Fennel: a description of the plant and its care
Fennel is little known to Russian gardeners. Outwardly, it is very similar to the usual dill, but the taste is very different, and its aroma is not so pronounced. Nevertheless, this spice popular in the Mediterranean countries is very healthy. Therefore, it is quite possible to take a place on the garden plot for unusual exoticism.
What does fennel look like?
Fennel and dill familiar to Russian gardeners belong to the same Umbrella family. Outwardly, they are extremely similar, but the similarity ends there. The aroma of green fennel is more reminiscent of anise, the taste is spicy, with light notes of sweetness, the bush is powerful (height from 90-100 cm). The content of vitamins, minerals and other healthy substances fennel significantly exceeds dill.
In nature, fennel successfully survives practically on bare stones, but the gardener will have to work hard to get a crop
The birthplace of this culture is the Mediterranean (North Africa, Southeast and Western Europe). Some species are found in West Asia, South America and New Zealand. In nature, it grows like a weed, almost on bare stones.
Fennel bushes can be quite compact, but the root system of the plant is powerful, developed
Its healing properties are known since antiquity. Egyptian, Greek and Arab scholars were well aware of them. The plant is mentioned in its writings by Hippocrates, Pliny, Avicenna. And in the Middle Ages, fennel was credited with a supernatural ability to cast out evil spirits. A bunch of greens must be hung above the front door.
In general, fennel is a perennial culture, but the climate in most of Russia allows it to be grown only as an annual plant. The culture accustomed to the tropical climate will not tolerate the Ural and Siberian winters, even if it provides shelter.
Vegetable fennel is easily identified by its characteristic “onion” at the base of the stem
There are two varieties of it - root and vegetable (also known as Italian or Florentine). The first is characterized by the presence of a powerful rhizome with a diameter of more than 1 cm, in shape resembling a spindle. The second of leaf petioles at the base of the stem forms small "cabbage heads" similar to bulbs. Gardeners often grow vegetable fennel. Edible all parts of the plant - and greens, and fruits, and "heads of cabbage."
The "heads" of fennel are usually quite dense
The fennel stalk is erect, hollow, round, intensively branching closer to the apex. The height of the plant varies from 0.9 m to 2 m. The leaves resemble dill (strongly dissected cirrus) in shape, but differ in color - in fennel they are slightly lighter, with a bluish or silver-white tint. It is especially clearly visible on the upper leaves.
Fennel, if seeds ripen, propagates easily by self-sowing
Flowering plants occur in July-August. The flowers are small, yellow or yellow-green, collected in inflorescences, umbrellas. Their diameter varies from 3-4 cm to 12-15 cm. The fruits of olive or grayish-green color ripen in mid-September. Ripening, they split in two and quickly crumble. They also have a characteristic anise flavor and a light sweetish flavor.
Fennel flowering is far from visible to all gardeners
The first time the plant blooms the next season after planting in the ground, so Russian gardeners most often do not observe this phenomenon. Accordingly, it is impossible to independently collect fennel seeds.
What is a plant useful for and how to use it
According to the content of vitamins and minerals, fennel is far ahead of the usual dill. Particularly noteworthy are vitamins of groups B, A, C, calcium, magnesium, potassium, selenium, copper, chromium, and iron.
All parts of fennel are widely used in folk medicine. It is on its basis that the well-known dill water is prepared by everyone, which is used as a diuretic, antispasmodic and disinfectant. Her action is very mild, it is recommended even for infants with colic, bloating and cramping in the intestine.
Fennel essential oil normalizes the state of the gastrointestinal tract, helps to remove toxins from the body. It is also indicated in order to eliminate the effects of overeating and to improve appetite. In aromatherapy, it is used to relieve chronic stress, to get rid of causeless anxiety. This tool also helps to normalize the state of the nervous system with frequent attacks of aggression and simply improves mood.
Fennel essential oil has a pronounced calming effect, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system
Tincture of fennel leaves has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used externally for the treatment of fungal diseases, healing of wounds, ulcers, dermatitis and other skin problems.
When dry, fennel is part of many expectorant fees. They are prescribed for bronchitis, pneumonia, laryngitis, other respiratory diseases.
A decoction of greens is recommended for women breast-feeding a baby. It is scientifically proven that it has a positive effect on lactation. And for pregnant women, this remedy helps get rid of attacks of morning sickness and regain appetite. It is also useful for problems with gums and halitosis.
