Everything is in our hands: how to save the crop and protect raspberries from pests and diseases
Despite the great number of repair and classic varieties of raspberries, unpretentious, frost-resistant and undemanding to regular watering, most of them are susceptible to infection by viral and fungal diseases. Pests also cause serious damage to berry plantations. In order for the raspberry crop to be regular, it is worthwhile to take a closer look at planting material and feed the plants to maintain immunity, be able to provide "first aid" to damaged shoots and berries. The raspberries begin to prepare for spring from September. The ability to use improvised means, for example, such as laundry soap and boiling water, will help to get a full crop and healthy seedlings.
Do I need to process raspberries
In the climatic conditions of the south and middle strip of our country, classic and remont raspberry varieties are equally well rooted and developed. But despite the approval of modern breeders, repair hybrids require regular treatments and are damaged by pests and diseases no less than the classic raspberries. Temperature differences during the growing season and during the dormant period, adverse environmental conditions, and a lack of nutrients can lower the plant's immunity and make it vulnerable.
In the event that infected planting material appears on the plot, the entire fruit plantation may be affected. Therefore, immediately after the purchase of seedlings, it is recommended to process them. During the summer, they monitor the state of plantings, if necessary, spray them and remove the damaged shoots. During fruiting, the shrub also requires attention, because not only useful insects live on the site, but also pests who like to enjoy fragrant berries. For example, the raspberry beetle larvae can destroy almost the entire crop, leaf gall midge and weevil - damage young shoots. And anthracnose and bushy dwarfism harm the entire berry, while the gardener does not suspect this, because not all viral and fungal diseases are immediately noticeable. In order to enjoy berries, prophylactic treatments for raspberry can not be dispensed with.
A rich raspberry crop cannot be obtained without proper plant care.
The most dangerous pests of raspberries, common throughout our country - on industrial land and household plots - stem gall midge, raspberry beetle and raspberry-strawberry weevil:
- The raspberry stem gall midge causes irreparable damage to the berry plantation - it lays its larvae in young shoots, thereby causing leaf wilting; the bark darkens and becomes covered with rough growths. To reduce the significant harm from this insect, they are treated twice a season on raspberries - in May, when the laying period of the eggs of the first generation of the pest begins, and after harvest (first decade of September). It is important to process the lower part of raspberry leaves - this is where female gall midges lay their eggs.
- Another ill-wisher on raspberries is a raspberry beetle, the female of which lays eggs in flower stalks. Larvae (worms) severely damage the fruits, they wither, rot and do not fully ripen. Offspring of raspberry beetle can damage up to 50% of the crop. Adults eat buds and ruin flowers. Worms are activated in wet weather. In the fight against the pest, the most effective method is digging the soil on the raspberry, in which the beetle hibernates.
- Adult individuals of raspberry-strawberry weevil harm juicy young shoots, and the larva prevents the formation of buds, thereby reducing the yield on raspberries. The female larvae lays in unbroken buds, thereby providing a comfortable development environment for young insects. Raspberry flowers, ready to open, crack and dry. The enormous damage from the weevil is received not only by the raspberry plantation, but also by most of the fruit and berry bushes on the site.
Photo Gallery: The Most Common Raspberry Pests
- Larvae of stem gall midge cause wilting of shoots
- The worms that often wind up in raspberry berries are the larvae of a common pest - the raspberry beetle.
- Weevil lays its larvae in unblown raspberry buds
Wherever raspberries are cultivated - in the southern latitudes of our country or in the north - there is a chance of infection with fungal and viral diseases of berry crops that affect the root system, shoots, leaves and berries.
Berry viral infections develop as a result of pollen from diseased plants or when using tools to trim shoots infected with the juice of diseased plants. A complete disposal of this problem is unlikely, therefore, most often sick bushes are dug up and burned, green manure is planted in the place of the old raspberry, and after a year they plant healthy material from the nursery again. A preventive measure against viruses on raspberry plantings is the timely destruction of aphids, raspberries, cicadas.
Dwarf bushiness (left), curly hair (center) and chlorosis (right) are the main enemies of raspberries
Fungal diseases are spread by insects that carry spores. Infected shoots must be cut and promptly removed from the site, fallen leaves and berries to burn, plant raspberries in ventilated, sunny places.
Fungal anthracnose (left) is treated with copper-containing preparations, and it is much more difficult to get rid of wilt (right)
Raspberry diseases are aggravated by excessive thickening of plantings and excess moisture. Compliance with the agrotechnology of berry culture reduces the risk of contracting viral and fungal diseases.
When to handle raspberries
Seasonal treatment of raspberry with folk remedies is no less effective than biological products of a new generation - provided that they are applied on time.
