Features of care for remont raspberries in different climatic zones
Raspberries with signs of remontance began to grow more than 200 years ago. But at first the second crop was small - in the autumn only separate berries appeared on the shoots. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, new varieties with improved characteristics have been bred that are superior to summer species in terms of yield, taste and disease resistance. Now repairing raspberries are grown in the southern regions and in areas of risk farming. However, high yields can be obtained with the correct selection of zoned varieties and compliance with the technology of cultivation of crops.
How to cultivate repair raspberry varieties
A feature of remont raspberries is the ability to produce crops twice a season. On two-year-old shoots, berries ripen in summer at the same time as ordinary raspberry varieties. Then the annual shoots bloom, form the ovaries and bear fruit until the end of the growing season. After a short-term decrease in temperature to -3-50 ° C, the ovary does not die, and when heat returns, it begins to develop, forming berries.
Removable raspberries bear fruit until the snow, the ovaries do not die even with small frosts
But with a two-time return, the yield on young shoots is reduced by 3-4 times. In addition, in the northern regions, berries often do not have time to ripen before the onset of autumn frosts. Therefore, on farms, remont raspberries are grown as an annual crop, receiving one late-year but plentiful crop. In the garden plots, summer residents try to get two crops in order to be able to enjoy fresh berries as long as possible. And to protect the bushes from early frosts, cover them with agrofibre or grow them in closed ground.
Raising raspberries indoors is the most acceptable way for many gardeners
Caring for raspberries in the spring
If raspberry bushes were planted at the beginning of the season, before the buds opened, then after planting they are shortened to 20 cm. At first, they must be shaded with non-woven light material to protect immature plants from bright sun or night cooling. It is also necessary to monitor soil moisture by regularly watering. In the future, they take care of young plantings in the same way as adult raspberries.
Raspberries are planted in the spring before the growing season
In early spring, when the buds just begin to swell, they carry out sanitary pruning of the shoots left to winter. Remove those branches that are frozen, dried or broken. Cut the frozen parts of the stems to the first healthy kidney.
In the spring, they carry out sanitary pruning, removing broken or frozen stems
It is important to prevent thickening of landings. In early May, when new shoots grow to 30 cm, it is necessary to thin out the bushes, leaving 7-10 of the strongest branches. At the same time, raspberries receive the necessary living space, solar heat, light and nutrition, which has a beneficial effect on productivity.
Removable raspberries do not tolerate thickening, therefore, in May, thinning the bush is carried out, leaving 7-10 of the strongest shoots
On a bush that has reached a meter height, pinch the tops of the shoots. This helps to increase the number of ovaries, but somewhat postpones the timing of autumn fruiting.
Pinching the tops of the shoots contributes to the appearance of more fruit branches
Fertilization in the spring
Raspberry productivity depends on soil fertility. If fertilizers were applied to the site before planting, regular dressing begins to be carried out for the next season.
If the remont raspberry was planted in well-fertilized soil, they begin to feed it for the next season
Repairing raspberries are more demanding on growing conditions than raspberries of ordinary summer varieties, and they need 2 times more nutrition. After all, she manages to drive the shoot out from scratch and give the entire crop in one season. In addition, the yield of repair varieties is 2-3 times higher than that of summer varieties, which means that the removal of nutrients is also greater.
In early spring, for the active development of the aerial parts of the plant, they need nitrogen. With nitrogen starvation, the growth of shoots slows down, the leaves turn yellow prematurely.
Nitrogen deficiency can cause raspberry chlorosis
Raspberry is especially responsive to the introduction of organic matter, which not only saturates the plants with necessary nutrients, but also improves the soil structure, creates optimal conditions for root formation and development of beneficial microflora. Before budding, a liquid mullein (1:10) or chicken infusion (1:20) with a calculation of 3 l / m2 is introduced under the fruiting plantations. Before flowering, you can repeat this dressing.
Chicken litter infusion contains a lot of organic nitrogen, which is so necessary for plants at the beginning of growth
The author of these lines uses green fertilizer (nettle, dandelion infusions) and bread sourdough as an organic feed. I dilute the concentrated liquid with water (1:10) and carry out fertilizer watering, spending 500 ml per bush.