A decoction of fennel leaves is extremely beneficial for women during pregnancy and lactation.
Fennel leaves and seeds are widely used in cooking. It is almost an integral part of Mediterranean cuisine. They are added to salads (even fruit), soups, meat and fish dishes. Fennel is also suitable for home canning. It can be included in recipes for pickled tomatoes, cucumbers, sauerkraut. "Goofies" are also eaten. They are boiled or baked whole, used as a side dish. Seeds are added to the filling of various confectionery products and to the dough for bread, used to flavor alcoholic beverages.
Fennel "cabbages" are widely used in Mediterranean cuisine
There are contraindications. It is strictly forbidden to use fennel with epilepsy. And if you eat it immoderately, it is quite possible to earn an upset stomach and intestines. There is also an allergic reaction. Fennel should be used with caution for those who suffer from frequent bouts of diarrhea.
Fennel seeds are widely used in folk medicine and in cooking
Video: Fennel Health Benefits
Description of common varieties
There are not so many varieties and hybrids of fennel. Most of them belong to the vegetable variety. But there are also decorative varieties that are widely used in landscape design. They stand out with an unusual shade of leaves.
Varieties of fennel grown by gardeners:
- The aroma. The variety has a medium ripening period; greens can be cut 75–85 days after planting. Productivity - 2-3 kg of green mass from the bush.
- Luzhnovsky Semko. A fairly compact plant, not exceeding 0.5-0.6 m in height. "Heads" are snow-white, rather dense, with small voids. The average weight is up to 200–220 g.
- Dealer. Variety of medium ripening period, one of the smallest (height up to 0.5 m). "Heads" weighing 100–120 g. They are formed even in long daylight hours.
- Corvette. One of the novelties of selection. Late variety, the ripening of "heads" takes 120-125 days. They are painted in white-green color, reach a weight of 250-380 g. Plant height - about 60 cm, but from it you can get 1-1.2 kg of green mass. The yield of “heads of cabbage” is up to 2.7 kg / m².
- Soprano. The variety is medium late (vegetation period - 110–115 days), “heads of cabbage” are white or greenish, very fragrant, dense. The height of the bush is about 1.5-1.8 m, the plant is powerful, intensively branching. The average weight of an elongated “head” is 100 g. Harvest from 1 m² is about 3-4 kg of greens and up to 2.4 kg of “heads”.
- Leader. The variety is early, technical ripening occurs 1.5 months after planting. The bush is powerful, about 170-180 cm high, densely leafy. The leaves are large. On greens, the leaves are harvested before flowering.
- Autumn handsome. Another early ripe variety, ready for cutting in 38–40 days. The bush is fast-growing, about 150-180 cm high. The greens are very tender, with a light aroma.
- Rudy F1. The plant is hybrid, it will not work to collect viable seeds, even if it is cultivated as a perennial. "Heads" are large (up to 300 g), pale salad color, almost regular spherical shape.
- Giant Bronze Freshly blossomed leaves are cast in copper. Gradually change to a greenish brown.
- Purpureum. Young leaves are bright purple with a bronze tint. Over time, it changes to gray-silver.
Photo gallery: fennel varieties popular among gardeners
- Fennel Aroma - A common medium-ripening variety
- The compactness of the fennel bush Luzhnikovsky Semko does not affect productivity
- Fennel Udalets forms “heads” even in conditions of longer daylight hours than is usual for culture
- Fennel Corvette - one of the latest achievements of breeders
- Fennel Soprano stands out with an unusual form of "head of cabbage"
- Harvest fennel green Leader needs to be cut before flowering
- Fennel Autumn handsome - one of the earliest varieties
- Fennel Rudi F1 is distinguished by a very presentable appearance of "heads of cabbage"
- Fennel Giant Bronze not only brings crops, but also decorates the site
- Fennel Purpureum looks very impressive and is widely used in landscape design
Conditions necessary for growing crops
Fennel is deservedly considered quite demanding on the conditions for growing crops. In Russia, where the climate is radically different from the Mediterranean familiar to him, his "wishes" should definitely be heeded if there is a desire to harvest.
