Features of growing Amur grapes: watering, top dressing, pest control
Amur grape in natural conditions feels great in the forests of the Amur region. Unpretentious tall liana has taken root in garden plots in many regions. A decorative vine with beautiful leaves and edible fruits tolerates cold winters well. Wine is made from its berries, the seeds are rich in oil. Amur grapes will annually delight the harvest, without making high demands on care.
The history of growing grapes Amur
Vitis Amuretis, an ancient grape variety, grows in the wild in China, Korea and the Far East in a dense forest, on mountain slopes, in river valleys. Creepers up to 30 meters long are able to braid trees and, rising to their peaks, provide the plant with sufficient illumination. The grape surviving in harsh conditions is characterized by high frost resistance and is able to withstand temperature drops to -40 ° C.
Amur grapes in Primorye grows in the forest
The high yield of Amur grapes and its endurance attracted the attention of breeders. For cultivation in the northern regions, I.V. Michurin created hybrids of the "savage" with cultivars: Korinku Michurin, Northern Black, Northern Blue and others. Beginning in the 50s of the 20th century, active work was carried out on intraspecific hybridization of Vitis Amuretis by the Volgograd selection scientist A. I. Potapenko. He created varieties with high taste, comprehensive resistance to diseases and unpretentious care: Amursky Potapenko 1 (2, 3, 4, 5), Triumph, Amursky Breakthrough, Neretinsky. Ural breeder F.I. Shatilov has developed a collection of varieties based on Amur grapes that can withstand the most severe climatic conditions, they have long been grown in the northern regions.
Wild grape varieties lend themselves to cultivation, if properly managed. The taste of berries depends on the growing conditions, with competent pruning, the berries of the Amur grapes will be larger and sweeter.
Video: grapes are grown in the Urals
Description of Amur grape variety
This plant is dioecious; at least one male plant should be planted on two female plants on the site. In wild grapes, bisexual forms are also found.
If you plant only female plants, they will yield a crop. The berries will be small, seedless.
The plant blooms in early May. Nondescript yellowish flowers collected in a brush have a pleasant aroma and attract bees. The grapes bloom abundantly, several inflorescences can form on one shoot.
The plain flowers of Amur grapes have a pleasant smell
Bunches of slightly conical shape with loosely arranged berries reach 15 cm in length. The grapes are small, black in color with a blue tint. The skin is dense, the flesh is light in color and has a sweet and sour taste. Berries can be eaten, wine is made from them. The taste of the fruit is affected by the composition of the soil, its acidity, and moisture. Grape seeds contain a lot of oil.
Amur grapes blue hue
The thickness of the vine can be with a person’s hand. Its bark is dark brown, peeling off by strips. Leaves are often five-lobed, large, dark green in color. In the fall they blush. Grapes grow very quickly, in a year the growth can be 3 meters. The fruiting plant will begin from 6 to 8 years.
Amur grapes can braid a high fence
The growing season in grapes is short; it begins at t = 5 ° C (from the beginning or middle of May). In August, the growth of shoots ends, the crop is removed in early September.
The grapes can withstand frosts down to -40 ° C, its roots do not freeze even in snowless winters. Berries after the first frost become more sweet.
Recently, scientists have discovered that Amur grapes are a valuable healing plant. Callus, an influx of growth tissue at the end of the cuttings, contains a large amount of the natural antioxidant resveratrol.
Characteristics of the Amur grape variety
This is a high-yielding variety, from one hectare you can collect up to 80 tons of berries. It is not cultivated for industrial cultivation, although as a technical grade it justifies itself, it makes good wine.
Unpretentious grapes will decorate the site and feed delicious berries
- The main advantage of the variety is its high frost resistance. Without shelter, an adult vine can withstand frosts down to -40 ° C; clusters are not afraid of the first frosts in the fall. Grapes feel great in different climatic conditions.
- A short growing season allows the young shoots of the vine to mature before frost.
- Culture is resistant to diseases and pests.
- Thick peel of grapes facilitates its transportation to the place of processing.
- Berries can be consumed fresh and processed.
- High growth rates make it easy to form a hedge from grapes. It is often used by landscape designers to create pergolas, mask walls and fences.
Mildew, downy mildew, does not have time to develop on the plant due to its short growing season. Amur grapes have medium resistance to phylloxera. The pest can damage the root system of the plant.
Features of planting and growing Amursky grape varieties
This grape variety is unpretentious. Performing simple agricultural activities will not take much time, and the grapes will thank you with a good harvest.