Nettle contains many necessary and easily digestible elements that contribute to the development of the root system, make plants strong and resistant to diseases and pests
Organic fertilizers must be combined with mineral fertilizers, the deficiency of which leads to the rapid depletion of the soil. At the beginning of the growing season, Nitroammophoska (60 g \ m2), urea (30 g \ m2), ammonium nitrate (40 g \ m2) are scattered around the bush. You can dilute mullein (3 kg) and urea (15 g) in 10 liters of water and pour 1 liter under the bush.
The root system of the repairing raspberry varieties is sensitive to the presence of chlorine in the soil, therefore, chlorine-free fertilizers must be used.
During the formation of the crop, raspberries especially need phosphorus and potassium. Deficiency of these trace elements can lead to inhibition of plants. With a lack of potassium, the leaves warp and become dark brown at the edges. With phosphorus starvation, shoots grow thin, leaf plates acquire a purple hue.
When phosphorus deficiency leaves turn purple
Therefore, to better set fruits and improve their taste after flowering, it is useful to carry out foliar top dressing with Crystal (10 g \ 10 l). The use of this fertilizer helps to increase productivity by 30%, increase sugar content by 3%.
Raspberries are responsive to fertilizer according to the sheet
Ideal liquid fertilizer (30 ml \ 10 l) or a dry mixture of potassium sulfate (30 g \ m2) or potassium magnesium (15 g) with superphosphate (60 g) is used for root dressing. After making dry mineral additives, watering is mandatory.
Universal liquid fertilizer Ideal promotes the development of a powerful root system of plants and increase productivity
Loosening and mulching
The soil in the raspberry should be weeded and loosened in a timely manner in order to create the optimal air-water regime for plants. This treatment provides air and moisture access to the roots, creates favorable conditions for the development of beneficial microorganisms. The first spring cultivation is carried out before the buds open to a depth of 7 cm in a row, a little deeper in the row-spacing, 10-15 cm. Subsequently, tillage is carried out as weeds appear and soil compaction.
The soil in the raspberry should be loosened and weeds removed on time
Experienced gardeners cover the soil in raspberry mulch - in this case, there is no need for loosening. A layer of mulch with a thickness of 8 cm prevents the growth of weeds and the rapid evaporation of moisture. However, the areas mulched from autumn warm up more slowly, later vegetation and fruiting begin.
Using mulch, you can adjust the thermal regime of the soil. In the spring, updating the layer of mulch, I cover the root zone with straw or hay. The light color of natural materials helps to reflect sunlight, protecting the topsoil from overheating, thereby creating a temperature that is comfortable for plant growth.
Light mulch reflects the sun's rays and prevents overheating of the soil
Video: spring work on raspberries
Soil moisture in spring
Repair raspberries are demanding on soil moisture. It is impossible to get high yields without regular irrigation, especially in arid regions. However, waterlogging should be avoided. With stagnation of water, air exchange worsens, the risk of developing root rot increases. In addition, the soil becomes colder, which can delay the development of plants in the spring. Therefore, the number of irrigations should be adjusted depending on weather conditions.
After abundant melting of snow, in order to avoid flooding, the first watering is carried out when the topsoil is dried. In the absence of rainfall in spring, raspberries are watered once a week, spending 10 l of water on a bush until the root layer of the soil gets wet to a depth of 35 cm. Watering raspberries before flowering is especially important. In rainy periods, additional hydration is not carried out.
Pour raspberries once a week, spending 10 liters per bush
The most common way of watering raspberries on garden plots is by sprinkling, in which water from a hose with a sprayer or using sprinklers is sprayed over the plants. This method is especially effective in extreme heat: the branches with leaves and the soil around the bushes are completely wetted, and air humidity rises significantly. But at the same time, water consumption is high.
When sprinkling, water is sprayed over the bush, moistening well not only branches with leaves, but also air
Many summer residents prefer a more economical way of watering - on grooves. Around the bushes make grooves 15 cm deep into which water is brought from a bucket or hose.
On raspberry plantations, it is more convenient to use drip irrigation, which allows to achieve uniform soil moisture in all rows. The process of water supply through pipes with droppers is fully automated, water enters the root zone in a strictly dosed manner.
