Favorite - the best apricot for Moscow region
Apricot Favorit was obtained specifically for cultivation in the suburbs. Moscow breeders were faced with the task of obtaining a good, frost-resistant and self-fertile variety with delicious, laid berries. Judging by the reviews of gardeners, to a certain extent, this problem was solved. Favorite is successfully growing in his region and is quite popular.
Description apricot Favorite
The favorite was singled out at the turn of the millennium, in 2000, in Moscow, and in 2004 was included in the State Register for the Central Region. Since then, it has been quite successfully grown and recognized as one of the best for the Moscow Region.
The tree has a moderate growth force, reaches a height of four meters. The crown is translucent, rather rare, well lit and ventilated. The form is sprawling, slightly raised.
Favorite apricot tree has a sparse, well-ventilated crown
It does not require pollinators, because it has high self-fertility, which is an important factor for cold regions. But in the vicinity of such varieties as Monastyrsky, Lel, Tsarsky - productivity will be higher.
The gardener does not have to wait long for the first berries from the Favorite - he will surely try them 3-4 years after planting, and this is a good indicator.
The fruits look great - small (average 30 g), bright orange, rounded berry, with a glossy surface and a barely noticeable fluff. The berry is decorated with a large blush on the sunny side. Gorgeous, juicy, but dense and tasty pulp, with a very small bone falling out of the berry when it is broken. Five points - this is a tasting assessment of the taste of the Favorite fruits (at the time of registration of the variety, the rating was lower - 4.5 points).
Berries are well stored and transported. They are good in fresh form, and jams, preserves and compotes from them are simply amazing. Good for drying.
Apricot berries Orange favorite with a bright blush
Yield is not a favorite of the Favorite - one tree produces an average of 20 kg of fruit, which is clearly not enough for a large family. Therefore, you will have to plant several apricot trees to fully satisfy the need for harvesting for the winter.
Late fruit ripening is perhaps the main disadvantage of this variety. In the years when autumn comes early and the summer was rainy, the berries do not have time to ripen and remain greenish on the branches.
Favorite has good winter hardiness of wood and good resistance of flower buds to short return frosts.
Moderately resistant to kleasterosporiosis, slightly affected by aphids (1%).
If the gardener decides to plant several apricot trees on his plot, then they need to be located at a distance of four meters from each other in a row. In the case when there will be more than one row, then each next one should be no closer than five meters from the neighboring one. This arrangement will provide good lighting and airing of crowns, as well as the convenience of caring for trees.
It is good if the trees are placed along the fence, which will protect them from the cold wind. Even better, if this fence is located north or northeast of the young landings. Instead of a fence, there may be thick trees or a wall of a building. Well, if there is nothing of the kind, then for the first three to four years you will have to protect the trees with specially made shields painted in white in order to reflect the sun's rays.
Apricot is undemanding in soil composition, its structure is much more important. Apricot grows best on loose, permeable to water and air, soils. Unsuitable for growing damp places, with a close location of groundwater.
Trees are planted in early spring. An experienced gardener will choose such a time for this when the sap flow has not yet arrived, but is about to begin. In this case, a young tree waking up in a new place will immediately begin to root, go to growth, and by winter it will get stronger enough. Such a tree will be much easier to bear the coming frosts.
How to choose the right seedlings
In the fall, when the nurseries begin a massive digging of seedlings for sale, they select the best specimens with well-developed roots and healthy, intact stems.
They prefer seedlings at the age of 1–2 years; such plants take root better and grow faster.
Some inexperienced gardeners believe that it is better to plant older trees, supposedly so they will get the crop earlier. It's a delusion. The older the tree, the more painful it is in the transplant. By its age, it has already grown quite large roots that can not be dug without damage, often significant. In a new place, such a tree is sick for a long time, it is difficult to take root. As a result, his younger counterparts are likely to overtake both in growth and at the beginning of fruiting.
