Favorite pear cultivation
A new variety of Chelyabinsk breeders quickly gained popularity. Autumn pears are always of great interest, so you should get acquainted with the new product. Moreover, due to winter hardiness, the variety can conquer vast territories of the country.
Ural variety, distinguished by famous pear breeders E. A. Falkenberg and F. M. Gasimov. In 2008, the variety was transferred to state variety testing. Originator - South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato. Pear autumn consumption period. Removable maturity occurs in September, the shelf life of 1.5 months.
The tree in all senses is average - of medium height, medium sprawl, medium density. It has high winter hardiness and resistance to scab, bacterial burn and gall mite. Fruiting begins in the fourth year after planting an annual seedling and lasts more than a dozen years. Productivity is high and regular. 35 kg of fruits are removed from one tree. Fruits of universal purpose - for fresh consumption, preparation of compotes, dried fruits. Self-fertility data not found.
The fruits of the Favorite are short-pear-shaped, large. The average weight is 180 grams, the maximum is 250 grams. The color when picked up is green, when it reaches consumer maturity it is yellow-green, sometimes with a blush. The pulp is white, juicy, sweet, with excellent taste. Tasting score - 4.5–4.7 points.
The average weight of the Favorite pear is 180 grams
In the Urals, the variety is already popular, it is offered for sale by several nurseries. Perfectly complements the early-summer Krasul and the summer Northerner, long loved by the Urals.
Favorite pear planting
Most often the inhabitants of the Urals plant this pear, but they are already eyeing it in the middle lane. The fact is that, as a rule, pears bred under the conditions of the Urals, then grown in warmer regions, acquire even better taste and larger sizes.
Choosing a place and time of landing
The choice of location for the future pear tree should be taken responsibly - because he will have to spend more than a dozen years there. Often pears bear fruit up to 50-60 years and older. The best place for a pear is on the south or southwest slope, it is well lit and ventilated, protected from cold northerly winds and has loose, well-drained, slightly acidic soil. And also this place is dry, not flooded, without stagnation of water.
It is better to plant the Favorite in early spring before budding. At this time, when nature wakes up, seedlings quickly grow, take root well, and gain strength for the upcoming wintering by autumn.
Purchase and storage of seedlings
It is best to buy Favoritka seedlings in one of the Ural nurseries - in this case their quality and compliance with the declared varietal characteristics will be guaranteed. But you can buy them from trusted sellers outside the region. They do this in the fall, when nurseries produce a massive dig of planting material for sale. A one-two-year-old plant with a well-developed root system and a smooth, without cracks and damage, bark is chosen.
Sapling roots must be well developed
Until spring, the purchased seedling is stored in the basement or dug into the ground. Previously, the roots are dipped in a so-called clatter of clay and mullein so that they do not dry out. The temperature for storage in the basement should be in the range of 2-5 ° C.
For winter, seedlings are dug in the ground
Pear seedlings with a closed root system can be up to five years old and can be planted in the soil from April to October.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear
The planting process begins in the fall. For this:
- Prepare a landing pit. Its approximate dimensions: depth - 60–70 cm; diameter - 80-100 cm.
- If the soil is heavy, drainage of expanded clay, crushed stone, broken brick, etc. should be laid at the bottom. The layer thickness is 10-15 centimeters. If the soil is sandy, then instead of drainage, a clay layer of the same thickness is laid.
In case the soil is heavy, drainage from expanded clay, crushed stone, broken brick should be laid to the bottom
- Fill the pit to the top with a mixture of chernozem, peat, humus and sand, taken in equal quantities. Add 400-500 grams of superphosphate, 2-3 liters of wood ash, mix with a shovel or pitchfork.
- For the winter, they cover the pit with some waterproof material, for example, roofing material, a film.
- In the spring, a few hours before planting, they take out a seedling and soak its roots in a solution of a growth stimulator. To do this, use Kornevin, Heteroauxin, Epin, etc.
- A hole is opened and part of the soil is removed from it so that a small hole is formed in size of the root system of the seedling. A small knoll is poured in the center, a wooden peg about a meter high about one meter above the ground level is driven in.
- Plant a plant so that the root neck as a result is at the level of the soil. For this, it is convenient to use a wooden lath or stick. They gently fill the earth, trying not to damage the roots, and compact it in layers.