When drip irrigation, water is supplied through pipes and the soil in raspberry trees is evenly moistened
Repair raspberries usually grow in a strong, stable bush and do not need support. However, when grown on a trellis, all branches are evenly lit, well ventilated and do not lie on the ground under the weight of berries. Usually they use a two-row trellis with a height of 2 m. It is easy to do it yourself by installing columns along each row of raspberries every 3 m and pulling a wire into them in 2 rows: at a height of 60 cm and 130 cm. Garter is carried out as the shoots grow. When growing a double crop, it is more convenient to divide the branches into two-year-old branches, fruiting in the summer, and young growing, which will yield in the fall.
Growing raspberries with a support contributes to good aeration of the bushes and uniform heating
Single bushes can be fixed to a peg or formed into a fan. When a fan garter to a support installed in the aisle, a part of the branches of one bush and a part of another are fixed.
Disease and Pest Prevention
Repair raspberries have a strong immunity to diseases, rarely exposed to pest attacks. But cold damp weather can lead to the development of putrefactive processes of the root system, if the rules of agricultural technology are not observed, harmful insects can be activated. Therefore, in the early spring it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment of shrubs. Before flowering, you can use effective chemicals. In early April, when the air warms up to + 150C, to protect against fungal diseases, the bushes and the soil beneath them are treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture, 1% solution of copper sulfate. Before flowering, it is necessary to spray the plants with Topaz solution (2 ml \ 10 l).
To prevent the development of gray rot, it is necessary to treat bushes with copper-containing preparations in early spring
In spring, raspberry moth activates, in dry warm weather raspberry branches encircle whole aphid colonies. Lime milk (1 kg of lime \ 10 l) will help to get rid of caterpillars of raspberry moth. Spraying with a solution of Fitoverm or Nitrafen (30 g \ 10 l) in the phase of the green cone and before flowering will protect the raspberry from invading aphids.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Dry rainy weather in spring contributes to the massive accumulation of aphids on raspberries.
Care for remont raspberries in the fall
The technology of autumn care for remont raspberries largely depends on how many crops they plan to harvest next season. The climatic features of the region also make adjustments.
Raspberry top dressing and moisture saturation
After harvesting, you need to feed the bushes to restore strength and prepare for the next season. In the autumn, when digging the soil, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied (40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate / m2).
On the eve of frosts, abundant pre-winter watering is carried out, spending 20 liters of water per bush. The higher the moisture supply, the better the plant will winter. Then the root zone is mulched with humus. Autumn mulching is carried out in order to protect the root system from cold winds and frosts. In addition, by spring, organics cross over, improving the structure of the soil and enriching it with nutrients.
In autumn, raspberry bushes mulch humus
When planning to harvest twice next year, after picking berries, the tops of annual shoots are cut off, two-year-old shoots that will no longer bear fruit, and weak young offspring are completely removed.
Counting on a double crop, only two-year-old stems are cut in autumn
However, in industrial production, remont raspberries are grown in order to produce one crop, because during the ripening of the first wave of berries, the plant spends a lot of energy, the dates of autumn fruiting are shifted, and the taste of the fruits worsens. In this case, in November, after freezing the land, young and old shoots are cut, leaving only the rhizome, which in the spring will give new sprouts.
In autumn, all shoots are completely cut to the ground
Video: how to trim repair raspberries
Protection against diseases and pests
Many pests winter in dry branches and leaves, so at the end of the season after pruning, all plant debris should be removed from the site. The raspberry is treated with solutions of Karbofos (75 g \ 10 l), Kemifos (10 g \ 10 l).
Karbofos is an effective drug for garden pests
Preparing raspberries for the winter
Growing remont raspberries as an annual crop eliminates the problem of winter draining and freezing of shoots. After removing the aerial parts, the raspberry is peeled of stems and foliage and the rhizomes of mulch are covered.
If raspberries are grown in order to obtain a double crop, only two-year-old shoots are removed, annuals are bundled and tilted to the ground.
Preparing raspberries for winter, the stems are bundled and tilted to the ground
Features of care for remont raspberries in Siberia
The experience of growing remont raspberries has shown that in regions with a cold climate, varieties of foreign selection do not have time to ripen before the onset of frost. For the central part of Russia, the Far East, Siberia and the Urals, domestic frost-resistant varieties with a short growing season ripening in late July and early August should be chosen: Paradise pleasure, Apricot, Inaccessible, Indian Summer 2, Eurasia, Zarya evening, Barnaul.
