Features of the use of forest birches in the landscape design of the site
Not all owners of their own plots try to give the territory an ordered look, where the hand of a person is felt in the strict placement and selection of plants. Some closer to the natural landscapes, with ordinary trees from the forest, dandelions and field grass instead of lawn. Most often, such a landscape is left by summer residents, who already got the site with mature trees. Our people are especially not indifferent to the birch, because in beauty it can argue with rare foreign cultures. But let's see if forest birch is always appropriate in the design of the site, and which varieties should be preferred (to avoid problems with neighbors).
What lands are birch trees suitable for?
If this tree is not in your country house yet, but the dream of a birch near the porch has already begun to excite your heart, first of all, weigh all the pros and cons that the forest dweller will bring to you.
The "dark side" of birch: features of growth
Uncultured, i.e. wild birch trees grow very quickly and fly to incredible sizes. Today’s half-meter seedling in five years will overtake the height of the house, and in 20-25 years it can shoot up to 45 meters. Such a tapeworm is very harmonious on a large plot, where the house is large and there is enough territory. But the view of a huge tree near a small country house makes the building tiny and ridiculous.
Birch grove is quite harmonious against the background of modern design solutions - paved paths, a pool and other small forms, if they are designed in the Russian style
In addition to dimensions, the following should be considered:
- The roots of birches are located in the surface layers of the soil and spread to the sides with a radius of 6-10 meters (depending on the variety). At the same time, they are so actively sucking up food from the ground that even ordinary grass is not easy to get along with. This means that you will have to carefully consider the design under the tree and experiment with different plants until you find a “tolerant neighbor”.
- An adult tree absorbs more than 60 liters per day in summer. water, and other decorative cultures (under it) remain only crumbs of liquid.
- There is a lot of garbage from birch, it often renews foliage, and weeping varieties dump even thin branches. So maintaining cleanliness in the area will become more difficult.
- If your site borders on your neighbors, then an improperly planted birch can cause strife, as it casts a shadow far away, blocking the light of plants in the lower tiers. And even with the allowed SNiP 4 meters from the fence, an adult tree creates a shady spot on a much larger area.
- In close proximity to the birch, fruit trees do not get along, so you cannot plant a garden within a radius of 10 meters.
But all these minuses easily turn into pluses, if you approach the landings wisely.
Obvious advantages of birch plantings
So, it was said above that an adult tree is a powerful pump that draws moisture out of the ground. If you are "lucky" to buy a cottage in a lowland, where in spring many places dry until the end of May, and after rains there is a swamp for weeks, then a forest birch will come in handy for your landscape. It normalizes the humidity level not only in the radius of the root system, but also 10 meters ahead. So in the lowlands, birch alleys are planted in the direction where the natural slope of the earth goes.
The height of the birch can play into the hands of those summer residents whose plot is in the open and blown away by all the winds. By planting several trees from the north (or the side where the wind blows more often), you will protect fruit trees, grapes and decorative crops from freezing of branches, because without wind the frost is much easier to tolerate. Only when the birch trees become very large will it be necessary to plant medium-sized varieties in the second row (you may not need birch trees), since the main crown will be too high and will not be able to close the lower tier of plantings from the weather.
Plus, fallen birch foliage is an excellent raw material for composting. If you knock down a drawer or make a compost pit, then every year you will have on hand rich soil for feeding beds and flower beds. Small branches are also useful: they in the compost will play the role of an interlayer, preventing the leaves from compacting and helping air circulation.
The alley of birches planted along the fence will protect more delicate decorative shrubs, roses from strong winds, and there will be less blowing in the windows
Fans of bath procedures will be able to cut brooms in sufficient quantities, especially since haircuts help form a more magnificent crown. True, if the tree waved for 20 meters - you will not get to the branches. In the spring, the whole family will have healing juice on hand.
How to contain the growth of a forest tree?
If the arguments “for” outweighed all “against” - plant boldly. Moreover, to restrain the growth of the forest beauty is quite within the power of an inexperienced gardener. As a rule, birches bring small, up to a meter high, to the site, because small seedlings are easier to take root. Immediately determine what height will be the most harmonious in your landscape.
As soon as in a year or two the birch reaches the desired height, cut off the top. So you give impetus to the growth of the lateral branches, make the crown thicker and stop growth forever. Pruning is carried out in the summer and after leaf fall.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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If a birch tree with several trunks has sprouted on your site, bind them together and tie them together. In a couple of years, this tree will take its original shape.
