Fertilize the currant correctly, and get a high yield
Currant is one of the most common plants in summer cottages. Mistresses appreciate her berries for their excellent taste and an abundance of useful substances, and gardeners - for their unpretentiousness in care. It is believed that currants are long-lived and can delight with their fruits up to 15 years. Experienced gardeners know that without proper care this shrub will not cease to bear fruit, but here the quality and quantity of the crop will noticeably decrease, and in order to avoid degeneration of the plant, currants need not only to be watered and pruned, but also be given additional nutrition.
Why you need to fertilize currants
This need is primarily associated with the fact that currants draw their strength from the soil, gradually taking the necessary substances and trace elements, and thereby depleting it. It is much easier to provide additional nutrition for the bush than to engage in its periodic transplantation to a new place. Proper application of fertilizers stimulates the growth of the bush, helps to increase the number and size of berries, improves their taste.
When fertilizing, the following factors must be taken into account:
- soil composition;
- time of previous feeding;
- stage of plant vegetation.
Fertilized currants bear fruit much more actively
Fertilizing shrubs should be regular, because nutrients from the soil are consumed not only by currants, they are also washed out by water and weathered.
When is it better to fertilize currants
Currants respond well to both organic and mineral fertilizers, which can be applied under the root or in the foliar way by spraying the bush. Give the plant additional nutrition several times during the spring-autumn period. Each stage of feeding has its own characteristics.
Fertilizer when planting
Fertilizing young seedlings will help them to take root easier and activate their growth. What type of top dressing to use at this stage depends on the planting season.
Proper fertilizing during planting will provide the currant with all the necessary substances for the next two years before the fruiting stage.
If the plant is planted in the ground in spring, then organic and complex mineral substances are introduced into the pits for planting (depth 40 cm, width 50-60 cm): a humus bucket is mixed with the ground and several handfuls of mineral fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus are added.
When planting a bush, fertilizers will be introduced into the planting pits, thoroughly mixing with surface soil
During autumn bush planting, the topsoil is mixed with peat or compost, superphosphate (150 g), potassium sulfate (40-50 g), wood ash, urea (40 g) are also added.
Topping up currants in spring is of the greatest importance, since it is during this period that the plant actively develops and extracts the necessary substances from the soil.
The first time fertilizers are applied at the very beginning of flowering and budding of the buds, the second - when tying berries. In July, it is recommended to do the third top dressing - during the period when the berries are poured.
During flowering, currants are most in need of additional nutrition
In the spring, it is advised to use complex mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron. Organic substances can also be used in spring, but as a supplement to minerals.
The main thing is that the composition of fertilizers with the first two top dressings should include nitrogen, which contributes to the growth of green mass. Further, its concentration is gradually reduced.
Despite the fact that after fruiting the plant is in a passive stage, the shrub must accumulate all the necessary substances in order to survive the winter frosts.
Autumn top dressing will make currants easier to tolerate winter
In the autumn, it is recommended to feed the currants at least once, using complementary foods from organic fertilizers: manure, humus or compost. Nitrogen at this stage is no longer required by the plant, therefore, the feeding of wood ash, which contains a large amount of phosphorus and potassium, is considered the most useful.
How to feed currants
There are many favorite fertilizers for currants. It is important to know when and in what proportions to use them. Below, we consider the features of the application of the most popular types of top dressing for a bush.
Potato peeling is the favorite organic fertilizer of currants, because they contain a large number of substances and trace elements useful for the bush: starch, glucose, phosphorus, iron, potassium, magnesium, fluorine, etc. Phosphorus promotes the active development of the root system and stimulates flowering. Starch, glucose and potassium make the berries more juicy and sweet.
Gardeners choose this type of fertilizer for several reasons:
- lack of costs;
- simplicity of preparation and preparation of a solution for feeding;
- environmental friendliness and safety for health;
- this fertilizer does not stimulate the growth of weed grass.
Potato waste can be collected throughout the year, but it is recommended to feed currants in early spring, before the flowering phase. You can do this in the summer, but in this case there is a risk of overheating of the soil, since a large amount of heat is generated as a result of decomposition of the cleanings.
Potato peelings must be pre-cooked and dried
Raw potato peelings may contain pathogenic flora elements on the surface: fungi or bacteria. To avoid infection of plants during feeding, it is recommended to heat the peel of the potato. They also do this in order not to dig up potatoes under the bushes, since there is a risk that unprocessed peeling will sprout.
To properly prepare fertilizer from purifications, you must:
- Rinse potato tubers thoroughly with a brush before cleaning.