The variety bred at the Siberian Institute of Horticulture is equally resistant to cold and pests.
Planting seedlings is best done in the fall, 3 weeks before the onset of cold weather. During this time, the plants will have time to take root, adapt to new living conditions, and in the next season, all efforts should be directed to the development of shoots and the formation of the crop.
Planting raspberries in autumn should be completed 3 weeks before the onset of cold weather
In Siberia, in the conditions of a short summer and a lack of heat in the fall, it is advisable to grow remont raspberries for better ripening of the crop near buildings, in a well-lit area where snow melts early. In the northern regions, it is recommended to plant raspberries in high ridges. At the same time, the soil warms up faster, does not get wet, is better provided with air, which has a beneficial effect on the development of plants.
In the North, they recommend planting raspberries on high ridges
Video: Brovchenko family - planting raspberries in a warm bed, Siberia
To speed up the beginning of the growing season, in early spring after thawing the soil, I cover the area with dark lutrasil. Under the covering material, the earth will warm up well, shoots will grow faster, flowering will begin earlier, and the raspberries will have time to give the entire crop before the onset of cold weather. As soon as the sprouts appear, I remove the dark material and replace it with agrofibre, which I pull on the arcs. When the bushes grow, I take off the shelter.
Dark material attracts the sun's rays, as a result, the soil on the ridge warms up faster
Since the second wave of harvest falls at the end of summer - the beginning of autumn, when it is already quite cold and damp in the northern regions, remont raspberries are often grown in greenhouses or covered with spanbond over trellis.
So that ripe berries do not pick up by early frosts, in the northern regions in autumn, bushes are covered with agrofiber
Given the harsh conditions of the Siberian winter, it is necessary to take care of additional insulation of the bushes. Although the aerial part of winter-hardy raspberry varieties can painlessly tolerate cold up to -280 ° C, shoots and rhizomes can freeze in severe frosts, especially with little snow cover. Therefore, the bent stems are sprinkled with earth or covered with non-woven material. In winter, snow is surely poured - under a fluffy blanket, raspberries are not afraid of even a severe cold.
Before frost, raspberry stalks are bent and sprinkled with earth
Care for remont raspberries in Ukraine
The specifics of the cultivation of remont raspberries in Ukraine and in the south of Russia is due to the peculiarity of the climate - snowy winters and early hot spring. Plants have to winter with little snow, frequent thaws and withers. A dry wind picks up moisture from last year's stems and topsoil, where the bulk of raspberry roots lie. In the spring, in the sunshine, the shoots quickly wither, the leaves turn yellow prematurely. Therefore, the main problem of raspberry cultivation in the southern regions is the desiccation of shoots, which determines the basic requirements for planting:
- The raspberry must be well protected from the wind by a fence, hedge or garden buildings. Large plantations should be located in areas surrounded by forests.
High fence reliably protects berry plantings from strong winds
- It is necessary to organize artificial irrigation so that the plants receive the required amount of moisture throughout the growing season. Without regular abundant watering, the berries will become dry, yield will be insignificant.
Raspberries should be moistened throughout the growing season
- In Ukraine, berry bushes should be located in a well-lit area, but so that they are shaded for at least a few hours. In a too bright sun, the berries are baked, lose their juiciness and taste. Therefore, during the ripening period, plantings are shaded with spanbond or nets. Along raspberry trees you can plant tall crops - corn, sunflower. At the beginning of growth, they do not interfere with the bushes to receive the necessary solar heat, and in the second half of summer, having reached considerable size, they create a wings to protect the berries from burns. In the optimal thermal regime, almost all varieties have time to fertilize to frost.
In hot climates, raspberry bushes must be shaded
It is necessary to choose raspberry varieties intended for cultivation in hot climates. It is very important that they be drought and heat resistant, for example, September, Heritage (USA), Lyulin (Bulgaria), Zeva Herbstern (Switzerland), Ottom Blues (England). The varieties of domestic selection — Ruby necklace, Crane, Indian summer, Diamond, Firebird, Eurasia — have proven themselves excellently.