The root neck of the seedling should be located on the bottom edge of the rail
- Tie a sapling to a peg using an elastic material.
- A tree circle is formed around the tree, raking the earthen roller along the diameter of the landing pit. It is convenient to do this with a plane cutter or chopper.
- Water the soil with plenty of water so that no air sinuses remain in the root zone.
Water the soil with plenty of water so that no air sinuses remain in the root zone
- After 1-2 days, the trunk circle is loosened and mulched. To do this, you can use humus, rotted sawdust, hay, etc. The layer thickness should be about 5-10 centimeters.
- The central conductor is cut to a height of 70-100 centimeters. Twigs are shortened to a length of 20-30 centimeters.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Pear Favorite needs the usual care for this crop. The standard methods and techniques of agricultural technology are applied to it, taking into account the characteristics of the variety.
How and when watering a favorite pear
In the first years after planting, the tree should be watered quite often - 10-12 times per season. In the future, the number of irrigations is reduced. Be sure to water the pear before flowering, after flowering and during the summer 3-4 more times. Before leaving in the winter, they do abundant water-loading irrigation. In case of lack of moisture, the fruits are smaller and may even crumble. The amount of water should provide soil moisture to a depth of 25-35 centimeters. The use of mulching allows to increase the intervals between irrigation, reduces the need for loosening.
What and when do they feed the pear
A well-planted pit filled with fertilizers will provide the young tree with food for 3-4 years. After that, the pear is regularly fed.
Table: how and when to feed a pear
|Fertilizers||Dosage||Application Method||The timing|
|Phosphorus-containing: superphosphate, supegro||30-40 g / m2||Under digging||Fall|
|Nitrogen-containing: urea, ammonium nitrate, nitroammophos||Spring|
|Potassium-containing: potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate||10-20 g / m2||In dissolved form when watering||Early summer|
|Complex fertilizers||According to instructions|
|Boric acid||0.2 g / l||Spraying by color||Flowering period|
|Humus, compost, peat||5-7 kg / m2||Under digging||Spring or autumn once every three to four years|
|Infusion of two liters of mullein in 10 liters of water||1 l / m2||Bred in water when watering||In the period of fruit growth. Three to four times with an interval of 10-15 days.|
Favorite pear trimmings are carried out according to the usual algorithm for this culture. In view of the medium height, it will be appropriate to apply the crown formation to it in the form of an improved bowl. This form provides good sunlight and crown ventilation. It is convenient to look after her and harvest. It must be remembered that the branches of the Favorite are literally strewn with heavy fruits and bend under their weight. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a device of supports for the branches for the period of ripening of pears.
Shaping the crown is easy and it is done like this:
- The next year after planting, in early spring, 3-4 future skeletal branches are chosen, located at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other and growing in different directions. They are cut off by 30-40 centimeters. All other branches are cut "into the ring."
- The central conductor is cut off over the base of the upper branch.
- After 1-2 years, 1-2 branches of the second order are selected on skeletal branches and cut them by 20-30 centimeters. The remaining branches growing on skeletal are removed.
- In subsequent years, ensure that all branches remain the same length. Otherwise, one of them may dominate and assume the role of a central conductor, but this should not be allowed.
For pear Favorite fits the shape of the crown in the form of a bowl
Since the crown of the Favorite is initially prone to medium thickening, and the formation of the type of bowl still strengthens this tendency, then it needs to be thinned out annually. Do this in early spring, removing shoots growing inside the crown. In this case, moderation must be observed - excessive pruning leads to the loss of part of the crop.
To maintain a constant and high level of fruiting, supportive pruning is worthwhile. It consists in shortening the young green shoots by 5-10 centimeters. This prompts the appearance of additional growing branches on them, on which fruit buds are laid. This operation is carried out in the first half of summer, when rapid growth of young shoots is observed.
This pruning is carried out in late autumn, when the sap flow stops. At the same time, dry, diseased and damaged branches are removed. They should be burned, as they may contain spores of fungal pathogens.
Diseases and pests - the main types, prevention and control
The favorite, like most young varieties, has increased resistance to major diseases and pear pests. Complementing this property with the implementation of sanitary and preventive measures, the gardener will avoid many possible problems in this regard.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Disease and Pest Prevention
In order to prevent the following types of work are regularly performed:
- In the autumn, after the end of the season, put things in order in the garden. Collect fallen leaves, weeds and burn them. In this simple way they get rid of wintering pests and spores of fungal pathogens.
