Features of growing pumpkins in the Urals: seedling and direct method of sowing

Pumpkin is a thermophilic culture. If in the southern regions its cultivation does not cause any problems, then in the Urals it is necessary to more carefully approach the choice of a site and create the most favorable conditions for plants, due to the short and cool summer. Only in this case, you can count on getting good quality fruits.

The best varieties for the Urals

A culture such as pumpkin grows in almost all corners of the world, but in order to get a decent crop, you must follow the growing technology. Pumpkin cultivation in the Urals is possible under optimal conditions and in compliance with agricultural technology. An important factor in obtaining a crop is the correct choice of variety, since frost in mid-June is not uncommon for this region. This suggests the need to select early and early ripening varieties that are able to ripen during storage. Consider the most popular of them.

Pearl. The variety is medium early with a maturity of 100 days. Plants are able to tolerate harsh weather changes, small frosts. This pumpkin has a good yield (15 kg per m²). The fruits are fleshy, pear-shaped, with a small number of seeds and weighing up to 7 kg. The variety is characterized by long-term storage and a sweet taste of pulp with a nutmeg aroma.

Pumpkin Pearl is able to withstand harsh weather changes, small frosts

Bush orange. An early-grade pumpkin with a ripening period of 90–120 days. Plants are compact, not weaving. The fruits are characterized by a rounded shape, orange skin and a weight of 4-7 kg. The pulp is high in carotene, sweet and tender.

Bush gold. An early ripe variety with large fruits that reach a mass of 5 kg and mature in 90–100 days. Productivity from 1 m² is about 15 kg. A plant with rounded flattened fruits, on the surface of which there is a noticeable division into segments. The variety got its name because of its peel, which in the sun seems golden. The flesh of a pumpkin is crisp, yellow, but cannot boast of sweetness.

A variety of pumpkin Bush gold has a yield of 15 kg from 1 m²

Country. Belongs to the cold-resistant and most early ripening varieties (75–85 days). The fruit mass is 3-4 kg. The skin of the pumpkin is hard, green and yellow. The flesh is yellow, fragrant and sweet. It is stored up to 4 months.

Therapeutic. An early variety with a ripening period of 90–95 days. It is characterized by resistance to cold and high humidity. Fruits are rounded, flattened, with a ribbed surface and weighing up to 5 kg. The peel is gray-green, flesh of a bright orange color, sweet, high in carotene.

Sweetie. Early long-stringy and cold-resistant variety, ripening in 90 days. Fruits are round in shape with bright orange. The average weight is 2 kg. The peel is divided into segments by green stripes. The pulp is distinguished by juiciness and sweetness.

Pumpkin Candy - a long-varietal variety that is resistant to cold, ripens in 90 days

Smile. Early bush pumpkin ripens in 85–90 days. Fruits of small size, weighing 0.8–1 kg (according to seed producers), resemble balls, have a bright orange color. The flesh is crispy, sweet, the taste resembles a melon. Pumpkin can be consumed fresh. It is distinguished by good keeping quality, does not require special storage conditions.

Growing conditions

In order to grow on your land not just a pumpkin, but tasty and juicy fruits, you must comply with the cultivation conditions of this crop. First of all, you should adhere to the rules of crop rotation and plant the plants of the pumpkin family (zucchini, cucumber, squash, pumpkin, watermelon) in the same place no earlier than after 4-5 years. Good predecessors are cruciferous and bean cultures. You should not plant melon nearby, so that in case of illnesses you do not have to be left without a crop of all crops.

All pumpkin demanding lighting, with a lack of which reduces the number of ovaries, increases the likelihood of diseases, pest attack. Therefore, for a pumpkin in the Urals, you should choose the warmest, well-lit and sheltered from the wind place, for example, behind a house or outbuildings. The site should be flat and located away from growing crops.

Growing seedlings

Pumpkin can be grown in two ways - through seedlings and direct sowing in the ground. However, it is the first option that is recommended for the Urals, since it is more efficient and reliable. Nevertheless, it is worth considering both methods in more detail.

When to plant

Pumpkin seeds in the Urals are sown from late April to mid-May. If it is supposed to be planted in a greenhouse, then the sowing dates are shifted back by 10-14 days.

