Features cuttings of currants at different times of the year, which cuttings are better to choose
The vegetative method, in which a new plant is grown from part of an old uterine bush, is considered the best for the propagation of currants. By cutting, a large number of young seedlings are obtained, characterized by genetic uniformity and good preservation of varietal qualities.
How to cut a currant
The process of reproduction of currants usually does not present any difficulties, if you follow a number of necessary recommendations. The cuttings procedure includes four main stages:
- Choosing a suitable bush for grafting.
- Harvesting cuttings.
- Planting seedlings.
- Landing care.
Selection of mother plant and instrument
Before proceeding to the first stage, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work. It consists in the correct choice of the mother plant for obtaining a large number of healthy seedlings. You should not take planting material from a random bush. It is recommended to analyze the yield of plants over the past 2-3 years and carefully examine the currants.
Bushes are suitable for collecting material:
- strong, healthy;
- undamaged by pests and diseases;
- abundantly fruitful.
The currant bush for cuttings should be healthy and abundantly bearing
As a rule, plants aged 4–5 years are most suitable for cuttings.
It is very important to work with a sharpened tool so that the cut is flat, not torn. It is best to use a knife, because the pruning shears can bite twigs and the cut will turn out bad. All cutting surfaces are pre-disinfected with alcohol-containing liquids or scalded with boiling water.
Cut the currant cuttings better with a special sharpened knife to trim the shoots
Cuttings can be:
Last year's ripened escape is considered lignified. The bark of such a branch is hard and smooth, has a brown color. For grafting, annual shoots formed last year are taken. These are branches growing from the root, or fresh shoots on 2-3-year-old branches.
Fresh cuttings of currant on 2-3-year-old branches are suitable as cuttings
Slicing is performed using the following technology:
- Shoots are cut off at the very base without hemp, the diameter of the branch is at least 7-10 cm.
- Cuttings are cut from the middle of the branch. Each length is about 15–20 cm; 4–5 healthy kidneys should be located on them. Do not make the cuttings longer, since in this case the planting is complicated and there is a risk of trauma to the roots during transplantation.
- At the lower end, the cut is made at a right angle and 1–1.5 cm below the kidney. The cut along the upper edge is made at an angle of 45–60 ° and 1–1.5 cm above the kidney. The wood on the cut should be light green color.
- If planting material is not planned to be planted immediately, then it is recommended to lubricate the cut points with garden varnish or wax.
Each currant shank should have 4–5 healthy kidneys
The harvesting of lignified cuttings is carried out both in autumn and early spring.
Fresh shoots of the current year are used, which have already begun to wood, but still have a green color . They must be resilient and not break when bent.
Green cuttings are cut from this year's young shoots
It is recommended to cut the cuttings on a cloudy day when the temperature fluctuates around +20 ° C.
- Selected branches are cut from the bush.
- For the cuttings, the middle part is taken (the lower part does not root well, and the upper part will probably freeze because its wood did not have time to ripen).
- Cuttings with 3-4 leaves are cut, about 15 cm in length.
- The apical section is made 1 cm higher than the uppermost kidney; from the bottom, the stalk is cut about 1 cm below the last kidney.
- The lower leaves are removed, the upper ones are shortened by half to reduce moisture loss.
Leaflets are cut in half to reduce moisture evaporation
Then the cuttings are placed in plain water or in a solution of any growth stimulant. Planting should be done almost immediately, since such planting material cannot be stored for a long time.
Green cuttings are cut in June or July, during the period of the most active growth of currants.
Combined cuttings are annual growth branches that have part of the wood of last year. Usually this is the lateral shoots of this year, which grew on last year's branches. The cut is cut so that the two-year segment is 3-5 cm long (it is located at an angle to the handle itself). The most favorable time for harvesting such cuttings will be the end of May and the beginning of June.
Combined currant cuttings with cut off with a heel 3-5 cm long
In spring, cuttings are carried out using lignified cuttings, the harvest of which can be combined with spring pruning. It is advised to do this as early as possible, until the sap flow has begun and the kidneys have not swollen. To root the harvested planting material, you can:
- in water,
- in the soil.
For spring planting, cuttings cut in the autumn period are also used.
Rooting in water
The method of grafting in water is very simple and fast.
- Cut stalks are placed in vessels with water (glass jars, glasses, plastic bottles) of 3-4 pieces. Water should cover the two lower kidneys.
Currant cuttings are placed in jars so that the water covers the two lower kidneys
- Then the cuttings are exposed in a bright place, but not under the bright sun.