- Prepare cleaning: dry or freeze. The first option is more common, because the volume of the freezer is limited. To save space, you can grind the waste or grind it in a meat grinder before drying. There are several ways to dry a potato peel:
- in a dry, warm place, laying a thin layer on paper or cloth;
- on battery;
- in the oven at a temperature of 200 ° C.
- Store until spring in paper or cloth bags.
- 7-10 days before processing the currants, pour the finely chopped peel into a deep bowl and pour boiling water over it. The layer should be covered with water at least 5-6 cm. After a week, the fertilizer is ready.
Just prepared scavengers scattered under the bush can attract pests.
The rotten thickets are buried under a bush, and the plant is watered with liquid. You should know that currants have a superficial root system; therefore, fertilizing is necessary not under the bush itself, but in a previously dug groove (10-15 cm deep) according to the projection of the crown of the bush. You can water the currant with slurry once a month, including the summer period.
Video: how to prepare fertilizer from potato peelings
Minerals are widely used by gardeners to fertilize currants both in spring and autumn, for the development of the ground and root systems of plants.
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- phosphorus-potash fertilizers;
- mineral nitrogen fertilizers;
- micronutrient fertilizers.
Currently, a large number of mineral preparations are produced, which are produced in various forms: in the form of tablets, powder or liquid. You can purchase them in specialized stores, and use according to the instructions on the packaging.
Wood ash has proven itself as a top dressing, as it is easily digested and contains zinc, magnesium, iron and calcium in addition to phosphorus and potassium. It is recommended to use it during the ripening of berries and in the fall after harvest.
Another advantage of ash is that it does not contain chlorine, which currants cannot tolerate. However, it should be borne in mind that ash cannot be applied to soil with an alkaline reaction.
Wood ash - a storehouse of nutrients for currants
To fertilize currants, dry fine ash of deciduous trees is best suited. But the ashes of coniferous trees - no.
There are several ways to feed currants with wood ash:
- Under the topsoil make 3 cups of dry wood ash. This contributes to the active development of the root system.
- The soil surface under the bush is sprinkled with dry ash. This protects the trunks and leaves from pests.
- A working solution is prepared: a 3-liter can of ash is poured into a bucket of water and infused for two days under a lid. Then one liter of working solution is diluted with 10 liters of warm water. From 2 to 4 liters of fertilizer are poured under each bush.
- An ash broth is prepared: 300 g of ash are poured with hot water and boiled for 25-30 minutes. The resulting broth is filtered and diluted with 10 liters of water. You can add here 50 g of soap. This broth is watered under the root of the bush.
It is recommended to use wood ash as a fertilizer with extreme caution, since it is a caustic alkali, which in small doses eliminates excessive soil acidity, but in high concentrations it can destroy beneficial soil microflora . In addition, it is strictly forbidden to introduce ash together with nitrogen fertilizers - it will neutralize their effect on the plant.
Chicken droppings are an excellent source of nitrogen for currants, so they are usually used in spring. However, in its pure form, litter is strictly forbidden, since it can simply “burn” a plant. For this reason, various solutions are prepared from it.
To feed the currants, chicken droppings are diluted with water and insisted in a container for several days
Table: Chicken Manure Fertilizer Preparation
|Type of fertilizer||Preparation and application|
|Infusion of fresh chicken droppings||1 bucket of fresh litter is added to the barrel and diluted with 20 buckets of water, mixed thoroughly, let it brew for 1-2 days. Fertilizing should be based on the calculation of 0.5 buckets per 1 m2.|
|Stock solution of fresh chicken droppings||1/3 capacity is filled with fresh chicken droppings and added to the top with water. Stir and leave for 3-5 days. This concentrated solution in undiluted form can be applied to furrows 2-3 m long from two to four sides along the edge of the crown of the bush, 0.5 l under each bush.|
|Secondary solution of fresh chicken droppings||1 part of the fermented mother liquor is diluted in 10 parts of water and made at the rate of 0.3-0.5 buckets per 1 m2 under the fruiting shrub. Top dressing can be carried out with moderate watering or mulch the soil with peat or dry grass.|
|Litter chicken droppings||Litter is scattered under trees and shrubs, give 2-3 days to dry, then watered. The nitrogen concentration in the litter of chicken droppings is minimal, so it can be used as top dressing 3-4 times during the growing season.|
Urea (urea) is an excellent fertilizer for currants in the early spring, because, like chicken droppings, it is a source of nitrogen. Carbamide is instilled around the plant on the projection of the crown of the bush and must be watered. The dosage of the substance varies depending on the age of the plant:
- young bushes (3-4 years) require more nitrogen - 40-50 g of urea for each bush;
- adults giving fruit - 20–40 g of the substance, divided into 2 approaches.
Urea is also often used in the form of liquid top dressing: 1 tablespoon of urea is diluted with 10 liters of water. The solution is watered with a plant.