Seed preparation

Before you start sowing seeds, they must be prepared. For this, damaged, deformed seeds are selected, and only large and thick ones are left. If you are not sure about the quality of the seed, first you should check its suitability for cultivation by placing it in a container with water for 3-4 hours. Those seeds that sink to the bottom can be used for planting, and which remain on the surface, it is better to throw it away.

The process of preparing seeds for each gardener can be different. So, the soaking procedure is widespread. For this, seeds are placed in warm water (1–2 hours) or potassium permanganate (15–20 minutes). If a manganese solution is used, the seed should be washed after the procedure, and then wrapped in a damp cloth and left to germinate at room temperature.

Pumpkin seeds are soaked in warm water, manganese, and then germinated at room temperature

Pumpkin seeds germinate, usually within 2-3 days.

If you listen to the opinion of experienced gardeners, then in addition to soaking the seeds should be hardened. To do this, sprouted seeds are placed on the lower shelf of the refrigerator with a wet cloth for 3-4 days. In the event that it is planned to plant old seeds that have been stored for more than 6-8 years, they are preheated. Then they are tied with gauze cloth and placed in water at a temperature of 40-50 ° C, after which they are immersed in cold. It is necessary to carry out several such procedures (4–5), keeping the grains in water for 5 s. At the end of the process, the seed is dried and planted. If you use dry seeds, then sowing should be carried out a week earlier.

Preparation of tanks and soil

When choosing containers for pumpkin seedlings, you need to consider that plants do not tolerate picking. Peat or disposable plastic cups with a volume of 0.2-0.5 liters will be an excellent option for planting. In addition, any containers of a small volume, for example, the same cut-off plastic bottles, from which it will be possible to easily extract plants during transplantation, will fit perfectly.

As containers for pumpkin seedlings, you can use any suitable container

As for the soil, the pumpkin prefers nutritious soil, which can be prepared independently or purchased ready for vegetable seedlings. For independent mixing, the following components are required:

  • 2 parts of peat;
  • 1 part rotted sawdust;
  • 1 part humus.

Sowing seeds

After all the preparatory measures, you can start sowing. Spend it in the following sequence:

  1. Landing tanks are filled with soil a little more than half. This is necessary so that as the plants grow, it is possible to sprinkle the earth.

    We fill the prepared tanks with the soil mixture

  2. Water abundantly.

    After filling the earth, spill the containers with water

  3. We plant seeds to a depth of 2-4 cm.

    We deepen pumpkin seeds by 2–4 cm

  4. Cover the container with glass or plastic wrap.

    We cover the plantings with glass or film to create optimal conditions for germination

  5. We transfer the plantings to a warm and dark place, we provide the temperature in the daytime + 20–25 ° C, at night - + 15–20 ° C.

The appearance of the first sprouts on the earth's surface should be expected 3 days after planting.

Video: planting pumpkins for seedlings

Seedling Care

As soon as the shoots appear, the shelter from the tank should be removed. Up to this point, you need to carry out airing 1-2 times a day, opening the plantings for 10-15 minutes. For 5–7 days after the appearance of the sprouts, the capacity should be transferred to a place where the temperature will be lower by 5 ˚ С.

Moving seedlings to cooler conditions will eliminate stretching seedlings. If the plants are still stretched, you should add a little soil.

For normal growth and development of pumpkin seedlings, good lighting is required, for which it is installed on a sunny windowsill. Long daylight hours also prevent seedlings from stretching. In addition to light, pumpkin needs moisture, which is supported by regular and moderate watering.

In order for pumpkin seedlings to grow and develop normally, she needs to provide good lighting

2 weeks after emergence, seedlings can be fertilized. For these purposes, a solution of nitrophoska (0.5 tbsp. Per 5 l of water) or mullein (100 g diluted in 1 l of water, insist 3-4 hours, diluted in 5 l of water) is suitable.

Transplanting seedlings into the ground

The grown seedlings are planted on the plot under the film in late May and early June. More specific dates depend on weather conditions. The age of seedlings at the time of transplantation is about 30 days. At this time, she should have 2-3 real and well-developed leaves, and the height should reach 15–20 cm. The best time for transplanting is evening or cloudy weather. Seedlings are planted according to the scheme 100 * 100 cm. For this procedure, stable warm weather with an average temperature of + 15 ° C must be established. Transplanting is reduced to the following actions:

  1. We make a large hole, pour humus and ash on the bottom, then pour it with warm water.

    To provide plants with the necessary nutrition, humus is added to the wells when planting

  2. From the planting tank, carefully remove the seedling along with an earthen lump, trying not to damage the root.

    We carefully remove pumpkin seedlings from containers, avoiding damage to the roots

  3. We put a plant in a hole and fill it with earth from the garden.

    Sprouts are placed in the planting pits and fall asleep with soil from the garden

  4. After planting, we mulch humus and cover with a film.

A layer of mulch will retain moisture in the soil, prevent weed growth. In addition, humus will provide plants with additional nutrition.