- After about a week, the kidneys swell, and after two, the leaves open.
- If there are flowers, then they are removed so that they do not rob the plant of juices.
- The first signs of the formation of the root system (tubercles) appear in 1–1.5 weeks. When the length of the roots exceeds 5 cm and the root lobe has sufficiently developed, the cuttings are distributed in separate containers. It is necessary to monitor the level of liquid in the glasses and change it regularly.
- Planting material is planted in the soil after 2-3 weeks, when strong roots are formed.
- In the autumn, the grown bushes are planted.
Currant cuttings planted in the soil when return frosts end
It should be guided by local weather conditions and not proceed with landing, while the threat of return frosts remains.
Sliced lignified cuttings can be rooted directly in the ground. The plot for planting must be prepared in advance and well fertilized (5-6 kg of peat and humus, 40-60 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium sulfate are taken per 1 m2 of soil). After this, they begin to land.
- They dig a trench about 20-30 cm wide and the same depth. The trench is filled with soil mix from sheet soil, rotted compost, peat and humus, taken in equal parts. In the ground saturated with melt water, cuttings quickly take root.
- They are planted no closer than 10-15 cm from each other at an angle of 45 °. Above the ground should be 1-2 kidneys. Between the rows of cuttings leave about 50 cm.
Currant seedlings are planted in a trench at an angle of 45 ° - so they will be better to bush
- The soil is thoroughly compacted (trampled down), then well watered. To prevent moisture evaporation, the earth is covered with a layer of mulch from humus or peat (3-5 cm).
- To accelerate the rooting process, plantings are covered with a film or covering material.
In the ground saturated with meltwater, currant cuttings take root quite quickly.
For about a month, you will need to water the plantings daily. If a high level of humidity was constantly maintained, then in the fall up to 90% of cuttings take root. They are planted in a permanent place this same fall or next spring.
Cutting currants in summer
You can successfully propagate currants in the summer, using green cuttings. A favorable period for summer cuttings is considered the time from mid-June to early July. At this moment, the plant grows very actively and there are more chances for safe rooting.
The procedure should not be carried out on a hot summer day. For planting cuttings, the optimum temperature is about +20 ° C.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Green currant cuttings are planted immediately in the ground
Landing is carried out according to this scheme:
- Immediately after cutting, the branches are soaked for 10-12 hours in water with the addition of a growth stimulant (Epin, Heteroauxin, etc.).
- The landing site is prepared in a greenhouse or greenhouse. The soil mixture consists of equal parts of peat, fertile land, compost and river sand.
- Cuttings deepen by 2-3 cm. Between them withstand a distance of about 6-8 cm.
- Each seedling is covered with a glass jar or a transparent glass.
- The main condition for the successful growth of green cuttings is to maintain a constantly high level of humidity. To do this, they are watered and sprayed several times a day. The land in which the seedlings grow must always be moist.
- Seedlings are shaded from exposure to direct sunlight so that there are no burns.
- After 2-3 weeks, when rooting occurs, watering is reduced to once a day.
- Plants are fed with nitrogenous fertilizers (40 g of urea per 10 liters of water) and gradually open, accustoming to open ground conditions.
- In the spring of next year, cuttings are planted in the cuticle for growing.
A cutlery is a box for rooting cuttings without a bottom, covered with a film or glass lid
- Young seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place in the fall, that is, a year after the cuttings.
For summer planting, combined green cuttings with a part of lignified wood are also used.
Autumn is considered the ideal time for cutting blackberries. In late September or early October (depending on the local climate), when the leaves have already fallen and sap flow slows down, lignified cuttings are cut.
After cutting with planting material, they act differently depending on the goals of the gardener:
- planted directly in open ground;
- rooted in containers with earth and kept in the apartment until spring;
- stored in a sleeping state.
Autumn is considered the most favorable time for harvesting currant cuttings
Planting cuttings in the garden
The landing area should be sunny and sheltered from the winds. The bed needs to be prepared in advance - about 2 weeks before the expected date.
- Acidic soils are deoxidized by cannon, ash or chalk, since currants do not tolerate increased acidity.
- Then organic fertilizers (manure, compost, peat) are introduced into the ground or replaced with mineral fertilizers: 20 g of potassium sulfate and 50 g of double superphosphate per 1 m2.
- The fertilized bed is well dug to a depth of at least 30 cm.
When digging deep, insects and their larvae, which went into the ground for wintering, will be on the surface and freeze from the cold.