Many experienced gardeners consider top dressing from yeast to be one of the most effective fertilizers of natural origin. The mechanism of its action is that the fungi that make up the yeast activate the activity of bacteria in the soil. Microorganisms begin to process organics faster, as a result of which nitrogen and potassium are released, which stimulates the growth and activity of the plant. In addition, the composition of yeast bait includes a large number of mineral components, as well as protein.
For this reason, yeast can be used as fertilizer for currants both in spring and autumn, as well as when planting young bushes.
As you know, there are several varieties of yeast: wine, brewery and bakery. The first two species are not suitable for currants.
Any kind of yeast can be used to prepare the nutrient solution.
Conventional yeast for bread baking, both in dry form and in the form of live crops, is suitable for fertilizing plants. There are many ways to make yeast nutrition, but the most popular are:
- From dry yeast: 10 g of the product are dissolved in 10 l of warm water, 60 g of sugar are added. Insist about 2 hours in a warm place. The resulting solution is diluted with 50 l of water before processing the plants.
- From fresh yeast: a live product is diluted in warm water in a ratio of 1: 5. It is kept warm for several hours and then water is added to the resulting solution 1:10.
There is another way of introducing yeast under the bush - this is feeding the currant with "bread" fertilizer. It is prepared from the remnants of stale bread, which during the winter period accumulate quite a lot in any host. Along with profitability, "bread" fertilizer has another advantage - when applied, it feeds currants not only with yeast, but also with starch, which will make the berries sweeter.
Leftovers can not be thrown away and make them an excellent fertilizer for currants
The preparation of this fertilizer will require at least two weeks. Dry bread crusts drenched in water should have time to ferment. It’s easy to prepare the fertilizer:
- 3/4 buckets of stale yeast bread are poured into a barrel and poured with water. You can add here nettle greens and dreams.
- A lid is made of polyethylene for a container, this will accelerate fermentation and eliminate odor.
- Insist this mash for 2-3 weeks at a temperature of 20-25 ° C.
- Before using fertilizer, the resulting slurry is diluted in irrigation water 1: 2 or 1: 3 (depending on the consistency).
- The solution is watered with a plant at the rate of 0.5-1 l for each bush.
Reviews of summer residents
In the spring I’m not fertilizing anything - to no avail. Flower buds currant lays in the fall. Therefore, the whole summer, mowed grass, weeds, tomato leaves, after the scraps, I put under the currant. Then I put the potato tops there after digging the potatoes. And after the leaf fall I spread the dung under the bushes, not sparing. And the currant yields are noble!Merry hilda
I process in autumn and spring a Bordeaux mixture from diseases or Topaz. I fertilize in autumn with nitrophosic, in the spring I breed and fertilize with chicken droppings or cow or horse. Sometimes I buy a giant giant. Giant berry is a very good long-acting fertilizer.The Scarlet Flower
Do not try to feed nitrogen fertilizers in the fall !!! nitrogen is able to cause damage in cold weather !!! in autumn it is good to remove sulfate, it dissolves for a long time .. and in the spring, you can and nitrogen ... I also do not recognize all kinds of herbs under the bushes, from experience, such rubbish is bred in this waste !!! as well as worms bred, and they attract moles !!! You can lose the bushes !!! Watering in April is approximately plentiful. and all summer there is a five-liter jar-in water-drip water is supplied ... currant loves moisture, but not flooding !!! can be treated with Bordeaux liquid. . Nov I do it all in the fall two times ...pro100 yanina
Throughout the summer, I drip cleaning under the currant, once I sprinkle ash. The berries are large and tasty.Velina
I heard, but all hands did not reach, about the benefits of potato peelings. And now for two years in a row I fertilize currant bushes with potato peelings. In the first year, no special results were visible, and in the second year the bushes pleased. I clean the potato peel well and grind it into small pieces. Store in a bag in a dry place. In early spring, pour the dry mixture under the bushes and dig it shallow. There are no difficulties, but the result is good.Andrey Vovchenko
On my plot there is both black and red currants. Of the black varieties there are: Exotica, Musketeer, Selechenskaya 2, Treasure; from red: Jonker and Detwan. When planting currants, I dig holes in the size of 40 by 40 cm and the same depth, make the underlying layer of compost and pour a glass of ash and water it well. Blackcurrant begins to bear fruit in the second year, red in the third.kotko07
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The quality and quantity of the currant harvest directly depends on what kind of nutrition the shrub will receive during the spring-autumn period. There are many varieties of nutrition. The choice is always yours: to use expensive, but ready-made "chemistry" or spend a little of your time and prepare safe fertilizer with your own hands.