The fennel bed must be located in a place well-warmed by the sun. In the shade and partial shade, “heads” practically do not form, greens coarsen, the aroma becomes weakly expressed. Fennel loves heat, but it does not tolerate extreme heat and drought very well. Therefore, it is advisable to build a canopy over the garden bed from any covering material of white color, which protects plantings from direct sunlight. Paradoxically, the plant does not need a long daylight.
At the edges, it is desirable to limit the bed to the slate sheets dug to a depth of 20–25 cm - with a moisture deficit, fennel forms long roots that can reach neighboring beds and deprive the water of the crops grown there.
Good neighbors for fennel are cucumbers and cabbage. All these plants need abundant watering. In addition, with its aroma, fennel repels many pests, lacking cucumbers and cabbage, and attracts pollinating insects. But spinach, caraway seeds, beans, bell peppers located nearby influence the culture negatively, inhibiting its growth and development. Any tall plants (such as corn) create an unwanted shadow.
Cucumbers get along well with fennel - both crops need plentiful watering
It is best to plant fennel where vegetables that previously required large doses of organic fertilizers (potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers) were grown. If a new garden bed is being prepared, in the autumn it is carefully digged up, cleaned of vegetable debris, humus or rotted compost (8-10 kg per linear meter) is introduced. Fresh manure is strictly excluded. Of mineral fertilizers, only phosphorus and potash (10-15 g per linear meter) are needed. Then the bed is covered with a film and left until spring.
Humus introduced into the garden positively affects the fertility of the substrate
Light sandy soil, just like heavy clay soil, is not suitable for the plant. The best option is chernozem, sierozem or loam with a slightly alkaline reaction. To neutralize acidic soil, slaked lime, dolomite flour, crushed chalk, sifted wood ash are introduced.
Dolomite flour - a natural deoxidizer of the soil, if you follow the dosage, there will be no side effects
The substrate into which fennel is planted must be well moistened. In this regard, lowlands are suitable, where meltwater stands for a long time. But most often there is not enough sun. Therefore, about a week before the procedure, you need to carry out water-charging irrigation.
The optimum temperature for germination of fennel seeds is at least 20 ° C. They will not die at 10 ° C, but seedlings in this case will have to wait at least a month. It is important to follow the planting pattern and provide the plants with sufficient watering. Otherwise, vegetable fennel is likely to go to the "arrow".
At the same place, fennel can be planted 3-4 years. Then the soil is depleted, this negatively affects the yield.
Growing fennel seedlings and planting seeds in the ground
Summer in most of Russia is quite short and unpredictable in terms of weather. And the growing season in some varieties of fennel (especially vegetable) is 4 months or more. Therefore, in order for the crop to ripen, it is advisable to grow it with seedlings.
Germination of seeds is maintained for three years. They are sown in such a way that the seedlings of the root varieties are transferred to a permanent place in the first half of May, and vegetables in the last decade of June. At an earlier planting, due to heat shortage, plants can stretch out, “heads” will not form. Due to the high concentration of essential oils, fennel seeds germinate for a rather long time. It will take about 20 days to wait for seedlings; this is normal for culture. In general, seedling cultivation lasts approximately 9–10 weeks.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Fennel seeds germinate long enough, the gardener will have to be patient
Seedlings are grown according to the following algorithm:
- Seeds for 4-6 hours are soaked in water at room temperature, a solution of any biostimulant or potassium permanganate (pale pink), wrapped in a damp cloth. To prevent the development of fungal diseases, you can then etch them for an additional 15–20 minutes in a solution of a fungicide of biological origin (Alirin-B, Ridomil-Gold, Baikal-EM). Then they are dried to a loose state.
- Fennel transplantation does not tolerate very well, so it is advisable to immediately sow 3-4 seeds in peat pots, deepening by 1.5–2 cm. They are filled with universal soil for seedlings or with a mixture of humus with peat chips and sand (2: 2: 1 ) The substrate must be sanitized and watered abundantly. After planting, the seeds are watered again, cover the containers with film or glass. Until emergence, they are kept in a dark place at a temperature of 20–23 ° С. The “hotbed” is ventilated daily for 5-10 minutes so that condensation does not accumulate.
- As soon as the seeds germinate, fennel is transferred to the windowsill of the window facing the southeast or southwest. Seedlings are protected from direct sunlight. She does not need additional illumination. Care of seedlings consists in regular watering, as soon as the top layer of soil dries out, carefully loosening the soil. After two weeks, they can be fed with a solution of any complex fertilizer for seedlings.