How to preserve seedlings until spring
For a quiet winter sleep, young seedlings need to provide two conditions:
- Wet environment for roots. To do this, they are first immersed in a solution of clay and mullein - the so-called talker. Then placed in bags or boxes with wet sand or sawdust.
- Temperature conditions from 0 ° C to +5 ° C. You can put seedlings in the basement or dug in the ground. In the latter case, you should take care of good insulation.
- The seedlings should be at rest until the moment of planting. They should wake up already in a new place.
After digging a seedling, it will need to be covered from frost
How to properly prepare the landing pit
Pits for planting should be prepared in advance, no later than 2-3 weeks before planting. And since it will be difficult to do this in the spring, for obvious reasons (snow, frozen ground), pits are prepared in the fall.
The size of the pit should be sufficient to accommodate the root system of the plant and the desired amount of nutrient mixture. Usually it is enough to dig a hole with a diameter of 70–80 cm and the same depth. In this case, the fertile part of the soil from its upper part must be set aside separately.
Then proceed to the tab in the pit of the nutrient mixture. It consists of equal parts of soil deposited during digging pits, sand and organic matter (humus, compost, grassroots peat). And you also need to add mineral fertilizers - 300 g of superphosphate and 1-2 kg of wood ash. It is advisable to cover the pit until spring to avoid leaching of nutrients.
How to plant young trees
In the spring, seedlings are taken from the storage places, examined, make sure that they have tolerated the wintering well (the bark is smooth, shiny, healthy sections, light green) and begin to plant.
A young tree is lowered into a hole on a previously prepared mound of the nutrient mixture, straightened roots and covered with earth, tampering layer by layer. At the same time, they make sure that the root neck is slightly deepened (3-5 cm), and the grafting site is at least 5 cm above the ground. A near-stem circle is formed and watered abundantly to ensure a good fit of the earth to the roots and to eliminate the voids that inevitably form when filling.
When planting apricot, the pit is filled with earth by tamping layer by layer
Now it remains only to cut the seedling to a height of 60–80 cm, which is the first stage in the formation of the future crown of the Favorite.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
The rules of cultivation and care for Favorit apricot are simple and it is better to follow them. In this case, under favorable weather conditions, the gardener can guarantee a good harvest.
Everyone knows that any plant requires watering. Here are just the irrigation rules for different plants are different. Apricot Favorite refers to drought-resistant crops, reacts poorly to water stagnation, dampness. Therefore, it is watered only 3-4 times a season, but abundantly. After watering, the soil should be moist to a depth of 30–35 cm.
- During flowering or after its end.
- In early summer, when there is an active growth of young shoots and berries.
- After the harvest.
- Pre-winter watering in late autumn.
It is especially important to observe this schedule for young trees with an underdeveloped root system. At the age of 7–8 years, the value of watering for a tree becomes not too critical and can be reduced, especially in the rainy season.
When the tree uses up a significant part of the nutrients planted during planting, they begin to additionally fertilize. As a rule, this is started after the harvest of the first fruit.
Now the tree will need organic fertilizers, which are planted in the soil when digging tree trunks in spring or autumn. This will need to be done once every 3-4 years in the amount of 5 kg of humus or compost per 1 m2 of the trunk circle.
Mineral fertilizers are applied annually. Nitrogen - in the spring, potash - in the early summer, phosphorus - in the fall.
Table: types of mineral fertilizers, their dosage for apricot Favorite
|Fertilizers||Dosage||Mode of application|
|Nitrogen-containing - urea, ammonium nitrate, nitroammophos||30–40 g / m2||Dry, under digging|
|Potash - potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate||10–20 g / m2||Add when watering on each bucket|
|Phosphorus-containing - superphosphate, double superphosphate||20-30g / m2||Dry, under digging|
|Integrated||According to instructions|
An overdose of fertilizers for apricot is more harmful than their lack.