Video: planting pumpkin seedlings in the ground

Greenhouse cultivation

In the harsh conditions of Siberia and the Urals, pumpkin cultivation has its own nuances, since there are not so many warm summer days in these regions. One of the cultivation options is planting pumpkins in closed ground. But the place in the greenhouse, as a rule, is always not enough, and the pumpkin is a plant of considerable size and occupies a large area. Therefore, you have to resort to some tricks. In polycarbonate greenhouses, the implementation of such a trick is rather problematic, but in ordinary film designs it is not difficult to do this.

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When growing pumpkins in a greenhouse, the root system remains inside, and the stem with fruits develops outside

Pumpkin is often planted next to cucumbers, giving it a place in the corner. Pits for planting are done in the same way as in open ground, not forgetting to fertilize, after planting plants or sowing seeds. When the length of the stem reaches about 0.5 m, the weather is stable and stable in the open air. In the greenhouse, the edge of the film is bent and an escape is released into the street. Thus, the roots of the culture are in closed ground, and the fruits are located in the open. To grow pumpkin seedlings in protected conditions, it is necessary to provide the following conditions:

  • temperature during the day within + 18–25 ° C, at night + 15–18 ° C;
  • high humidity;
  • good lighting;
  • regular ventilation is necessary to prevent the development of fungal diseases.

Planting seeds in the ground

You can plant a pumpkin in the Urals and immediately seeded, but, as they say, at your own peril and risk. How and what to do, we will consider in more detail.

Soil preparation

If you plan to plant climbing varieties of pumpkin, it should be borne in mind that in such plants the root system occupies about 8 m². This suggests the need to prepare the entire garden, which is designed for this culture. The site preparation process involves the introduction of 2 buckets of manure and humus per 1 m² for digging in the autumn. In addition, mineral fertilizers will be useful: 40-60 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, as well as 1 tbsp. wood ash per 1 m².

In the case of growing bush varieties, it is necessary to prepare separate planting pits, which are filled with such fertilizers in the fall:

  • 2/3 buckets of humus;
  • 2 tbsp. l superphosphate;
  • 1 tbsp. l potash fertilizers;
  • 4–5 Art. ashes.

When preparing a pumpkin patch, both organic and mineral fertilizers are applied

So that the soil is loose, in the spring it is necessary to re-dig.

When to plant

For timely seed germination, it is necessary to observe the sowing dates. Pumpkin is planted in open ground after sufficient warming of the soil (+ 12˚С), as well as when the weather becomes stable warm. In the Urals, suitable conditions occur in late May and early June.

Landing procedure

Seeds for planting in open ground are prepared in the same way as for growing seedlings. The rest of the procedure is reduced to the following steps:

  1. In the prepared area, we make holes according to the scheme according to the pumpkin variety, after which we pour them with warm water.

    Before planting the seeds, the wells are well shed with warm water

  2. We deepen the seeds by 4–5 cm. We place 3-5 seeds in each planting fossa.

    Sprouted pumpkin seeds are placed in the planting pits.

  3. We fill them with earth and slightly mulch humus.
  4. We cover with glass, film or other covering material.

    After planting the seeds, the beds are covered with a film

The layer of mulch should not exceed 2 cm, otherwise young shoots simply can not break through the greater thickness.

Video: planting pumpkin seeds in open ground

Landing pattern

Since one plant requires a nutritional area of ​​1–4 m², the planting scheme must be followed, depending on the planted variety. Early ripe pumpkins need less area, late ripe more. Long-walled varieties are planted at a distance between holes of 1.5–2 m, between rows - 1.4–2 m. When cultivating bush varieties, planting is slightly different: 80 * 80 cm or 1.2 * 1.2 m. The depth of seed placement depends by type of soil. On light soils, seed is sown to a depth of 4–8 cm, on heavy soils, 4–5 cm.