- 7-10 days before planting, the seedlings are sprayed with a 1% solution of urea or other nitrogen-containing fertilizer (this positively affects the immunity of plants) and begin to harden, taking it out to the open air and gradually prolonging the time spent on the street.
Fennel seedlings are planted in the ground only when the street gets warm enough
Video: how to grow fennel seedlings
About a week before the seedlings are planted, the soil on the bed needs to be well loosened and leveled. At the same time, simple superphosphate is added in the same dosage as in the fall. Phosphorus is especially needed for vegetable varieties.
Fennel seedlings are ready for planting in the ground after 45-50 days. The interval between plants is about 40 cm, between rows - 50-60 cm. If the pots are peat, you do not need to remove them from the tanks. Fennel is buried in the ground to the first cotyledon leaves. Then planting should be abundantly watered. Until the seedlings take root and start to grow, they are especially carefully protected from direct sunlight.
When planting seeds directly into the soil, they are evenly sown as far as possible into grooves with an interval of 50-60 cm between them. Top they are covered with peat crumb or humus (layer 1.5–2 cm thick) and watered. Until the seeds germinate, the bed is tightened with plastic wrap or black covering material. The best time for the procedure is the first half of May.
When thinning plantings, the "extra" fennel seedlings are not torn out, but cut under the root
7–10 days after emergence, they are thinned out, leaving 20–25 cm between adjacent plants if it is vegetable fennel and 10–15 cm if root. "Extra" seedlings are not pulled out, but cut with scissors.
In regions with a warm climate, where fennel can be grown as a perennial, sowing of seeds is practiced in the fall, at the end of July or in August. In October, planting will definitely need to be “insulated” by falling asleep with a layer of humus, peat, needles, sawdust with a thickness of at least 10 cm.
Important nuances of crop care
Fennel is quite demanding in its care. The main thing that is necessary for the normal development of plants is proper watering.
Work on the garden
Fennel does not like "competitors", so the soil in the garden should be weeded regularly. Each time, approximately half an hour after watering, it must be carefully loosened to a depth of 3-5 cm.
Vegetable varieties 2-3 times during the season spud, constructing at the base of the stem an earthen mound 5–7 cm high. This contributes to the formation of “heads” of the correct form in a beautiful white color.
If fennel is grown as a perennial plant and solely for the sake of green mass, it is recommended to cut flower stalks as they form, so that the bush does not waste strength on them.
Fennel is a very hygrophilous plant. If it is cool outside, it is watered every 4–5 days, spending 15 liters per 1 m². In extreme heat and with prolonged drought, the soil will have to be moistened daily or even twice a day. The best method is drip irrigation or sprinkling, which allows you to evenly wet the substrate.
Fennel is a moisture-loving culture, you need to water it often and regularly
The lighter the soil, the more often it will be necessary to carry out the procedure. Mulch will help to retain moisture in the soil. She will save the gardener time for weeding.
Fennel prefers organic fertilizers. The first time seedlings are fed 12-15 days after planting in the ground, then once every three weeks. The plant is watered with infusion of cow manure, bird droppings, nettle greens or dandelion. The raw material is poured with warm water, insisted for 3-4 days in a container under a closed lid. Before use, it is filtered, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 8 (if it is litter, then twice as much) and add a tablespoon of simple superphosphate to 10 liters. You can also use infusion of wood ash and purchased fertilizers based on vermicompost.
Nettle infusion - a natural source of nitrogen and phosphorus for fennel
Fennel will not survive the winter in most Russian regions. Therefore, as a perennial plant, it is cultivated only in the southern subtropical climate (Black Sea, Crimea, the Caucasus). To prepare fennel for the cold, in mid-October, all available stems are cut to ground level without leaving “stumps”, the soil at the roots is gently loosened. As fertilizer, sifted wood ash can be scattered around the bed. It contains the necessary plants at this time of year phosphorus and potassium.
Then the bed is covered with humus, peat crumbs, sawdust, leaves foliage, needles. It is necessary to create a layer about 10 cm thick. It is undesirable to use straw. Mice often inhabit it. If the winter is promised especially harsh, you can throw a bed with spruce branches or tighten with burlap, any covering material that allows air to pass through. As soon as enough snow falls, they throw it on top, forming a snowdrift.