In the wild, grapes are easily propagated by layering and seeds, forming impenetrable thickets. At home, growing a plant from seeds is impractical, they have low germination and it is difficult to obtain high-quality seedlings. For propagation, cuttings and layering are used. Lignified cuttings do not take root well, so they use green cuttings.
Rooting by cuttings
Cuttings are best harvested during flowering, when the plant has many elements that contribute to rooting. They are cut off in the morning hours on a cloudy day. A direct cut is done under the lower node. The shoot is shortened above the upper node, the leaf plate is cut by 3/4. All stepsons are removed, kidneys remain in the sinuses.
4–5 buds should remain on the handle
The shoot can be cut into a stalk if, when it is bent, the bast (the top layer of the twig) begins to crack.
Cut branches are placed in a container of water and set in a cool place. When callus is formed and roots appear, the stalk is planted in a container with earth for growing. You can directly root the cuttings in the soil mixture, composed in equal parts of humus, sand and garden soil.
It is very simple to propagate grapes by layering. To do this, grooves up to 12 cm deep are pulled out at the base of the bush, filled with 1/3 of the fertile soil. The vines are laid in grooves, fixed with wooden studs and covered with earth. This operation is recommended to be done in the spring, at the beginning of May.
From a single vine you can get a lot of strong and healthy seedlings.
Video: an interesting way to grow seedlings from cuttings
Grapes prefers poor, loose, slightly acidic soil. On sandy soils, the plant is planted in a trench, on heavy loamy soils with close occurrence of groundwater, grapes are planted on ridges. The height of the ridge should be at least 80 cm, it is advisable to lay a drainage groove 25 X 25 cm near it.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Photo gallery: planting grapes correctly
- You can plant grapes at the south wall of the house
- If the groundwater is far from the surface, you can plant the grapes in a trench
- The drainage tube will allow watering the plant "under the root"
We choose a sunny, well-warmed place for landing. You can plant grapes at the south and south-east side of the house.
We dig a hole 70 x 70 x 70 cm, put drainage on the bottom - a layer of brick, gravel, rubble, sand with a layer of at least 10 cm. To facilitate watering a young plant, it is advisable to place a plastic bottle with a cut bottom or a drainage pipe in the hole. For the winter they are covered with polyethylene.
We pour a layer of earth on the drainage, make a knoll, and on it we carefully place the seedling at an angle. The top of the root system should be 30 cm below ground level. Gently fill the plant with earth and water it.
Video: planting grape seedlings
Timely pinching and pruning is necessary if we want to improve the quality of wild grape berries. In the first year, we form a heart-shaped bush, leaving two main shoots. Stepsons must be pinched after the second sheet. In early August, remove the underdeveloped tops of young shoots. In October, cut the shoots, leaving 3-4 buds.
In the first year we form a bush in the shape of a "heart"
In the autumn of the second year, on two shoots, we select one powerful vine, leaving 5-8 buds on them. The remaining shoots are removed.
In the third year, each shoot is left with the most powerful shoot, cut into 5-6 kidneys (fruit arrow). In the fourth year, we will already have an adult bush, ready for fruiting.
It is advisable to form a powerful multi-year standard. Old wood stores a supply of nutrients and creates a strong skeleton.
Video: pruning vines
Young plants up to two years old are watered in dry, hot weather every other day; if it’s cool and it rains, it’s enough to water once a week. Adult plants do not need watering. The lack of moisture makes the berries sweeter .
Young plants in the first two years do not feed. Then annually in the spring apply organic fertilizers (cow manure, compost). They are laid out on ridges or around the bush, without digging, 1 bucket per bush.
In autumn, the plant is sprayed with a solution of ash to prepare the plant for wintering. Insist a day 2 liters of ash in 10 liters of water, then filter. For spraying on 10 liters of water add half a liter of infusion.
You can sprinkle the leaves of the plant with ash to get rid of slugs. Excessive consumption of ash can lead to chlorosis due to problems with the absorption of nitrogen by the plant.
This variety is quite resistant to pests and diseases, timely preventive measures will protect the plant.
- Treatment with phylloxera will help treatment with iron sulfate. In the spring after waking up, the plant is sprayed with a solution (300 g of FA in 10 l of water). Around the vines are dug grooves with a depth of 15 cm and a solution is poured into them (500 g LC per 10 l of water), the grooves are dug.
- Harvesting and burning old foliage and dry vines will save from a felt tick. Bushes can be treated with preparations containing colloidal sulfur.