Some inexperienced gardeners sometimes miss this important component of annual tree care, and this should not be done. The science of crop behavior is complicated only at first glance. Having carefully studied the types of scraps and the rules for their implementation, understanding how the crown should be formed correctly, the gardener will later easily and competently perform these works.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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For the apricot Favorit, as for a fairly tall tree, a three-tier crown formation, which is called a sparse-tier, is suitable. The order of its implementation is as follows:
- After the young sapling has survived its first winter, before the sap flow begins, it is necessary to cut all the branches “into the ring”, except for two or three, which will be left to form the first tier. The lower of them should be at a distance of 30-40 cm from the ground. All the rest, including the branches of subsequent tiers, should be at a distance of 25–35 cm from each other. The central conductor and the skeletal branches left should be shortened by 30–40%.
- With an interval of 1-2 years, according to the same scheme, first the second and then the third tiers are formed. The only difference is that now they also shorten the branches of the second order, which begin to grow from skeletal. And also in the last year, the conductor is completely cut out over the base of the upper branch. This is done to limit the growth of the tree.
- In subsequent years, it is necessary to ensure that none of the skeletal branches takes on the role of the central conductor and does not continue the growth of the tree in height. For this, the branches of each tier should be of the same length and not have superiority over the neighboring ones.
Apricot Favorit is given a sparse-tier crown shape
This is the simplest type of pruning, known even to the inexperienced and novice gardener. Without knowing any rules, a person intuitively understands that it is desirable to remove dry branches. Sick and broken, too. To clarify, this procedure is usually carried out in the fall, when the garden is prepared for winter and early spring, if frostbitten or broken branches are added during the winter.
Designed to adjust crown density. If, growing inward, the shoots overshadow the crown, they are thinned out. This operation is usually carried out simultaneously with sanitary pruning. It is worth noting that due to the inherent Favorite, the sparse structure of the crown, this type of trimming is rarely used for it. And also in the summer, cut off the tips of young, annual twigs by 10-15 cm. This is called “chasing, ” the purpose of which is to encourage the growth of additional shoots. Next year they will give additional fruiting.
When an old tree reduces the yield, fruiting passes to the ends of the branches, you can extend the fruiting period by rejuvenation.
First of all, you need to expose all skeletal branches inside the crown. In a year, a large number of young shoots will appear on them. Tops growing up are cut out, and many flower buds should form on the remaining annual shoots.
And you can also conduct a more serious operation - replace two - three skeletal branches with new ones. To do this, they are cut, leaving a part 30–40 cm long. By next year, they will grow several young shoots that cut all but one on each branch - the strongest and located on the outside of the parent branch. They will be a continuation of the cut old branches.
After a few years, in the same way, it will be possible to replace another 2-3 branches.
Avoiding Crop Errors
Any pruning, although it serves to benefit the tree, if improperly performed, can cause damage, sometimes significant. Therefore, before starting an operation to cut any branches, the gardener must study the basic rules.
- Do not approach the tree with a blunt instrument. Knives, hacksaws, secateurs, delimbers, should always be sharpened sharply. Only in this case, the slices will be clean, smooth. and will be easy to heal.
- To prevent infection, the instrument must be disinfected before use. For this purpose, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, 1% solution of copper sulfate are suitable. Do not use gasoline, kerosene and other petroleum products for disinfection.
- Do not leave knots when pruning. When they dry, become saturated with moisture, they will become a refuge for pathogens of various diseases, especially fungi, which over time can affect healthy wood, possibly forming a hollow.
- Thick, heavy branches need to be cut in parts.
- All sections with a diameter of more than one centimeter are treated with garden var. When purchasing it, you need to ensure that the composition does not contain oil products (kerosene, gasoline, paraffin, petrolatum, etc.). A good garden var can only be prepared on the basis of natural ingredients - lanolin, beeswax, etc.
Diseases and Pests
Of course, you need to know the main pests and signs of disease. But it is more important to know and take preventative measures.
A garden in which preventive and sanitary measures are carried out on time, diseases and pests are bypassed. The gardener needs to know what kind of work these activities consist of and when to carry them out.
