The famous apple of Renet Simirenko
Renet Simirenko apples are widely known and popular far beyond the growing regions. Due to their good transportability and keeping quality, they are available throughout Russia and Ukraine. For gardeners in the south of the country, we will talk about the intricacies of planting and growing this apple tree.
In the second half of the 19th century, the variety was found in the gardens of Platonov Khutor, Mliev, Cherkasy region, Ukraine. Under the name Renet Simirenko introduced in 1947 in the State Register. There were other names at that time - Green Renet Simirenko and Renet P.F. Simirenko. Recently, the people have distorted the name of the variety and call it Semerenko, but this is wrong.
The Reneta Simirenko tree on medium-sized clonal stocks is medium-sized and weak-growing, on tall-growing stocks - high-growing. It is worth noting that in nurseries it is hardly possible to find vigorous seedlings, and they are not needed. Young seedlings have a light green bark, which differs from other apple trees. In the first year, the plants form lateral shoots, which allows you to immediately begin the formation of the crown. On dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks, it begins bearing fruit after 4-5 years, and the first fruits can be obtained already in the year of planting (but it is better to cut off the flowers so as not to weaken the young tree). When grown on tall rootstocks, fruits appear 1–2 years later. Crohn is wide-round, prone to thickening. In areas close to the northern border of the cultivation zone, the tree bears fruit on all overgrowing branches, in the south - on last year’s growths. Winter hardiness is low - the wood of boles often freezes. Due to its high shoot-forming ability, the tree is restored in three years. The variety has high drought resistance and heat resistance. Susceptibility to scab and powdery mildew is high.
Renet Simirenko is a self-fertile apple tree and she needs pollinators for fertilization . The varieties Idared, Kuban Spur, Golden Delishes, Pamyat Sergeeva, and Korei usually act in their quality. Flowering periods are medium late.
Apple tree Renet Simirenko blooms in the mid-late
Where Renet Simirenko apples grow
The variety is zoned in the North Caucasus and Lower Volga regions, grown throughout the south of Russia, as well as the southern regions of the Central Black Earth region. In the industrial gardens of Crimea, Renet Simirenko occupies more than 30% of the area. In Ukraine, distributed in Polesie, steppe and forest-steppe zones.
When to harvest
On dwarf rootstocks, the annual yield of the variety is noted. In the Prikuban zone and in the Kuban, the yield of fruits is 250-400 kg / ha. Usually they are removed in late September - early October. Due to the good wind resistance of the apple tree, the fruits do not crumble and they are removed intact.
Apples are flat to round-conical, sometimes asymmetrical. The surface is smooth, even. The size of the fruit is heterogeneous, the average weight of the apple is 140-150 grams, the maximum - 200 grams. They have a dense, dry skin, covered with moderate wax coating. During storage, the surface of the apple becomes oily, aromatic. Its color when removed is bright green. It is covered with numerous bright, rounded subcutaneous dots that distinguish the variety from other similar apples. When stored, the color becomes yellow-green. The integumentary coloring is absent, occasionally there is a faint orange tan. The greenish-yellow color of the pulp has a fine-grained structure. She is very juicy, tender, fragrant. Tasters note a pleasant wine-sweet taste and give an assessment of 4.7 points. Fruits are stored under ordinary conditions for 6-7 months, and in refrigerators until June . The output of marketable products is 90%. The purpose is universal.
There are not many varieties of green apples all over the world, and among them Renet Simirenko is a clear leader. The European variety Granny Smith occupies 10% of the gross harvest, and you can also find the Japanese Mutzu here. But both of these apples lose to the taste of Renet Simirenko, for which some unscrupulous sellers often give them away.
Green apples contain a significant amount of free iron, without which the formation of red blood cells is impossible. Gastritis and a stomach ulcer were successfully treated with green apple gruel, as there are direct indications in ancient medicinal books.
Video: review of the variety Renet Simirenko
Planting of the apple variety Renet Simirenko
Having decided to plant Renet Simirenko, the gardener needs to choose a good place for her with favorable conditions. These are:
- A small south or southwest slope without accumulation of stagnant water.
- The presence of protection against cold northerly winds in the form of thick trees, walls of buildings, etc.