In early spring, before buds open, abundant spraying of shoots and root space of the bush with ready-made solutions (Actellik, Karbofos, Khom, urea, ammonia) is carried out. Protective measures are effective against glass, aphid, raspberry beetle, weevil, anthracnose, curly. The procedure is carried out after snow melts at a daily temperature of + 5 ... + 10 ° C. In the middle lane - this is the end of March, in the south this happens until the 10-15th of March. In Siberia and the Urals, the first spraying is performed no earlier than the beginning of April. Choose a sunny, windless day and begin processing in the morning or at sunset.
Preliminarily remove wintering mulch and plant elements, inspect the bushes and carry out sanitary pruning. After that, they start processing raspberries with urea, vitriol or Topaz.
Dead raspberry shoots are cut off (left) and treated with prophylactic solutions (right)
Raspberry processing in spring at the bud formation phase
At this time, it is recommended to repeat spraying with copper-containing preparations and solutions that were treated until the buds opened. In this phase, spraying with biochemical preparations (Fitoverm, Bactofit, Alirin-B), decoctions of herbs (wormwood, tansy, dill, marigolds) are still allowed. Just the moment of activation of the gall midge and weevil comes, the damage from which affects the future harvest. The base of the central shoot is watered with a suspension of tobacco dust and wood ash against chlorosis, glass and other larvae living in the soil.
If you skip raspberry processing at the time of budding, you can lose most of the crop
Video: spring raspberry processing
After the last harvest of berries has been harvested (this concerns the repairing varieties), raspberry thickets are allowed to be processed with aggressive chemicals, such as Fufanon, Actellik, Inta-Vir. This will help to cope with ticks, raspberry beetle, nematode, chlorosis, etc. The procedure is carried out in September-October. With the onset of cold weather, the soil in the aisles is dug up with the addition of wood ash (100 g per m 2) and watered with copper or iron sulfate (according to the instructions).
Ash and copper sulfate - a means of combating soil pests
During the autumn digging, I use the “grandmother's method”: I add crushed shells and peels of onions to the soil - calcium and volatile products will not interfere with the development of berry shrubs, on the contrary, they will strengthen the plant's immunity.
Natural fertilizer for the garden - eggshell and onion peel
I repeat this procedure in the spring, if possible at the beginning of the growing season - I dig along with watering with the addition of boric acid (3 g per bucket of water). After 7-10 days I feed raspberries with liquid mullein and urea diluted according to the instructions. It seems to me that regardless of the weather, shoots grow actively, the leaves bloom faster and the bud formation phase begins.
Raspberry processing calendar for diseases and pests
Raspberry processing begins when the kidneys are preparing to open. The last spraying is carried out after autumn pruning in anticipation of the first frosts.
Table: Raspberry Preventive Treatment Calendar
|Processing time||Work on the raspberry|
|spraying and root treatment from larvae and overwintered insects (copper-containing and chemical preparations - Khom, Fufanon, urea, and biochemical - Fitoverm)|
(end of May - beginning of June)
|treatment of weevils, gall midges, ticks, fungal diseases (urea, Bordeaux liquid, ammonia, mustard, decoctions of herbs, boric acid solution)|
|After flowering (June)||prevention of pests and rot of shoots and fruits (urea, Fitoverm, Bactofit, a decoction of herbs, garlic and tobacco infusion, a decoction of onion husks, boiled boiled wood ash)|
|Fruiting (July - August)||spraying with infusion of tansy, tobacco, mustard and wormwood from weevil and raspberry beetle larvae|
|After leaf fall|
|treatment for putrefactive and fungal diseases, control of larvae and pests wintering in the tree trunk and plant bark (Fufanon, Fundazol, Actellik, ash, iron or copper sulfate)|
How to process raspberries
Using folk remedies or biochemistry for preventive spraying of shoots and soil, follow the rules:
- processing is carried out in calm, sunny weather (non-hot and dry);
- use a respirator and gloves;
- Follow the instructions and the recipe.
Raspberry processing with copper sulfate
Copper sulfate CuSO4 (copper sulfate) is used to combat fungal and viral diseases of raspberries: curly, anthracnose, septoria, spotting. For raspberries, it is most often recommended to use a 0.5–1.0 percent solution for processing shoots and soil around them. To do this, dilute 50 g or 100 g of the substance per 10 liters of water at room temperature. 0.5–1 L of such a solution for spraying or 1–1.5 liters is used for one bush for watering under the root.
Enough 1.5–2 L of a liquid solution of copper sulfate to process a raspberry bush
This drug is a prophylactic that is not a panacea for raspberry diseases. In addition, copper sulfate is poisonous, therefore, during the growing season they are not treated - it accumulates in berries and the crop after spraying becomes not edible.
Processing raspberries with iron sulphate
Iron sulfate is iron sulfate, the powder of which is used to control pests on raspberries (slugs, larvae), from fungal spores, mosses, lichens. In addition, this drug is a catalyst in the formation of chlorophyll. In raspberries, this is the first enemy for chlorosis and anthracnose.
