Features of planting and growing grapes in the suburbs
Today, grapes are cultivated in many regions of Russia, including the Moscow Region. Local cultivation has some advantages: local conditions prevent many diseases from appearing, and pests are not so active. Together with a large selection of varieties, cultivating grapes near Moscow is no more difficult than in the warmer regions of the country.
Is it possible to grow grapes in the suburbs
Grapes are considered a thermophilic crop and many gardeners think that it can be grown exclusively in the south, but in fact it is not. Its cultivation is also possible in the middle lane and Moscow region, naturally, taking into account some nuances. If earlier grapes in these regions were planted solely as an ornamental shrub for decorating arbors, obtaining arches, today thanks to the work of breeders there are early and early varieties. As a result, it is possible to obtain normally ripened clusters and a vine prepared for winter.
Despite the fact that grapes are considered a thermophilic crop, today it can be successfully cultivated even in the suburbs
Planting grapes in the suburbs
Before embarking on a grape planting, you need to consider in more detail a number of important points, without knowledge of which it is unlikely to achieve good results.
Grapes must be planted in well-lit and protected from the wind areas. An excellent option would be landing near the south side of a building, while you need to retreat about a meter from the wall. Small and closed areas for these purposes are not very suitable. On them, the earth warms up for a long time, the snow melts slowly. Grape planting is best done on loamy and sandy soils.
Grapes are best planted near the south side of a building, retreating from the wall about 1 m
If clay predominates on the site, then when preparing the pit for planting, it will be necessary to make a drainage layer in the form of broken brick or crushed stone.
For the Moscow Region, it is advisable to choose varieties with a short growing season (100-120 days). There is a misconception that in the middle lane you can only get sour and small grapes. However, there are many table varieties that are successfully cultivated in the suburbs, have large and palatable fruits, and also form a large bunch. At the same time, there are early and ultra-early varieties that are not suitable for the region in question, since they are very demanding on heat during the growing season. Such grapes do not have time to ripen fruit buds, so they can’t get the next year's crop.
One of the important factors for the successful cultivation of grapes in the suburbs is the right choice of variety
The following varieties are very popular among winegrowers: Radiant raisins, Muscat Pleven, Northern Early, Michurinsky, Summer Muscat, Arcadia, Riddle Sharov, Kesha, Kodryanka, Krasa Nikopol, Muromets. The advantage of these varieties is not only an early ripening period, but also a high resistance to frost. In the suburbs you can plant mid-season varieties and even rely on a decent harvest, but only in the hot summer. If the average temperature during the day is low, then the berries may simply not ripen. As for medium-late and late-ripening varieties, they are not grown in this region.
Alternatively, consider planting medium-late varieties in greenhouse conditions.
Grapes in the suburbs can be planted both in early spring and in autumn until the moment of frost. In the spring, planting can be done with lignified cuttings or green annual seedlings. If the second variant of planting material is used, then the planting should be carried out carefully, since at this time the roots of the plants are quite fragile. The planting of seedlings begin at a time when the earth warms up to + 10˚С. It should also be taken into account that the earth should not be too wet. It’s not worth it too much to delay planting, since at later dates seedlings develop more slowly.
In the autumn, one-year grapes are planted. The material used for planting should be healthy, without any damage or signs of disease. In autumn, grapes are planted in the suburbs in mid-October.
In addition to choosing a place, for planting grape seedlings, it is necessary to properly prepare the landing pit. Its dimensions should be as follows: 1.5 * 1.5 m and a depth of 30–45 cm. When the pit is dug up, 4–5 compost buckets, 3–4 buckets of sand and a shovel of wood ash are introduced into it, after which all components are carefully mix.
When preparing a planting pit for grapes, organic fertilizers, sand and ash are applied
The procedure for preparing planting material for planting is reduced to cutting roots. Their length should be about 15-18 cm. The day before planting, the seedlings are soaked in a bucket of water to saturate with moisture.
When the preparatory measures are completed, you can begin planting work. First, consider the planting of a lignified seedling. To do this, perform the following steps:
- In the center of the landing pit, make a small hole up to 40 cm deep and about 30 cm wide.
- 1-2 buckets of water are poured and a hill is made of earth.
1-2 buckets of water are poured into the landing pit under the grapes, after which they make a mound from the ground
- Place the seedling on the knoll, spreading the roots.
When planting a grape seedling in a pit, the root system is evenly distributed
- The upper bud on the shoot is placed below the ground by 5-8 cm. If the seedling is long, it is planted at an angle.
- The roots are covered with earth and a small depression is made in the soil around the seedling.
The roots of the seedling are covered with earth, after which they make recesses for irrigation
- They make watering and cover the plant with a cropped plastic bottle with an unscrewed cork.
The cuttings after planting are covered with a plastic bottle for better heating of the soil
The bottle is installed for additional warming of the soil, better rooting and quicker awakening of the kidneys.