Eurasia can actively develop and bear fruit in different climatic zones
Video: Raspberry Shelf
In warm climates, seedlings are planted in spring and autumn. The optimal landing date is autumn: in central and northern Ukraine - October, in the south - November. Before the onset of frost, the plants have time to take root, and in the spring vigorously move to growth. You can plant seedlings in the spring. But the vegetation period begins here very early, the soil and air are rapidly heating up, and most of the seedlings, even after irrigation, never having sown to take root, die. Those who have taken root will give a less abundant crop than with an autumn planting.
Raspberries planted in autumn begin to flourish in spring
If in the northern regions it is preferable to plant raspberries on the ridges, in the south such a high ridge quickly overheats and loses moisture, which negatively affects plants.
Different in the southern regions and pruning remontant raspberries. Premature cutting of shoots in warm weather can stimulate the awakening and development of new buds. Autumn activity of plants leads to a weakening of the rhizome before wintering. Therefore, in Ukraine it is recommended to cut the shoots not in the autumn, but in the early spring.
For regions with a warm climate, repairing raspberry varieties are a real find, since they form a crop in late summer, when the heat drops, air humidity rises, and favorable conditions for the development of berries are created. While summer varieties, the fruiting of which occurs in the first half of summer - the most arid period, do not differ in high yields.
Care for remont raspberries in the Urals
In the Urals, the most efficiently cultivated early maturing remontant varieties such as Inaccessible and Wikkinight, which showed a stable return on the late summer harvest. Created by domestic breeders, they are well adapted to harsh conditions. Unreachable raspberries are successfully cultivated near Sheksna, in the Nizhny Tagil region, near Khabarovsk, in Biysk.
Raspberry Inaccessible got its name for its surprisingly long fruiting, which lasts literally until the snow
Penguin, Firebird, 18–19–10, 15–136–6, 8–9–11, 24–151–1, with a potential yield of 70–80%, were adapted to the cold climate. Lower yields were shown by the varieties Bryansk Divo, Augustine, Golden Domes, Hercules, Daughter of Hercules, Ruby necklace, Orange miracle, Diamond.
Experienced gardeners know that the frost resistance of a yellow variety of Golden Domes is significantly higher than that of red-fruited shrubs.
However, due to the nature of the climate, it is recommended to grow them in one cycle, completely cutting off all the stems after fruiting. This is caused by a deficit of moisture in the soil in the autumn period, which leads to breakage of the shoots when weighed. In addition, at the beginning of winter, there is practically no snow in this region, and bent stems without snow cover with a decrease in temperature during this period to -26–31 ° C often die.
If you still leave the annual shoots to winter, they are additionally insulated with non-woven material. Preliminarily carry out abundant water-loading irrigation and mulching of the root zone with a 10 cm layer of humus.
In cold climates, it is necessary to insulate raspberry bushes with agrofibre
In addition, it is very important to wake up the plants as early as possible in order to accelerate the ripening of the berries. To do this, the ridges are covered with dark non-woven material in early spring, and after the emergence of sprouts, a temporary shelter is made of agrofibre on arches until shoots grow to 15 cm. In greenhouse conditions, the aboveground part develops more intensively, the root system grows, outstripping the development of plants in open ground by 2 weeks. Irrigating the soil at the beginning of the season with Baikal EM 1 solution (10 ml \ 10 l) with the addition of 1 tbsp will also help to accelerate the maturation of remont raspberries. tablespoons molasses. The drug gives the development of plants an acceleration of 20%.
The drug Baikal EM 1 promotes the active development of plants
Repairing raspberries can be grown not only for the purpose of harvesting, but also as an element of decorative gardening. You can arrange it in the form of small well-lit curtains, formed by 3 bushes. When creating such a group, it is desirable to use varieties with different color of berries.
Repairing raspberries can be grown not only as a berry crop, but also as an element of garden decor
Easy care, disease resistance, high quality fruits and a long period of their consumption make remont raspberries one of the most popular berry crops. It can be grown in different climatic zones and get fresh berries right up to the frost. But at the same time, it is necessary to know the peculiarities of cultivating repairing species in a particular region and select varieties adapted to local conditions.