- At the same time, there should be no shading of plants.
- Loose soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction, pH 6-6.5.
In industrial gardens, a dwarf apple tree of this variety is often grown, with trees spacing 0.8-1.0 m apart. The distance between the rows depends on the size of the agricultural machinery used and is usually 3.4-4 meters. For country and home gardens, the distance between the rows can well be reduced to two and a half meters.
In regions where varieties are grown, it is possible to plant Renet Simirenko apple trees both in early spring and late autumn during periods of lack of sap flow.
There is no consensus on this issue. My cottage is located in eastern Ukraine. Country neighbors are convinced that planting in the fall is the best solution. They justify this by the fact that, planted in the fall, the plant will grow earlier in the spring and gain strength faster. True, severe frosts are not excluded in our region, so young plants have to be sheltered for the first winter. My opinion on this issue is different. I believe that during autumn planting there is a risk of freezing of an unrooted seedling even when it is hidden. The fact is that in our area in January - February there are often thaws, alternating with rather severe frosts. It is not always possible to arrive at the summer cottage in time and take the necessary measures - to scoop up the snow from the trunk, to break up and remove the ice. Thus, last winter, a seedling of an apple tree perished, which I, yielding to the entreaties of a neighbor, planted in the autumn. At that time, when it was necessary to go to the cottage and follow the plant, it was not possible to get there. And later it was discovered that the insulation was thwarted by the wind (of course, my fault was poorly strengthened) and the trunk was frozen. With a spring planting, this would not have happened.
So, if an apple tree is planted in autumn, a planting pit for it needs to be prepared 3-4 weeks before planting. During this time, the soil in it will settle, compact and subsequently the seedling will not sag along with the soil. For spring planting, a landing pit is also prepared in the fall. To do this, dig a hole with a diameter of 80-90 centimeters, a depth of 60-70 centimeters and fill it to the top with a mixture of equal parts of chernozem, peat, sand and humus with the addition of 300-500 grams of superphosphate and 3-5 liters of wood ash. If cultivation is expected on heavy soils, it is advisable to increase the depth of the pit to one meter and lay a drainage layer 10-15 centimeters thick at the bottom . To do this, you can use crushed stone, broken brick, etc.
Step-by-step instructions for planting an apple tree
For the correct planting of an apple tree, you need to sequentially perform a number of simple steps:
- A few hours before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in water.
A few hours before planting, the roots of the seedling should be soaked in water
- Immediately prior to planting, it is advisable to dust the roots with Kornevin (Heteroauxin) powder, which is a powerful biostimulant of root formation.
- Then, as usual, a hole is made in the landing pit according to the size of the root system and a mound is formed in its center.
- A wooden stake is driven in at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the center and a height of 100-120 centimeters.
- The seedling is placed with the root neck on the mound, straighten the roots and cover them with earth.
- Sealing the soil layer by layer, hold the seedling, making sure that its root neck eventually appears at ground level. It is more convenient to carry out this operation together.
During planting, it is important to ensure that, as a result, the root collar is at the level of the soil
- After this, the plant is tied to a stake, using non-rigid material, for example, fabric tape.
- Around the tree they rake a roller from the ground, forming a near-trunk circle.
- First, water the pit abundantly with water to ensure that the soil adheres to the roots.
- After the water has been absorbed, the plant is watered under the root with a freshly prepared solution of five grams of Kornevin in five liters of water. Three weeks later, such watering is repeated.
- After the soil has dried, it must be loosened and mulched with a layer of mulch with a thickness of 10-15 centimeters. To do this, you can use hay, straw, rotted sawdust, etc.
After watering the seedling, the trunk circle should be mulched
- The central conductor is shortened to a size of 80-100 centimeters, and the branches are cut to a third of the length.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Sources report the unpretentiousness of the variety in soil composition and care.
Watering and feeding
In the first years after planting, you will have to water the apple tree quite often until the root system is strengthened and developed. Before reaching the age of 4-5 years, it may be necessary from 6 to 10 (depending on the weather) watering during the growing season . At this time, you need to ensure that the soil is constantly moist, but not swampy.
In the early years, the apple tree is watered quite often
In subsequent years, the number of irrigations is reduced to four per season. They are carried out:
- Before flowering.