Pumpkin planting pattern varies by variety

Pumpkin Care

Caring for the crop in question does not cause any particular difficulties and comes down to observing such basic agricultural practices as watering, fertilizing, and forming bushes.

Top dressing

Although the pumpkin loves fertilizers, it should not be fed more often than once every 2 weeks. In open ground, the culture is fed twice:

  • with the formation of 5 sheets of 10 g of nitrophoska in dry form under one bush;
  • when lashes appear, 15 g of nitrophoska is diluted in 10 l and poured under one plant.

In addition to mineral, organic fertilizers can also be used. For these purposes, wood ash is suitable (1 tbsp. Per plant), as well as mullein (1 liter of substance per 10 liters of water). Mullein is introduced at the beginning of the growing season at the rate of 10 liters per 6 bushes and during fruiting - 10 liters per 3 bushes. All nutrients are introduced into a previously dug ditch in the form of a ring around the plant. Its depth should increase with the growth of the fetus - from 8 cm to 15 cm. The deepening should be 15 cm from the young plants, later it is increased to 40 cm.

Video: feeding pumpkin organic

Watering

Watering pumpkins is accompanied by loosening of the soil and the removal of weeds, while the procedure should be carried out carefully so as not to damage the root system. For irrigation use exclusively warm water: tap water or from the well is not suitable because of the low temperature, which is detrimental to the roots. Watering should be given special attention during the flowering period: moisture promotes the formation of female flowers. The fluid flow at this time is about 30 liters per bush. When the fruits begin to ripen, the volume of water is reduced, since excess moisture adversely affects the duration of storage, and also reduces the sugar content in the fruits.

Use only warm water to water the pumpkin.

Lash formation and pollination

So that the plant does not waste energy on extra shoots and ovaries, it is necessary to complete the formation of lashes, which will contribute to the growth of large fruits with better taste. The number of ovaries left on the bush depends on the region and climatic conditions. In the Urals, as a rule, no more than 2-3 of the largest ovaries are left, and the rest are broken off. The bushes of the culture in question are formed into one or two stems. When forming in one stem, all lateral shoots and ovaries must be removed. No more than three ovaries are left on the stem. After the last, you need to leave 3-4 sheets and remove the growth point. When pumpkin is formed into two stems (central and lateral), 2 fruits are left on the main one, and one on the lateral. After the ovary, you need to leave 3-4 sheets, and pinch the shoots behind them.

Pumpkin can be formed into one or two stems, leaving 2-3 fruits on a bush

Video: Pumpkin Formation

Sometimes, due to adverse conditions, pumpkins have to be pollinated artificially. The procedure is carried out in the morning, for which a male flower with ragged petals needs to be pressed to the stigma of a female flower.

Male and female flowers are easy to distinguish: female on the right, male on the left

It’s quite simple to distinguish the sex of a flower: women initially have small ovaries, while men grow on a thin long stalk.

Video: how to perform artificial pollination of pumpkins

Pumpkin Diseases and Pests

Чтобы растения росли и развивались нормально, нужно следить за их состоянием и в случае возникновения болезней или поражении вредителями, принимать соответствующие меры. Это говорит о необходимости уметь правильно выявлять их.

Disease

Бактериоз является наиболее распространённым заболеванием, которое проявляется в виде небольших ран на семядолях и пятнах коричневого цвета на листовых пластиках. При поражении бактериозом поверхность плодов покрывается пятнами бурого цвета, тыквины деформируются. После засыхания язвочки, происходит её углубление внутрь плода. Болезнь прогрессирует при повышенной влажности и температурных изменениях. Болезнь переносится насекомыми, водой и кусочками тканей растений. Для предотвращения развития бактериоза семена перед посевом обрабатывают в 0, 02% растворе сернокислого цинка, после чего хорошо просушивают. Если на семядолях были обнаружены признаки появления болезни, проводят обработку бордоской жидкостью.

Из-за бактериоза листья тыквы покрываются пятнами, которые затем высыхают и вываливаются, образуя дыры

Ещё одним распространённым заболеванием является белая гниль. Выявить её несложно: на растениях появляется белый налёт, что приводит к размягчению и последующему гниению. Болезнь наиболее быстро распространяется при высокой влажности воздуха и почвы. Поражённые части растений следует присыпать древесной золой. Чтобы исключить возникновение такого заболевания, необходимо удалять с участка растительные остатки. В случае появления белой гнили нужно убрать листья, чтобы ранки подсохли на солнце. На срезанные участки наносят 0, 5% раствор медного купороса.