Time to put things in order in the garden, collect fallen leaves, cut dry and diseased branches, and light a big fire, in the burnt, hot ash of which it is so good to bake potatoes. When the ash cools down, it must be collected and stored, because it is a valuable mineral fertilizer.
After that, you need to dilute the slaked lime in the water, add 1% copper sulfate and whiten the mushrooms and skeletal branches of trees. The garden begins to look beautiful, but the goal is not only (and not so much) in this - such whitewashing will protect the bark of the tree from winter sunburns, and early in the spring will stop insects who want to climb the tree’s crown to satisfy their hunger by eating swollen buds, only blooming flowers, the first succulent leaves and ovaries.
Lime whitewash will protect apricot bark from sunburn
Then you need to pick up a shovel and dig up the trunks, disturbing at the same time, bugs, ticks and other harmful insects already plunged into a winter dream, so that they would be destroyed by night frost.
Now it is time to take the sprayer and treat the crowns, trunks and branches of the trees, as well as the soil of the trunks, with 3% solution of copper sulfate (you can take a 5% solution of iron sulfate or Bordeaux mixture). This simple operation will disinfect bark and soil, neutralize spores of fungi and insects.
Next, you need to shelter young trees from frost in the huts and wrap the trunks of older adults with roofing material so that the hares do not bite them.
Several times during the winter you need to visit the garden to just admire the snowy trees, fancifully covered with hoarfrost, and at the same time check their condition. It will be nice if the shelters of young apricots, as well as the storage location of the dug seedlings (if any) are additionally covered with a layer of snow about 60 cm.
In early spring, you need to scoop up the snow from the tree trunks, remove the shelters, and treat the trees with potent preparations from fungi, ticks and other insects. To do this, you can use the long-tested:
- DNOC, a complex preparation, prevents the appearance of all known fungal diseases and pests, it can be used once every three years.
- Nitrafen is also a complex drug, it can be used once a year.
- Copper sulfate 3% solution.
- Bordeaux mixture 5% solution.
- After flowering, you can proceed to periodic treatments with systemic fungicides (antifungal drugs) and insecticides (insecticides). They must be used at the intervals specified in the instructions (usually 2-3 weeks), especially after rains. At the end of fruit ripening, only preparations with a short waiting period can be used. For example, Horus (used no less than 7 days before eating berries) or Quadris, the waiting period is 3-5 days.
Inspect the bark of trees. If cracks are found that can occur during frosts with frequent temperature changes, they must be thoroughly cleaned, disinfected with 1% copper sulfate solution and covered with garden varnish.
Diseases and Pests
It is unlikely that the gardener will have to deal with them if he conscientiously carried out maintenance work. But just in case, you need to know what diseased plants and pests look like, what are the main signs of their manifestation.
Kleasterosporiosis (perforated spotting)
Fungal disease. It affects the leaves, fruits and shoots of plants. Usually, the first signs are found in spring, with the appearance of small (1–2 mm) red-brown spots on the leaves, which quickly, in 1–2 weeks, grow to sizes of 5–10 mm. From the inside, the spots dry out and get enough sleep, forming holes. After that, the leaves turn yellow, dry and fall. With a massive defeat, the so-called popularly, summer leaf fall occurs. Similar, red-brown spots and tubercles appear on the affected fruits, in neglected cases turning into a continuous scab. Treatment with fungicides according to the instructions.
Moniliosis (monilial burn)
The spores of the fungus are usually introduced, during flowering, by the bees. Following the infected flower, young shoots and leaves are affected. They twist like a burn and sag. To prevent further penetration of the fungus, the affected shoots need to be cut, capturing 20-30 cm of healthy wood, perhaps even remove the branch completely.
In the summer, the fungus infects the fruits with gray rot and wrinkled and blackened. Such fruits must be removed. The diseased plant is treated with fungicides.