- After flowering.
- In the period of growth and ripening of apples.
- Autumn water-loading irrigation.
Gardeners note that a month before picking fruit, watering should be stopped in any case, otherwise the shelf life of apples is greatly reduced.
They begin to feed the tree at the age of 3-4 years - by this time, the supply of nutrients in the planting pit is noticeably reduced. Both organic and mineral fertilizers will be required. Humus or compost is applied once every 3-4 years at the rate of 5-7 kilograms per square meter of the near-trunk circle. Do it in the spring, evenly scattering fertilizers for digging.
Compost is one of the best fertilizers for the apple tree
At the same time, but annually, mineral nitrogen-containing fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea or nitroammophoska) are applied at a rate of 30-40 g / m2. At the beginning of the formation of fruits, the apple tree needs potassium - for this it is better to use potassium monophosphate, dissolving it in water when watering . It will take two top dressings with an interval of two weeks at a rate of 10-20 g / m2. Superphosphate is traditionally introduced under autumn digging at 30–40 g / m2, since it is absorbed by plants rather slowly and takes full time to fully absorb.
And besides, to increase productivity, you can apply liquid top dressing with organic fertilizers in the summer. To do this, prepare a concentrated infusion of mullein in water (2 liters of manure per bucket of water). After 7-10 days of insisting in a warm place, the concentrate is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 10 and the plant is watered at the rate of 1 liter of concentrate per 1 m2. Do 3-4 such top dressing with an interval of two weeks.
Pruning apple tree Renet Simirenko
The crown of this apple tree is formed most often in the form of a bowl. This allows you to conveniently care for the tree and easily pick fruit. And besides, this form contributes to uniform illumination and good ventilation of the internal volume of the crown. To give the crown a cup shape is simple and quite affordable for a beginner gardener. To do this, one year after planting a seedling in early spring, you should choose future skeletal branches. It will take 3-4 shoots, growing in different directions with an interval of 15-20 centimeters, which are cut by one third. All other branches are removed completely, and the central conductor is cut off above the base of the upper branch. In the future, it will be necessary to form branches of the second order - 1-2 pieces on each of the skeletal branches.
Shaping a crown into a crown is easy and affordable for a beginner gardener
Krona Reneta Simirenko is prone to excessive thickening, which requires annual thinning by removing shoots growing inward, upward, intersecting and interfering with each other . In late autumn, dry, diseased and injured branches need to be cut - this operation is called sanitary pruning.
Harvesting and storage
An important stage is the timely and proper harvesting, as well as compliance with the rules for storing apples. Gardeners pay considerable attention to this and, having analyzed their reviews, the following main points can be distinguished:
- You need to pick apples only in dry weather - ripped after the rain, the fruits will not be stored.
- Before laying for storage, apples are dried under a canopy or in a dry room for 10-15 days.
- You can not wash the fruits.
- For storage, cellars and cellars with air temperatures from -1 ° C to + 5-7 ° C are better suited.
- You can not store apples in the same room with potatoes, cabbage and other vegetables.
- Fruits need to be sorted. Large ones are stored worse - they are eaten first.
- For long-term storage, medium-sized apples that are not damaged are selected.
- They are placed in ventilated, preferably wooden, boxes in three layers, sprinkled with dry straw (preferably rye) or shavings. Coniferous wood shavings are not allowed. Some gardeners wrap each apple in newsprint or parchment paper. Apples cannot touch each other.
Some gardeners for storage wrap each apple in newsprint or parchment paper
- The boxes are placed on top of each other through gaskets of bars with a section of 4 x 4 centimeters.
Apples are stored in ventilated wooden crates.
- Periodically, you need to check the condition of the fruit - one rotted apple can ruin the entire box.
As for storing winter varieties of apples, I can share my own experience. From childhood, I remember how in the autumn we picked apples (I don’t know the variety, of course) and after sorting we wrapped each in newsprint. After that they were stacked in wooden boxes in 2-3 layers and lowered into the cellar. Vegetables were also stored there - potatoes, cabbage, carrots. Maybe because of this, our apples were stored no longer than February - I do not know. And, perhaps, these were the characteristics of the variety.