In spring, after trimming dry and damaged branches, the plant is dug and fertilized with cow dung or chicken droppings with the addition of iron sulfate powder - 100 g of substance per 10 kg of fertilizer.
To get rid of fungal diseases, dissolve 250 g of iron sulfate in 10 l of water at room temperature and spray plants (200-400 g per bush).
Autumn processing is carried out after the leaves fall. So that lichens and moss do not annoy on the berry beds, the lower part of the shoots (15–20 cm) is covered with a solution of iron vitriol - 100–150 g per 10-liter bucket of water. This amount is enough for a whole raspberry plantation.
Proven prophylaxis against fungi and lichens on raspberries - iron sulfate
Processing raspberries in spring with boiling water
When sap flow has not yet begun, at the end of winter or early spring, raspberry bushes are watered with boiling water - the most low-cost, but time-consuming way to get rid of pest larvae wintering in the soil on raspberries. The easiest way to handle the repair raspberry in this way is to cut it for the winter on a level with the ground, so less hot water and effort for watering will be required.
10 liters of boiling water are carefully poured using a garden watering can with a nozzle. At the same time, they try to get hot water to the top of the shoots and the root space, to the soil around the bush.
Processing with boiling water will require effort - a watering can filled with water should be raised high above the bush to capture the entire aboveground part of the shoots
Spraying raspberries in the spring with urea
Urea (urea - diamide of carbonic acid) helps against diseases (spotting, rust, anthracnose) and pests that are still at the wintering stage (larvae of raspberry beetle, glass butterfly), therefore, treatment is carried out early in the spring before the plant grows. To do this, take a concentrated solution - 400-500 g of substance per 10 liters of water and carry out spraying. This amount can process 10 acres of raspberries.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In addition, urea saturates raspberries with nitrogen, strengthens its immunity, preparing the plant for active growth and fruiting. For top dressing, a concentration of 50 g per 10 l of water is used. Raspberry bushes watered under the root. A liquid concentrate of cow manure or tincture of tobacco dust can be added to the urea solution.
Since urea contains nitrogen, it is recommended for spring treatment.
I try to conduct treatment with urea twice in the spring. The first time - before buds open - I process from pests, watering the basal space or spraying with a broom - the solution enters both the shoots and the soil. To do this, I dilute 500 g of the substance into a 20-liter plastic barrel (2-3 liters per raspberry bush is enough). The second time I repeat the procedure in 10-14 days. Now this is abundant watering with complex top dressing of our own preparation: in a 10-liter bucket of water at room temperature I add 5 g of boric acid, 3 liters of mullein infusion and 50-100 g of wood ash. Mix everything thoroughly and water it under the root (1 bucket per 1 m2).
Raspberry Processing Bordeaux Liquid
A universal remedy for the comprehensive protection of berry crops from diseases is Bordeaux liquid. The preparation contains copper sulfate and quicklime in a concentration of 1: 1, is a blue liquid. The tool is effective for anthracnose, powdery mildew, various types of spotting on raspberries. At the same time, the drug is toxic, therefore, copper-based agents are allowed to treat plants in early spring or late autumn.
The finished product of Bordeaux liquid is used to process most fruit crops in the garden
Before budding, the affected bushes can be treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid (300 g of the prepared solution per 10 liters of water) with the addition of a 2% solution of potassium salt.
To prevent the spread of infectious ailments, it is best to treat with Bordeaux fluid in the autumn - late September - early October. The finished solution is filtered and processed in dry, calm weather.
Bordeaux liquid can be prepared independently. To do this, separately buy hydrated lime (fluff) and copper sulfate. To prepare take 100 grams of vitriol and 75 grams of lime, dissolve each substance separately in 10 liters of water. Then the liquids are combined, obtaining a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
A home-made solution is carefully filtered, otherwise the lime suspension quickly clogs the sprayer.
Raspberry mustard and worm soda treatment
To prevent the appearance of worms in the berries, raspberry leaf treatment with a solution of dry mustard is useful: 20 g of powder is added to a 10-liter bucket of water, filtered and the bushes sprayed abundantly. Another way to get rid of larvae on raspberries that damage berries is soda. Prepare a solution of 50 g of soda ash and 50 g of laundry soap in 10 l of warm water. Spraying is toxic, therefore, if necessary, it can be repeated with an interval of 2-3 days.
Since the raspberry beetle larvae hibernate in the soil, it is recommended to carefully dig up the earth around the raspberry shoots with the addition of wood ash.
Dramatic measures - before the appearance of the buds, they are sprayed with Guapsin and Trichophyt - 5 ml per 10 liters of water. According to experts, these substances contain beneficial bacteria and are absolutely safe for humans.