Chopped currant cuttings are planted in grooves at an angle
Prepare the landing grooves 40 cm wide and begin landing.
- Sliced rods are stuck into the soil at an angle of 45-60 ° and at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other.
- The embedment depth is made about 6 cm, so that 2-3 kidneys remain above the soil surface.
- Then, the earth near each twig is carefully tamped to avoid the formation of air cavities and spilled abundantly with water.
- Plantings are covered with a layer of mulch (5-10 cm) from peat, straw or fallen foliage.
If it is warm for a long time in autumn, then the planted currant cuttings need to be regularly watered.
In spring, seedlings almost immediately begin to grow actively, and already in autumn they can be planted in a permanent place.
Disembarkation in the tank
You can plant harvested cuttings in separate containers with a substrate. Until spring, they must be kept in room conditions.
- Planting utensils (pots, plastic glasses, milk bags, etc.) are filled with a mixture of garden soil, humus, peat and coarse river sand, which are taken in equal proportions. A little drainage is poured into the bottom (expanded clay, small stones, broken shards, etc.) and a hole is made (in its absence).
- Cuttings are planted in a substrate, leaving 2-3 kidneys above ground level.
- Then the soil is well crushed and rammed with your fingers, watered.
- Expose to a well-lit place (window sill).
In autumn, currant cuttings can be planted in the substrate, where they will grow until spring
Care before spring will consist of regular watering. When the daytime temperatures reach + 13 ... + 15 ° C, rooted seedlings are transplanted into the open ground. They can be immediately identified in a permanent place, or can be planted in the garden until the fall for growing.
Storage of cuttings until spring
It is not necessary to plant lignified cuttings, planting material can be stored until warmth without rooting.
- After slicing, the sections are carefully dipped in liquid paraffin or wax so that the moisture evaporates less and the seedlings do not dry out.
- After the cuttings are sorted by size, bundled in bundles of 10-20 pieces.
- Then they wrap it in foil or place it in a cut plastic bottle.
- Periodically, the bundles of cuttings open for ventilation and inspection for the presence of fungal lesions.
You can store bundles on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, and if you cut the cuttings in sand or sawdust, you can keep them in the basement or cellar.
Experienced gardeners recommend burying cuttings in deep snowdrifts.
Currant cuttings can be stored in the refrigerator.
With the onset of warm days, planting material is planted in open ground at the site.
Cutting currants in winter
For those gardeners and summer residents who live on their sites permanently, currant cuttings in the winter months are suitable.
- Annual lignified branches are cut from the beginning of December to the end of February.
- Sliced twigs are placed in a container with sweetened water (¼ teaspoon per 1 liter of water) and put on a windowsill.
- When the roots appear (after 25-30 days), the cuttings are planted in separate containers in the substrate.
- Then they are regularly watered and monitored so that they are constantly warm.
Currants can be cut even in winter
To prevent the cuttings from being cold, foam can be placed under the dish.
Leaflets usually appear by February. In May, when there can no longer be frosts, rooted seedlings are transplanted into the ground at the site.
Care for cuttings
Subsequent care of the planted cuttings is not particularly difficult. It is necessary to regularly weed out weeds and loosen the ground. It is important to water plantings in a timely manner, since the drying out of the soil negatively affects young seedlings. Without sparing, all flower brushes should be removed, because they take away nutrients from cuttings and slow down their development.
Planted currant cuttings need to be watered well
Plants need to be fed at least twice a month. For this, mineral or organic complex fertilizers are used (according to the instructions). Exceeding the dosage of fertilizers is not recommended, as this will adversely affect the growth of currants.
Young bushes respond well to the application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers (urea, nitrophoska, ammonium nitrate) at the rate of 3-5 g per 1 m2. During the growing season, top dressing is carried out three times:
- at the beginning of growth (in May);
- in the phase of rapid growth (from June to July);
- closer to the end of July, if the bushes are poorly developed.
It is recommended to combine top dressing with watering. You can water a weak infusion of fresh manure by adding a little chopped wood ash to the composition.
Well-rooted and grown seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place. This is best done by transshipment, trying not to damage the earthen lump. Usually one season is enough for the full formation of a seedling. But if for some reason the plant did not develop well, then it can be left to grow in the old place for another summer.
Video: how to cut currants
Cutting currants can be carried out at any time of the year. This berry culture is extremely easy to tolerate such a procedure and forgives many mistakes. Even a novice gardener can cope with this. In this way, you can propagate your favorite variety, as well as get a new young plant instead of an old and poorly bearing fruit.