Gardeners on the storage of apples Renet Simirenko
We usually only harvest the Simirenka crop by the end of autumn. The main thing is to catch up to the frost. It is desirable to break off with roots - so they will stand longer. And you need to store in rooms with good ventilation and a temperature of up to 7 degrees.
LessiRecent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
My grandmother always kept Semerenko apples in a dry basement. She wrapped every apple in newsprint. Periodically, they need to be sorted out, discarded spoiled.
We have apples of this variety are very good all winter in the cellar. We put them in ordinary wooden boxes. We put up the stalk, gradually filling the entire box. Never wrap apples in a newspaper. But the main thing is that apples intended for storage were collected in dry weather.
For many years we have stored winter (late) varieties of apples in plastic bags in the cellar - they remain until spring, unless, of course, we have time to eat. We collect apples late, when it is already very cold, but there are still no frosts, we pick the fruit carefully, trying to preserve the stalks, put them in one layer with the stalks up for a day - two in a cool room, then fold them in double bags, tightly knit with threads, and lower them. I don’t like to store in newspapers and straw - a specific smell and taste appear ...
If we recall the experience of our ancestors, apples intended for long-term storage should be removed from the tree with gloves on. So, Michurin himself, by the way, advised. Gloves are preferably woolen. Then let them rest for a month before laying. To lay in wooden boxes or barrels, pouring with shavings. It is advisable to take shavings from linden, poplar, aspen, mountain ash. The energy of the tree plus volatile production does not allow rotting.
Diseases and pests - prevention and control
Given the strong susceptibility of Renet Simirenko to scab and powdery mildew, we dwell in more detail on the prevention and treatment of precisely these diseases.
This disease is widespread in regions with a temperate climate, especially in years with a cold and wet spring. In such years, the disease causes significant damage to the yield and quality of apples. Especially often, the disease affects industrial gardens with multiple plantings with the same genotype and thickened plantings.
The causative agent of scab winters in fallen leaves and fruits. With the onset of growth of young shoots, spores spread and, thanks to their mucous membrane, adhere to the leaves. If the weather is wet, spores germinate. This mainly occurs at the ends of young shoots and leaves. After 2-3 weeks, the fungus passes into conidia (immobile spores of asexual reproduction) and secondarily infects the leaf apparatus. This occurs most intensively at a temperature of +20 ° C. At this time, you can see the appearance of light olive spots on the leaves, then their middle turns brown and crack. In the future, the fruits are affected, on which cracks, putrefactive spots form. In years favorable for the fungus, the defeat can reach 100%.
Cracks, putrefactive spots form on apples affected by scab
At the time of the emergence of the variety, the scab problem did not exist, therefore, he did not receive immunity to it, as is observed in apple trees of modern varieties. But this is not a reason to refuse to grow such a magnificent apple. Prevention measures and modern fungicides (drugs to combat fungal diseases) will help to cope with the problem.
For the purpose of prevention, it is necessary:
- Every autumn, collect and burn fallen leaves, weeds, and branches cut during sanitary pruning. Thus, most of the wintering in them, the pathogen dispute will be destroyed.
- You should also dig deep into the soil of the trunk circle. Among other things, this ensures the rise to the surface of not only pathogens, but also wintering pests there.
- After that, the soil and crown of the tree is treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid. The same treatment must be repeated in early spring.
- Lime whitewash of the trunk and skeletal branches will destroy the spores of the fungus located in the smallest cracks of the bark. Add 1% copper sulfate and PVA glue to the solution. And you can also use special garden paints for this.
Lime whitewash of the trunk and skeletal branches will destroy the spores of the fungus located in the smallest cracks of the bark
- In early spring, they are treated with potent herbicides (drugs for all fungal diseases and pests). DNOC is used once every three years, and in the rest of the years they use Nitrafen.
After flowering, the apple trees begin periodic treatments with fungicides that are less hazardous to humans and bees. The most common are Chorus, Quadris, Skor, Strobi. They are used with an interval of 2-3 weeks (if necessary, more often), while not forgetting that they are addictive to the fungus. After three times of using the drug of the same name, it loses effectiveness. The biological drug Fitosporin is not addictive - it can be used throughout the season, including the time of harvest. The affected parts of the plant should be removed and disposed of in a timely manner.