- From whiteflies, the use of insecticides - intavir, decis, will help.
In order not to infect your site with phylloxera, buy seedlings only from a reliable seller. This pest is poorly developed in heavy clay soil, parsley volatile production is detrimental to it.
In the period from October to November, we prepare a young plant for wintering. We bend the trimmed shoots to the ground and cover with a spanbond, spruce branches, corrugated cardboard. The adult vine does not need shelter. It is recommended that you fill the hole under the bush with earth.
Our Amur fruits in hot summers with very sweet berries, in rainy more acidic ones. But still we’ll eat everything. Once the wine was made, I liked it. But for the most part, it doesn’t come to wine). The most delicious thing is when I just crush the berries with seeds and peels with sugar and in a jar. It’s not long, it flies away with tea in two days. A neighbor gave a shank. In the second year, the first brush was ugly; it is truly unkillable.Alexandr97 (Moscow)
A lot of sun, a lot of water (he loves to drink, especially in the heat), feed sour, he respects it, that’s the whole secret of success Yes, it’s nothing complicated, to loosen around the roots in the spring, pour fertilizers and spill well. And around June, I spread 2 tablespoons of citric acid into a 10 liter bucket of water and poured right around the trunk. You can acidify the soil with peat, sawdust, bark. I don’t remember where, but I read somewhere that this grape loves acidic soil.Yana (St. Petersburg)
The berries of the Amur grapes are slightly larger than the berries of the girl’s grapes, a diameter in centimeter, of a blue color, with seeds. For wine, you can use, as a treat - a dubious pleasure. Amur grapes have variations, foliage. But the taste of berries does not change.Helga (Moscow)
Last year, in the spring, I planted Amur grape seedlings on my plot (2 pcs.). I took care of, watered ... The seedlings had barely grown and stunted all summer long. For the winter he covered them just in case. We arrived in the spring, but they still froze. Not a trace or sprout. I spat then. And this place of lawn, where seedlings grew, trimmed 4 times with a lawn mower. Then he didn’t come for a month (well, he didn’t cut his hair). Then he came and again decided to mow a fairly overgrown plot and lawn. Suddenly I see ... Bah! At the place where grape seedlings once grew - a very strong and already well-formed, long vine of this grape with many leaves grows!Alvik Moscow
Under the grapes you need a well-drained and insulated pit 40 cm deep down gravel or just fine gravel, then sand, hay with rotted manure or humus and earth. In the historical homeland, grapes grow on stones - marl - therefore gravel or gravel are needed. Each layer is 5-7 cm, the rest is earth. Still correctly positioned - the fence is higher in the north, and everything is open to the sun from the south. In the shade, leaves and branches will be fragile and begin to hurt. Fertilizing fertilizers for currants and fruiting shrubs will go (when planting a couple of tablespoons in the pit) and dip the roots in the root ... For the winter, grapes are pressed carefully to the ground and under cover. Snow will fall - fall asleep more. The grapes hibernated only last winter, so they haven’t done anything yet - they were afraid of illnesses and there was no experience.Mila (Yakutia)
Green fence with a delicious dessert! Winter-hardy grapes that grow by themselves. High yield, great taste and amazing wine!Yulechka Beauty
Question on the Amur grape. The vine is already large and powerful. Fruited. Lohse is already 4 years old. I used to harbor all the time for the winter. But doubts torment me. Such a large vine is not so easy to remove from the trellis and cover. Is it possible not to shelter this grape for the winter? He is frost-resistant ... If he is a real Amur, then yes, it is frost-resistant, but frost-hardiness and winter-hardiness are not the same thing. Amurets can wake up at the end of winter during the thaw, which is fraught. In addition, there is the likelihood of the vines drying out in the winter from wind and frost, it is easier to wrap something from the wind without removing the vines from the trellis. But only an experiment can fully answer the question of winter hardiness!Summer resident (Moscow region)
Amur grapes were planted three years ago - from the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University. In our student years, we ate them in September - fragrant, juicy. They even made wine. Powerful bushes (2 pcs) waved, I didn’t cover, I didn’t take off the tapestries - we survived this cold winter without any problems. Bloom profusely at the end of May. The trouble is that there is not a single ovary. I read that Amur, it turns out, is dioecious.Listopad (Moscow Region)
Wild Amur grapes can be successfully grown on personal plots in regions with different climatic conditions. In the south he is unlikely to be comfortable; in the Moscow Region, the Northwest, the Urals and Siberia, it will not only decorate the garden, but will also delight you with delicious berries.