Video: Fennel Care Tips
Fennel at home
Some varieties of fennel may well be grown at home as potted crops. In "captivity" the plant rarely exceeds 0.5 m in height, but "heads" are formed despite this, if you do not disturb the roots. It is desirable to select a container for it, volumetric, with a diameter of 25-30 cm. A large drainage hole is mandatory.
Fennel can be grown in a pot on a windowsill, the dimensions of the plant allow it
For growing fennel, universal soil for indoor plants with the addition of fertile turf (3: 1) is quite suitable. To prevent the development of fungal diseases, a little crushed chalk or activated carbon is added to the finished mixture.
Seeds are sown in pots of 3-4 pieces. A drainage layer 2–3 cm thick is mandatory at the bottom of the tank. Then they act the same as when growing seedlings. Greens can be cut off when the height of the bush reaches 30–35 cm, on average 2.5–3 months are spent on ripening “heads of cabbage”.
Fennel does not like direct sunlight, as does intense heat, so a pot with a plant is placed on the windowsill of a window facing east or west. In the summer it can be taken out to fresh air.
Plant care consists in regular watering and fertilizing. Fertilizers are applied every 2–2.5 weeks, using any store-based biohumus products. Fennel is watered as soon as the topsoil dries 1.5–2 cm deep. In extreme heat, you can additionally spray the plant or increase air humidity in other ways.
Plant diseases and pests
Fennel naturally has good immunity, so it rarely suffers from diseases. And the spicy smell inherent in greens quite effectively scares away many pests from it. But sometimes infection is still not avoided.
The best prevention is competent plant care. Timely watering and top dressing are especially important. It is also necessary to comply with the landing pattern. If the plants in the garden are located closely, diseases spread much faster.
Of the diseases for fennel, the most dangerous are:
- Cercosporosis. Leaves are covered with small yellowish, as if "broken" spots. Gradually they darken, grow, merge with each other, the affected tissue turns brown and dies. For prevention, the bed is dusted with wood ash or crushed chalk, water for irrigation is periodically replaced with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. To cope with the disease, any fungicides are used. Of the old time-tested remedies, the most effective is a 2% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. But you can use modern copper-containing drugs - Kuprozan, Kaptan, Skor.
- Rust leaves. Reddish-brown tubercles or spots appear on the front side of the leaf; the wrong side is tightened with a continuous layer of “shaggy” saffron plaque. Preventive measures are the same as for cercosporosis. If the disease is noticed at an early stage, it is quite possible to cope with folk remedies - a solution of soda ash, colloidal sulfur, an infusion of onion or garlic shooters, 1:10 diluted kefir with water or milk whey with iodine added (drop per liter). In severe cases, fungicides are used - Horus, Topaz, Oleokuprit, Rayek.
- Stem rot. On the stems, starting from the base, a white “fluffy” coating appears, reminiscent of cotton wool, then brownish-green spots, oozing with muddy mucus, spread out at this place. For prophylaxis, plants should be periodically dusted with wood ash or colloidal sulfur. Upon detection of the disease, the plaque is washed with a soft cloth dampened in vodka, the affected areas are disinfected by washing with a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate or 2% copper sulfate. Then they are sprinkled with crushed chalk or activated charcoal.
- Root rot. The disease is very difficult to detect on time. It seems that the plant is losing its tone and wilting for no reason. Only when it has already gone far, the base of the stem blackens, becomes slimy to the touch, spreads an unpleasant putrefactive smell. Mold may appear on the ground. It is best to dig and destroy the plant immediately, thus eliminating the source of the infection. The soil in this place is disinfected by spilling with a 5% solution of copper sulfate. If the disease was noticed on time, watering is drastically reduced to the required minimum, replacing the water with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, granules of Trichodermin and Gliocladin are introduced into the soil.
Photo gallery: symptoms of fennel diseases
- Any copper-containing preparations are used to combat cercosporosis.
- Leaf rust is a common fungal disease in horticultural crops.
- Stem rot spreads from bottom to top.