The fungus pathogen has a two-year development cycle. Spore infection usually occurs in the summer. On the underside of the leaf, mycelial spots of various shapes and sizes appear. The sheet is twisted into a tube, deformed. From the petioles of infected leaves, the spores enter the growth buds, where the spores hibernate.
In early spring, the spores awaken and the fungus infects young non-lignified shoots, flowers, leaves, which are covered with white, powdery coating. Then the ovaries and fruits are affected, which are covered with a rusty mesh penetrating the flesh. In frosts below -20 ° C, powdery mildew located in the kidneys dies and in such years the disease is not observed . True, generative kidneys freeze along with the fungus, but the supply of infection is significantly reduced. Prevention and treatment of the disease, the drugs used are the same as in the fight against scab.
Поражённые мучнистой росой листья яблони, покрываются белым налётом
Таблица: вероятные вредители яблони
|Pests||Signs of defeat||Профилактика и борьба|
|Apple moth||Небольшая (1—2 сантиметра) коричневая ночная бабочка начинает свой лёт в апреле и продолжает на протяжении полутора месяцев. Из, отложенных ею в крону, яиц появляются гусеницы, заползающие в завязи и плоды, выедая семечки.||В целях профилактики проводят 2—3 обработки инсектицидами до и после цветения. Применяют Децис, Фуфанон, Искру и другие.|
|Apple Blossom||Тёмного цвета жук-долгоносик размером до трёх миллиметров. Зимуя в трещинах коры и верхних слоях почвы, ранней весной поднимается на верхние ярусы кроны. Самки прогрызают бутоны у основания и откладывают в них по одному яйцу. Появившиеся из них через некоторое время, личинки выедают почку изнутри и она уже не расцветает.||В качестве профилактики эффективно применение ловчих поясов, устанавливаемых на стволы деревьев ранней весной. Дополнительная обработка инсектицидами поможет избежать проблем.|
|Aphid||Летом её заносят на крону муравьи с целью полакомиться в дальнейшем сладкими выделениями, называемыми медвяной росой. Обнаружить тлю легко по наличию свёрнутых в трубочку листьев, внутри которых можно найти колонию насекомых.||Установка ловчих поясов предотвратит попадание на крону муравьёв. Если тля обнаружена, поражённые листья следует оборвать и обработать крону инсектицидами либо применить одно из множества народных средств.|
Фотогалерея: вероятные вредители яблони
- Тлю можно обнаружить в свёрнутых листьях яблони
- Самки яблонного цветоеда откладывают яйца в цветочные бутоны
- Яблонная плодожорка выедает семечки плодов
В Семеренко не нравится, что даёт небольшие урожаи по сравнению с другими деревьями.
Название сорта яблони — Ренет Симиренко (Ренет П.Ф.Симиренко, зелёный ренет Симиренко). Поздне-зимнего срока созревания. В обыкновенном погребе у меня яблоки могут храниться до мая. Выращенные в более прохладных регионах, плоды могут храниться и до июня. Морозостойкость средняя, устойчивость к парше низкая, что сказывается на урожайности (чем выше процент поражения листьев паршой, тем меньше цветочных почек, возможна периодичность плодоношения). В Харькове растёт и ежегодно плодоносит дерево этого сорта, посаженное ещё моими родителями в прошлом веке (в 1960 году). Дерево на семенном подвое, посажено в 10 метрах от южной «глухой» стены двухэтажного дома (защищено от преобладающих у нас холодных северо-восточных ветров). От парши ни разу не обрабатывалось. Поражение листьев и плодов паршой — незначительные (может, специфика «городского образа жизни»). Вот такая теория и практика.
А моё дерево тля атаковала, причём обрабатывал все яблони (5 шт) одинаково, а тля была только на Симеренко. Оно у меня, правда, в тени после обеда. Парши не было.
Ренет Симиренко — отличный сорт зелёного яблока, которому нет замены более 150 лет. И даже недостатки в виде низкой зимостойкости и ограниченности регионов выращивания, а также подверженности грибковым заболеваниям, не могут помешать его активному использованию. Уверенно рекомендуется к выращиванию садоводам и фермерам южных регионов.