- At the same time, it is worth examining the bark of a tree - it may have cracks and other damage. When identifying them, treatment should be taken. To do this, the cracks are cut into healthy wood, disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with a layer of a garden var. This will protect the tree from bark diseases such as gummosis and black cancer.
- Now trunks and thick branches of trees need to be whitewashed. To do this, prepare a solution of slaked lime with the addition of 1% copper sulfate and PVA glue. Whitening prevents bark from sunburn and cracks. In addition, lime prevents the movement of insects on the tree, which usually rise on the crown in early spring.
- Before the onset of frost, they dig up the soil of tree-trunk circles, trying to turn over the layers of the earth. At the same time, pests wintering in it will be raised to the surface and die from frost.
Before the onset of frost, dig the soil of trunks
- At the same time, the soil and crown are treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture in order to prevent fungal diseases and pests. In early spring, the treatment is repeated.
- In addition, in early spring they treat the crown with potent drugs: DNOC - once every three years; Nitrafen - in the remaining years. These drugs are effective against all known diseases and pests.
- At the same time, hunting belts made of improvised materials (film, ruberoid, dense fabric) are installed on tree trunks. This is a reliable protection against ants, weevils, caterpillars, etc.
The hunting belt is made from improvised materials.
- Before flowering, pears carry out preventive spraying with insecticides (the so-called insect control drugs). At this time, Decis, Fufanon, Metaphos are used. Processing is repeated after flowering.
- And also, after flowering, treatments with fungicides (preparations for combating fungi) begin. You can recommend Horus, Quadris, Skor and others. These treatments are carried out regularly with an interval of 2-3 weeks.
In areas with a humid climate and in rainy years, the possibility of infection of the Favorite pear with some diseases is not excluded.
This is a common disease of pome and stone fruits. The fungus propagates by spores, which are most often brought to the plant by bees during the flowering period. By hitting flowers, the fungus moves into shoots and leaves. Pretty quickly they fade, blacken, droop. Such shoots take the form of frostbite or burned with flame. Due to this similarity, the disease has a second name - a monilial burn. Infected shoots should be removed immediately, while capturing some of the healthy wood. After that, the tree is treated with Horus. This drug will not harm the bees and effectively fights fungus on young shoots and leaves. Apply it at an air temperature of no higher than +22 ° C. Within an hour, the drug penetrates into the tissues of the plant, after which it is no longer possible to wash it off with rain. The protective effect lasts for 7-10 days, after which the treatment is repeated. The maximum number of treatments is three, after which the fungus develops addiction and the drug ceases to have an effect on it. The habituation property is inherent in almost all fungicides, so they should be alternated during the season.
If to the end it was not possible to destroy moniliosis, then in the summer it can hit the fruits of the pear with gray rot. Such fruits become unusable and are subject to destruction. At this time, it is recommended to conduct 2-3 treatments with the Strobi fungicide. This drug quickly blocks the development of the disease and stops the spread of the fungus. It is non-toxic to humans, after processing, you can eat the fruit in 20 days.
In summer, moniliosis affects pear fruit with gray rot
This disease is preceded by a defeat of the pear by aphids or a tinker. This is due to the fact that both pests in the process of life emit a sweetish liquid - the so-called honey dew. It is a nutrient medium for the fungus. Developing, the fungus secretes excrement that accumulates on the leaves and fruits. At first, they have a grayish-white color, darken over time, becoming black, forming a soot-like coating.
Black plaque on leaves is the excrement of soot fungus
Prevention of fungus is measures to combat aphids and tinkers. Treatment is carried out with fungicides Skor and Strobi, previously washing off a raid with a strong stream of water from a hose.
It is strongly recommended that pest control begin with prevention. It is impossible to get rid of larvae that have already penetrated into the bud, ovary, fetus. At this time, you can only slightly reduce damage by collecting and destroying the affected parts of the plant and treating with insecticides.
