide against fruit pests
- Spark - double effect protects plants from 60 species of insects
Florina at 62–396, prone to periodic fruiting. One year overload, the next - few fruits. It must be standardized to prevent overload. I like the variety ... and the taste is good and is stored perfectly. I can’t say anything about the scab ... somehow I didn’t come across it. Maybe we don’t have a climate for this disease.
Alexey Sh, Volgograd region
Last season I bought from the local farmer a little more than I needed, in July I remained quite edible, but did not eat it already - I had to send it to compost. Of the apples that I tried, it turned out to be the most mellow (also in the usual basement).
Sincerely, Ermakov Alexander Nikolaevich.
I took Florina last season, in my opinion, at the end of September, with a dozen good-quality crates, apples without dancing lay in the basement until mid-August (leftovers for testing, of course), were completely edible, sometimes they are sold in stores at the high season, and it’s worse in density and taste. But it is optimally desirable to consume before the beginning of June, of course. Super variety for us, the most numerous among the planted trees on the site. This season is also pretty good, but smaller apples, natural watering pumped up completely, but what turned out to be given turned out to be scanty. While we are eating other varieties, we’ll get to Florina after the New Year.
Podvezko Eugene, Sumy, Ukraine
Wonderful variety. I have one tree grafted on a mid-root stock. With regular pruning, I get annual good fruiting, I have never noticed the frequency. But it is a pity that the city tried this year. He beat apples a little.
Mad Gardener, Kiev region
Florina is a commercial grade of apple trees. Unpretentious care, immunity to diseases and long term consumption of fruits provide a relatively low cost of growing it. The slightly fresh taste of apples does not interfere with their sale, especially in winter and spring. The variety may be of interest to gardeners in the southern regions of the country.