So that the earth in the root zone warms up better, a black film can be sent around the seedlings. If green annual plants are used for planting, that is, already with leaves, then they are planted to the same depth as lignified ones. The seedling is removed from the planting tank, placed in a pit and sprinkled with earth. Otherwise, all actions are similar to the previous method.
Video: planting grape seedlings
Features of growing and caring for grapes in the suburbs
The cultivation of grapes in the open ground of the Moscow Region involves sheltering the vines for the winter, formation, timely feeding and watering. For the annual harvest should adhere to the following rules:
- use winter-hardy and early ripe varieties for planting;
- planting of crops must be carried out near fences and other structures that will serve as protection for young plantings from the winds;
- during development, the grape bush should receive nutrition in the form of potash and phosphorus fertilizers;
- in the fall, grapes must be cut;
- for the winter, the bush is covered with any available materials.
Shaping and trimming
Pruning is the most difficult for beginner gardeners. In fact, the procedure is not as complicated as it seems. The formation of grape bushes in the Moscow region begin in the second year after planting. Grape growers with experience do not recommend trimming the crop in the first year. The only thing they pay attention to is tying if the vine falls to the ground.
Depending on the selected pattern of formation of the vine bush, pruning is performed accordingly
Regular pruning is carried out from the second year and is performed in 2 stages. The first stage involves cropping in the autumn period, while 2/3 of the volume intended for removal is removed. Before the onset of cold weather, do not prune too much to prevent freezing of the bush. The second stage is held in the spring. In this case, sick, frozen, weak and damaged shoots are subject to removal. Vine growth must be regulated from the very beginning. Otherwise, the shoots will not develop properly, which will lead to a decrease in yield.
After fruiting, the vine is cut into a fruit link: at the top there is a knot of substitution, at the bottom there is a fruit arrow
The easiest way to form grapes, which is suitable for cold regions, is performed according to the Guyot scheme:
- During the first year after planting, a strong shoot is grown. Cut it off in the fall, leaving 2 eyes from the surface of the earth.
- In the second year, 2 annual shoots grow from the eyes, which are also cut in the fall: one remains long for clusters, and the second is shortened to 2-3 buds.
- In the third year, a knot and a vine will again grow from the eyes of a short process.
Video: the formation of grapes in the suburbs
Grapes - a culture that responds well to fertilizer application, especially phosphorus and potassium. Phosphorus favorably affects the laying and formation of fruit buds. Potassium, in turn, increases the immunity of plants and ensures their growth. Nitrogen ensures the normal growth and development of the bush.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Regardless of the type of soil, the most preferred fertilizer for the crop in question is manure. This substance provides the vine not only with basic nutrients, but also with microelements. Manure is imported infrequently - every 3 years in a bucket of 1 m² for digging. To provide the vineyard with a sufficient amount of phosphate and potash fertilizers, every 3-4 years, superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added at 50 g per 1 m².
Instead of mineral fertilizers, you can make ash - 80-100 g per the same area.
To obtain the greatest effect from the fertilizers applied, the solutions are poured through special pipes leading to the roots of the bush
To get the greatest effect from the application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, they must be delivered to the occurrence zone of the main part of the roots. In this case, a nutrient solution is prepared, which is fed through special pipes. If the soil under the vineyard is poor, then nitrogen fertilizers are applied every year in the early spring, and also after flowering in the amount of 3-4 g of active substance per 1 m².
When cultivating grapes, plants need to create favorable conditions and watering in this play an important role. Particular attention is paid to soil moisture during the ripening period . It is generally accepted that early varieties should be watered 3 times per season, and medium and medium late - 4 times. If you look, then such irrigation will not be very effective. Grape bushes need to be watered about once every 2 weeks. The amount of water should be such that the soil is saturated to a depth of 50 cm.
Depending on which grape variety is preferred and on its resistance to diseases, it is necessary to periodically spray the bushes in order to protect against diseases. For the culture in question, the mildew is the most dangerous, which leads to the appearance of light yellow spots on the leaves, turning into berries and causing them to rot.
One of the dangerous diseases for any vineyard is mildew.
For the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to clean the fallen leaves for the winter and to well cover the grapes, as well as timely pruning. In addition, for preventive purposes they resort to spraying bushes with Bordeaux liquid, and several times:
- when the shoots reach a length of 20-30 cm;
- after flowering;
- 2-3 times a week until the berries ripen.
Another common grape disease is oidium. In this case, dark gray formations appear on the berries and inflorescences, as a result of which the fruits dry and crack, and they rot in wet weather. The fight against oidium is similar to measures against mildew. Grape bushes are also sprayed with fungicides.
Video: processing grapes from diseases
Shelter for the winter
Despite the fact that modern grape varieties can withstand severe frosts, their roots freeze already at -6–12 ° C. Therefore, the culture needs protection from the cold, but first of all, the vine needs to be prepared. After the leaves fall, the grapes are cut, the vine is removed from the trellis and bent to the ground with metal staples. Shoots should not touch the ground, as mold can form on them from moisture. For these purposes, wooden planks are placed under the vine.