It affects the bark of a tree through damage to it. The fungus, penetrating under the bark, causes its swelling, the formation of tubercles and wrinkles. The affected area of the bark dries out and becomes covered with cracks, through which the gum begins to stand out. Also, leaves, flowers, ovaries that hang on the tree without falling dry on the affected tree. Treatment is reduced to the removal of the affected branches completely and treatment with fungicides. Prevention is the usual one described above.
Photo Gallery: Major Apricot Diseases
- Holes on the leaves of the apricot - the first signs of clastosporiosis
- At the first sign of moniliosis, apricot leaves look like scorched
- In the initial stage of moniliosis, black dots appear on the apricot berries
- When infected with cytosporosis, cracks appear on the apricot crust from which gum is released
Winters in cracks in the bark of a tree, in the upper layers of the soil. With the onset of spring, it rises to the crown and begins to eat buds, buds, ovaries, leaves. At this time, beetles can be collected manually. To do this, use fabric that is spread under a tree and shake sleeping insects on it. Since beetles are in this state only at low temperatures (up to + 5 ° C), then with the onset of warm days this opportunity will be missed. And also it is necessary to carry out treatment with insecticides, for example, Decis.
It is usually carried on a tree by ants. Поселяется в первую очередь на внутренней стороне листьев, затем на молодых побегах. Относится к классу сосущих. При выедании мягкой плоти листьев они скручиваются, чем снижается эффективность опрыскивания инсектицидами (Децис, Фуфанон). Поэтому перед обработкой желательно оборвать все скрученные листья.
Это личинки различных жуков, в том числе долгоносиков (у него они маленькие, от 4 до 6 мм), майских (20–25 мм) и других. Выползают в начале июня из, отложенных в почву, яиц. Питаются корнями абрикоса, которому могут нанести существенный ущерб. Для борьбы с хрущами нужно обработать почву препаратом Диазонин. Он действует на протяжении трёх недель, не накапливается в почве и не попадает в плоды.
Фотогалерея: вредители абрикоса Фаворит
- Жук-долгоносик зимует в трещинах коры дерева и верхнем слое почвы
- На крону тлю заносят муравьи
- Хрущ питается корнями молодого дерева
Делюсь наблюдениями о зимостойкости некоторых сортов абрикоса, имеющих распространение в Московском регионе. В 2012 году на рынке были приобретены саженцы сортов Фаворит и Водолей и высажены на участке. Зиму 2012/13 года они перенесли неплохо: Фаворит незначительно подмёрз, а Водолей не подмёрз совсем. Зима 2013/14 года нанесла по этим двум сортам тяжёлый удар: у Фаворита вымерзла почти вся крона, а у Водолея — часть её. Летом деревья частично сумели восстановить крону, но зимостойкость их вызывает сомнения.
У меня Фаворит на юге Московской области вырос роскошным деревом, особенно бурными были приросты летом 2010 г. и этим летом, 120–150 см в среднем. Деревце весной было всё в цвету, но летом созрел только один плод (вкусный), а в начале сентября сильным ветром его сломало почти у самой земли, остался пенёк сантиметров 20–30. При ближайшем рассмотрении древесина в центре ствола оказалась заметно подмерзшей.
Подмосковье — это та же 4 климатическая зона, но там зима уходит на 20 дней позже и приходит на 20 дней раньше, поэтому тот же абрикос Фаворит не вызревает иногда. Сорта для Подмосковья известны, как и фамилии тех, кто их выводит — сорт Царский, Фаворит и другие. Привил Фаворит в этом году, несмотря на его мелкий вес, на вкус 5, 0 клюнул по одним данным, по другим — 4, 5.
Фаворит среди прочих достоинств, выделяется среди других морозостойких сортов, отличным вкусом ягод. За это свойство жители Подмосковья прощают ему недостаточную урожайность и тот факт, что в отдельные годы его ягоды не успевают созреть до осени. Сорт с уверенностью можно рекомендовать к выращиванию в числе других, более ранних, которые подстрахуют в неудачный сезон.