При белой гнили инфицированные участки листа размягчаются и загнивают

Корневая гниль — болезнь приводит к появлению перетяжек. Побеги и листья приобретают жёлто-коричневый оттенок и впоследствии распадаются. Наиболее вероятной причиной появления недуга являются поливы холодной водой или температурные изменения. В целях профилактики рекомендуется поливать растения раз в 2 недели препаратом Превикур согласно инструкции. Кроме этого, нужно следить за чистотой участка, удалять сорняки и другие остатки растительного происхождения. При заражении растения, стебель присыпают здоровой почвой для образования новых корешков.

При корневой гнили листья приобретают жёлто-коричневый оттенок и впоследствии распадаются

Мучнистая роса в большей степени проявляется на листьях в виде белого налёта. После поражения болезнью листва желтеет и засыхает. От неё снижается урожайность, ухудшается процесс фотосинтеза. Прогрессирует заболевание при недостаточных поливах и повышенной влажности воздуха, а также при большом количестве азота при подкормках. Распространяется мучнистая роса при порывах ветра. Также как и с другими недугами, мерами профилактики является содержание участка в чистоте. В случае появления первых признаков болезни, растения подвергают обработке коллоидной серой. Поражённую листву удаляют.

Явный признак мучнистой росы — белый налёт на листьях

Pests

Немалый вред наносят тыкве также вредители. Наиболее распространённым из них является паутинный клещ. Он повреждает обратную сторону листьев, после чего образует тонкую паутину. Сперва цвет листа меняется, затем засыхает. Если своевременно не отреагировать, растение погибает. Для борьбы с вредителем растения часто опрыскивают водой, а лучше настоем луковой или чесночной шелухи (200 г шелухи на 10 л воды).

Клещи опутывают тонкой паутиной все части растения

Бахчевая тля сперва распространяется на сорняках, после чего перебирается на тыкву. Насекомое заселяет полностью всё растение. После поражения листья скручиваются и опадают. Если не принимать меры борьбы с вредителем, тыквенные кусты попросту погибнут. Для избавления от тли проводят опрыскивания 10% раствором карбофоса.

Бахчевая тля активно размножается на нижней стороне листьев, высасывая соки из растения

Harvesting and storage

Судить о том, что тыква созрела и пришла пора её уборки, можно по следующим признакам:

  • плодоножка высохла, созрела, одревеснела;
  • листья высохли, поблёкли;
  • кожура стала твёрдой.

Тыкву начинают убирать после высыхания плодоножки и листьев

Во время уборки необходимо срезать плодоножку, оставив 3–4 см, при этом кожура не должна получить повреждения. Таким образом, плоды будут храниться продолжительное время. Важно не только своевременно и правильно собрать урожай, но и сохранить его. Итак, после уборки тыкву можно употреблять в пищу. Однако эту культуру, как правило, не выращивают по одному кусту, что заставляет задумываться о хранении. Для этих целей подойдёт подпол, кладовая, балкон, чердак, сарай. Независимо от выбранного места, важно соблюдать несколько условий:

  • влажность — 75–80%;
  • температура – +3…+15˚C;
  • вентиляция.

При несоблюдении одного из условий, лёжкость тыквы будет ухудшаться. На хранение отправляют все плоды без повреждений. Те тыквины, которые на кожуре имеют царапины либо вмятины, лучше употребить в пищу в течение короткого времени. Даже если хранение будет при правильных условиях, долго они все равно не пролежат. Плоды с повреждениями можно очистить, удалив испорченную часть, отделить семена и поместить мякоть в морозильную камеру. При хранении в том или ином помещении, размещать тыквины нужно на полках, стеллажах, но никак не на голой земле.

При хранении тыквы нужно соблюдать температуру и влажность

Если следовать опыту некоторых огородников, то плоды можно поместить на хранение в ящики с соломой.

Тыкву под силу вырастить каждому, причём даже в климатических условиях Урала. Для этого нужно выбрать подходящий раннеспелый сорт, правильно совершить посадку и обеспечить должный уход за культурой. Чтобы плоды после уборки сохранились как можно дольше, потребуется создать оптимальные условия для хранения.

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