Bending the vine, wooden slats are placed under the branches to prevent mold
Do not use film and foliage for these purposes, since condensation will collect under them. In the suburbs, grapes can be covered in several ways. Consider them:
- The earth. In this case, the vine is dug up with soil, which is quite simple, but not very effective. When ingested rainfall and subsequent freezing, the culture may simply die.
A simple but ineffective way of sheltering grapes for the winter is land
- Lapnikom. Often, winegrowers near Moscow use coniferous branches for shelter. Such material allows moisture and air to pass through well, but in case of warming the ground can freeze.
Coniferous branches are often used as a material for sheltering grapes in the Moscow Region.
- Ruberoid and film. Using these materials, you can protect the earth from rain. To organize the shelter, arches of metal are installed on top of which cover material is laid, but first, wooden slats are placed under the vine, and sprinkled with dry needles or straw on top. If frosts are not severe, then periodic it will be necessary to open and ventilate such a shelter on both sides.
For sheltering grapes often use a film or roofing material
- Slate. In this method, the vine is bent to the ground, sprinkled with sawdust, dry conifer needles or hay. Slate protects from precipitation and allows air to pass through.
Slate helps protect grapes from precipitation and allows air to pass through
- Protection in the form of a box. So that every year the process of sheltering grapes does not take much time and does not have to think about how best to do this, you can build a wooden box and beat it with ruberoid. Such a construction is done along the grape row, laying the vine there.
Grapes for the winter can be placed in special boxes that are located along the vine bushes
- Agrofibre. This material allows you to keep snow on yourself and is suitable for protecting the vineyard in snowy winters. In this case, the vine is tilted to the surface of the earth and covered with agrofibre, pressing the material along the edges with bricks or sprinkling it with earth.
It is good to cover the grapes with agrofiber in the snowy winter, since the material keeps the snow on itself
Video: pruning and sheltering grapes
If the bushes are old, then they can be wrapped in several layers of covering material, securing it with twine.
At the end of March, snow is removed from the grapes to protect them and they allow melt water to flow. Having chosen a fine day, they remove the shelter and dry what was under it. Then, the covering structure is restored: the grapes must be protected until steady heat arrives. After that, foliage or spruce branches are removed, and the vine is left tied for about another two weeks. In order to protect it from frost, it can be covered with polyethylene. By the end of May, the danger of the last frosts will pass in the suburbs of Moscow, after which you can untie the grapes, cut dry and damaged branches.
The ripening and harvesting grapes in the suburbs occur in August-early September. Despite the fact that clusters with ripe berries can sag on the branches for about a month and taste will not be affected, vineyards with experience recommend harvesting on time. Otherwise, berries may rot, which will serve as a bait for pests.
In the suburbs to harvest grapes begin in August and early September
Based on my experience, I can advise you to plant the following grape varieties that are optimal for Moscow Region - Solaris, Crystal, Rails pink sidlis, GF No. 342, Amur varieties and GF, Agat Donskoy, as well as the marketed variety Marquette.Eugene-Moscow
I planted near Moscow black and white, Agate Donskoy, Augustow and Aleshenkin. Moscow Region is very tenacious. 10 years ago it was from him that she began her training in pruning, sheltering, etc. He endured everything, even the fact that I was sorry to cut it, then kept it in the trellis a meter and a half. But the taste is not quite dining. But the compotes for the winter from him are simply delicious. The rest were planted with freshly rooted cuttings in 2012. Last year, they did not shelter them and they were forced to grow almost from the stump. "Aleshenkin" did not recover at all. But on Agate and White Moscow Region, even one mini cluster in a season. Care and watering was so minimal this year that I can’t even compare them with anything. But when buying cuttings in a greenhouse, I tried them. And I consider Agate and Augustow even very dessert to my taste. I look forward to when they enter into force and it becomes clear how they are in a new place.mishautina
The first attempts to grow grapes were about 20 years ago, varieties Damask Rose and Pearls Saba. Then there were Rusven, Kesha, Cosmonaut, Cardinal, Russian Kishmish, Aleshenkin, Agat Donskoy, Moscow Sustainable, Zilga, Isabella (real), Amur. Kesha, of course, is the champion in terms of berry size, but the vine was too powerful, up to 8 m per season, ripened poorly. Rusven cracked in any summer. Saba's pearls are tasty, but low-yielding. The astronaut and Kishmish are very sick. The cardinal was in reassortment, but it was tenacious - I didn’t need it (it matured late), I cut it out, and it grew every year. Zilga was tormented by her ability to grow and bloom all season - without normalization, there was overload and poor maturation.Michurinka
Recently, more and more gardeners have shown interest in viticulture in the cold regions of the country. A properly selected variety and properly protected for the winter bush is not afraid of even severe frosts. Observing the agricultural farming technique and taking into account some nuances, getting a decent grape harvest in the Moscow Region is not as difficult as it seems at first glance.