In the wild, common and weeping species are found. The second does not grow above 20 meters. But if you want to find a seedling of a weeping variety in the forest, you are unlikely to recognize it in appearance, since in “childhood” birches look almost the same. Focus on adult plants growing nearby. The wind rarely brings a different variety over long distances.
But if you come across an ordinary birch, you can turn it into a weeping man-made way. Cut off the top of the head, and bend and hang the lateral branches, tending upwards, onto each weight (water bottles, glands, etc.). The main thing - do not overdo it with weight. You need to start with small weights, gradually increasing their severity. Then in winter, the branches will not break and there will be no frost holes.
To give the branches a certain direction, pins are driven into the ground (since the tent is fixed) and branches with weights are tied to them. In winter, the place of contact of the rope and branch should be wrapped with a cloth so that the bark does not fray.
Adult Birch Trimming Options
And what to do, if the forest beauty got you in an adult state? There are several options: if the size of the site allows, leave it as it is, and arrange a corner for rest under the birch. Knock down a bench around the trunk, hang a hammock or put garden furniture. In such a place you will be cool even in the heat. Under the canopy of foliage, a children's room for girls will also fit perfectly.
Under the adult birch trees, cool twilight reigns all summer, so hammocks are hung here, swings and sun loungers are set up or a children's corner is equipped
The second option is to give the birch a more decorative look. It is used by those summer residents who plan to create a more ordered landscape, with trimmed decorative shrubs, lawn, paths, etc. In this case, the birch can be beautifully trimmed:
- Leave the branches only in the upper part, cutting off the crown and all the side branches growing below. This type of haircut is called "under the palm tree", since in this tree all leaves come from one growth point.
- Cut down all the branches and the crown, leaving 10 cm from the thick branches on the trunk (imagine how many brooms you will tie right away!). Then, after a couple of years, the birch will be covered with a large number of young twigs, departing from the left stumps, and will resemble a sort of green column.
Be prepared that not every adult tree will withstand such a haircut. A birch can get sick for a couple of years while it sets off from shock. Another minus of haircuts for adult trunks - the roots will instantly produce shoots. So the birch is insured against death and shoots with new “offspring”. True, to deal with them is no harder than with a shoot of plum or cherry.
To save the area from unnecessary shade, branches are cut down completely near the top of the birch trees (haircut a la palm)
What plants can get along under a birch?
Since the ground under the birch will be very dry, not all ornamental plants can survive in such conditions. True, in the heat you still have to water (like any flower garden!).
Here is a list of cultures that can get along with the forest "guest":
- Wild strawberries . Bring a couple of bushes from the forest and plant right in the grass. For children, it is much more interesting to collect such berries, to tear weeks in the garden.
- Bulbous . These droughts are not afraid, since they bloom in early spring, when there is plenty of moisture even under birch trees. And in the summer you will dig them out.
- Ferns . A plant species that is highly resistant to any climate conditions. All space will be braided under a birch, if you give them free rein.
- Lilies of the valley . Like the previous plant, they cover the soil with a dense carpet, not at all suffering from shade and dryness.
- Anemone (or anemone). It blooms all May and looks organically under a forest tree, since it itself is a native of the forest.
As you can see, most plants that can "make friends" with birch are forest inhabitants. You can even not buy in the market, but go to the forest and “smuggle” to dig a lot of the necessary sprouts there. True, it is better to do this in the early spring so that the degree of survival is maximum.
Most often, plants under the spring flowering period are planted under birches, since they have enough moisture to form peduncles after winter
Decorative varieties appropriate for small areas
If birch planting is only in the project so far - there is time to think about whether you need a wild tree. On 4-5 acres it is worth doing cultivated, grafted varieties that do not grow above 3 meters, which means there will be less problems.
Junga refers to dwarf birches, it is often grafted on a stump, so such a plant is appropriate in any design of the territory
The most popular in landscape design:
- Jung's variety, whose crown resembles a magnificent asymmetric umbrella, beautifully falling to the ground;
- Gracilis, distinguished by a straight trunk and weeping form of branches;
- Long Trunk variety, with dazzling white, without a single black dot trunk, large carved leaves and a falling crown.
With proper placement and care, birch will become the main attraction in your country house and the subject of envy for neighbors.