Aphids on trees are carried by ants, which, like the sooty fungus, like to eat honey dew. It is clear that if there are no ants, then there will be no aphids. Therefore, an effective preventive measure is the installation of hunting belts. A sign of the appearance of aphids is the formation of twisted leaves. By expanding such a leaf, you can see small insects that can be black, green, white, yellow, etc. If the tree is small, such leaves can (and should) be torn and destroyed. The tree is treated with insecticides. In hot time, it is better to use Fitoverm, which begins to have a damaging effect 12 hours after treatment, and complete destruction ends in 72 hours. In cool weather, it is better to use Decis, which will cope with the pest in ten hours and retain a protective effect for 2-3 weeks. This medication is effective against all insects.
Aphids are carried on trees by ants
In all countries of the world this small, no more than three millimeters, insect is found. It can fly and jump, for the last quality they call it leaf-leaf. In the gardens of Russia, as a rule, red, spotted and ordinary tinkers are found. They hibernate in cracks of bark and fallen leaves, therefore they can survive only in areas with relatively warm winters. In early spring, crawl out of shelters and start a meal. The female tundra lays eggs, from which larvae creep out, feeding on the juice of young shoots, leaves, ovaries, fruits. The result of the defeat is fallen leaves and ovaries, small, hard, stony fruits. As an additional damaging effect - the appearance of a sooty fungus, feeding on honeydew, secreted by larvae.
Larvae of the tundra secrete honey dew
Before flowering, the drug Commander is effective, which is a systemic insecticide of prolonged action. Destroys the flower beetle, aphids, copper flakes and other insects. It begins the action 2-3 hours after spraying and completely destroys pests in a day. It retains a protective effect for up to two weeks. In summer, it is better to use biological preparations such as Iskra-Bio.
This is a small weevil beetle wintering in the upper layers of the soil. In early spring, crawls on the crown of a tree. After a while, the female gnaws flower buds at the base and lays one egg in them. After a week, larvae appear that, without coming to the surface, eat the inner pulp of flowers. To avoid this trouble, in early spring they treat the crown with DNOC or Nitrafen, and before flowering with Fufanon, as indicated in the list of preventive measures. After flowering, the treatment is repeated.
Beetle grower in early spring rises on the crown of a pear
Unfortunately, there are still very few reviews on the Favorite variety on the Internet.
FAVORITE New autumn variety, selection YuUNIIPOK, Chelyabinsk. My third year is growing in the crown, until it bears fruit, maybe next year it will bear fruit. But a taste score of 4.5 “Ural” is not exactly the points we are used to. Я предполагаю, что если вкус будет на уровне Чижовской 4, 1–4, 2 или чуть выше, уже хорошо (принимая во внимания сроки созревания и хранения, а так же размер). Сорт, скорее всего, не для Юга, а для Нечерноземья.
Андрей Васильев, Москва — Ростов Великий
ФАВОРИТКА Новый осенний сорт, селекции ЮУНИИПОК, г. Челябинск. Дерево средней силы роста и средней густоты. Высокозимостойкое и высокоурожайное (до 35 кг с дерева). Сорт не поражается паршой, устойчив к грушевому клещу и к бактериальному ожогу. Плоды крупные, средней массой 180 гр, максимальной до 250 гр. Мякоть белая сочная, сладкая, вкус 4.5 балла из 5-ти. (описание по данным оригинатора) Сорт считается очень интересным и перспективным, сообщается о сроке хранения до полутора месяцев (созревает в сентябре), что уже хорошо, принимая во внимание зимостойкость для Северных регионов и осенний срок потребления, таких груш единицы. А у Фаворитки ещё обещают отличный вкус (со слов Гасымова Ф. М. «лучшая груша на Урале»). Да и другие публикации, найденные в интернет, очень восторженные. Данные о скороплодности также отличные (на 4-й год при посадке в сад однолеткой). Осталось проверить как поведёт себя сорт в условия Ярославской и Московской областей.
Фаворитка выделяется прежде всего превосходным вкусом. Уж её поэт Гомер, обожавший груши, точно назвал бы «пищей богов». Фаворитка явно потеснила и Северянку, и Красулю, столь полюбившихся уральцам.
Преображенский, Свердловская обл.
Груша Фаворитка — восходящая звезда Урала. Обладая прекрасным вкусом, лёжкостью и зимостойкостью может конкурировать с другими осенними сортами. Имеет смысл садоводам Средней полосы выращивать её на приусадебных и дачных участках. А также груша интересна и в коммерческом плане.