- It is extremely difficult to notice root rot on time, and it is possible to deal with it only at an early stage of development
The culture is affected by the following pests:
- Aphid. Small insects of black-brown or yellow-green color cling to young leaves, inflorescences. They feed on the juice of plants, so the affected tissues turn yellow, discolor and dry. For prevention, fennel is sprayed with infusions of onion or garlic arrows, dried tobacco leaves, hot red pepper, orange peel. These same folk remedies will help to cope with the pest if its appearance is noticed on time. Only the frequency of treatments needs to be increased from once every 7-10 days to 3-4 times a day. In the absence of effect, insecticides of general action are used - Mospilan, Tanrek, INTA-Vir, Spark-Bio.
- Thrips. Vague yellowish spots appear on the front side, thin silver touches on the inside. If you look closely, you can consider the small black "sticks" - these are pests themselves. For prophylaxis, plants are sprayed with a foam of household or green potash soap, a solution of colloidal sulfur. To combat the pest, Confidor-Maxi, Admiral, Fury, Actaru are used.
- Wireworm (nutcracker beetle larva). He gnaws at the roots of plants, as a result of fennel dies, not getting enough nutrition. For prevention, any siderata is planted in the aisles, except for beans. Especially the wireworm does not like leaf mustard. Traps are also a good effect - containers dug into the ground filled with pieces of raw potatoes, carrots, and beets. In the event of a mass invasion, Bazudin, Provotox, Pochin preparations are used.
- Caterpillars of a butterfly scoop. Caterpillars feed on greenery and are able to eat plants in a matter of days, leaving only bare stems. To protect against adults, they use Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocide, special pheromone or home-made traps. Butterflies are lured using containers that are filled with sugar syrup, diluted with water, honey, jam. To combat caterpillars, Decis, Actellik, Fufanon are used.
Photo gallery: how dangerous pests look for fennel
- Aphids - one of the most active garden pests, she also will not refuse fennel
- Thrips eat plant juices, as a result it loses its color
- There is hardly a gardener who has never seen a wireworm
- Caterpillars of a butterfly scoop can literally in a few days gobble up all the greenery from the fennel bush
Harvesting and storage
Fennel greens are cut off when the plant reaches a height of 30–35 cm. At this time, its aroma is most pronounced, and the leaves are still quite tender. "Heads" are considered ripe when their diameter reaches 8-10 cm. Most often they are cut off at the very surface of the soil. But if you leave a “stump” 2-3 cm high, in a couple of weeks fresh greens will begin to grow in this place. The best time for the procedure is early morning (until the dew has dried) or the evening after sunset.
Fresh greens and "heads" for a week can be stored in the refrigerator, in a special compartment for vegetables and fruits, wrapped in a cling film. The “shelf life” of the latter can be extended up to 6–8 weeks by burying it in a box of sand, which is placed in the basement, cellar, other room with a temperature of 2–4 ° C, low humidity and good ventilation. First, you need to remove all leaves from the “heads” and cut the stem, leaving only the “petiole” 8-10 cm long, and also dry it for 2–3 days in the open air.
The "heads" of fennel intended for storage should not have even the slightest trace of damage typical of diseases and insects
Fennel seeds are harvested when the umbrellas of the inflorescences change color from yellowish green to brown. They are cut off and hung up for drying in a room with a temperature of no higher than 30 ° C, providing good ventilation and laying a newspaper or fabric underneath. Dried seeds spill themselves. Then they need to be cleaned of plant debris. Store them in paper bags or linen bags in a cool, dry, dark room.
Fennel is dried just like any other greens.
Similarly, dried fennel greens. It does not lose its characteristic aroma for 1.5–2 years and retains benefits. It can also be frozen. To do this, the leaves are separated from the stems, washed, dried, laid out on trays or baking sheets laid with paper and sent to the freezer for 2–3 minutes, which is included in the “shock” freezing mode. Finished leaves are laid out in small portions in special bags with an airtight fastener. Thawing and freezing them again will not work - fennel will turn into an unappetizing slimy slurry. It can be stored in the freezer for 6–8 months.
Dried fennel retains taste and aroma for 1.5–2 years
Video: how to prepare fennel for the winter
Fennel is widely used in cooking and in traditional medicine. You cannot call it an easy-to-care plant, but the efforts spent by the gardener pay off with the resulting crop. In most of the territory of Russia, it is grown as an annual crop, so you can not bother with shelter for the winter. Breeders have bred quite a few varieties, each gardener can choose the most suitable for themselves.