Dry mustard (left) and guapsin (right) are used to get rid of worms in raspberries
Raspberry treatment with ammonia
Ammonia is contained in ammonia, which, after processing by soil microbes, turns into nitrates, which are necessary for the development of green mass. This is a concentrated fertilizer that is used in the spring. Also, the drug is used to treat pests and diseases of raspberry shoots and foliage.
Solution preparation method: 30–40 ml of pharmacy ammonia 10% diluted in 10 liters of room temperature water and watered plants from a watering can with a sprinkler. The finished product is used at the rate of 2-3 liters per bush. Processing is carried out in early spring.
Video: how to treat raspberries with ammonia
Raspberry tar treatment
To protect against raspberry-strawberry weevil, the bushes are treated with a solution of birch tar. For this, a liquid suspension is prepared: 60-100 g of tar is taken per 10 liters of water, raspberries are poured with the prepared liquid in early spring. Approximately 5-7 liters are spent on the processing of one plant. This is an absolutely safe method of controlling pests wintering in the soil.
Folk remedies for processing raspberries
Treat tinctures and solutions prepared according to folk recipes should be in the spring, summer (before flowering) and autumn. During the formation of the ovary, processing with infusions of herbs is possible; during fruiting, they should be discarded. Infusions and decoctions have a specific smell and may be bitter, which can affect the taste of berries.
Several ways to process raspberries using folk remedies:
- One liter of whey or sour milk with the addition of 10-15 drops of a pharmacy solution of iodine is mixed and filtered; the composition is used for spraying from late blight and rust.
- Jars of sand soaked in chloramine or kerosene are placed against the glass.
- From fungal diseases, a solution of 1 liter of water, 500 g of milk and 100 g of salt is prepared and used as a spray from a spray bottle.
Whey, iodine and salt - the main elements for the preparation of solutions for processing raspberries according to popular recipes
Many gardeners use needles as a remedy for gray rot. Branches of pine or spruce, coniferous litter spread between rows of raspberries or sprayed planting with a decoction of needles. For this, 0.5 kg of plant substrate is poured with 3 liters of water, boiled for 10-15 minutes and left for 2-3 hours. During this time, the liquid will cool down to about 40 ° C - the broth is ready for processing. It is sprayed on top of raspberry shoots with a wide paint brush or a home-made broom from dry grass. Spraying with a sprayer decoction is not recommended, since the resin contained in the needles settles on individual parts of the sprayer and disables it.
A decoction of needles is effective against gray rot on berry bushes and is absolutely harmless
The best option is to mulch the basal space of beds with raspberries and coniferous litter. And also for these purposes often use onion peel. Onions contain volatile, repelling pests.
Garlic infusion is used for spraying from pests and fungal diseases. The solution is also used in autumn to water the soil from raspberry beetle larvae. To prepare an infusion of garlic, cut off the shoots of a plant (half a bucket of greens per 5 liters of liquid) or chop the garlic cloves (10-15 pieces per 0.5 l of water). Green mass or crushed garlic is poured with boiling water and left for a day to settle. The liquid acquires a sharp specific smell, which repels pests.
Garlic - a sure remedy for diseases and pests of raspberries
Rub in a mortar to a slurry condition 200 g of cloves of garlic, then put in a 1 liter jar and pour warm water to the top. The jar with the lid closed is left in a dark place for 5 days (at a temperature of +20 +25 ° C), periodically shaking the contents. Then filter the infusion, pour it into a bottle of dark glass, clog it and put it in the refrigerator. With invasions of aphids on raspberries, 100 ml of infusion is poured into 5 l of water and the affected area is moistened with plenty of solution with a paint brush.
A decoction of tansy, yarrow, wormwood and dandelion is used to combat ticks, fleas and aphids on raspberries. Spicy herbs are bitter and have a pungent odor; this repels pests. The broth is recommended for use at the stage of fruit setting.
- Dry branches of wormwood (0.5 kg) are poured with 3 liters of boiling water and insisted for 12 hours. The spraying process is carried out after the infusion is filtered. According to the same recipe prepare tansy herb infusion.
- Dandelion is used in the form of a decoction and infusion of fresh green mass: leaves, flowers, stems.
- The first method: about 3 liters are poured so that the water covers the crushed ingredients. Put on a quiet fire and boil for half an hour. The solution is allowed to cool, then filtered and sprayed with berry bushes. Five liters of broth is enough to process 10-15 raspberry bushes.
- The second method: 1 - 1.5 kg of freshly chopped dandelion grass is insisted in a bucket of water for two days. The infusion is drained and irrigated with them shoots of raspberry from a watering can with a sprinkler.
Decoctions of wormwood (left), tansy (center) and dandelion (right) are prepared for the preventive treatment of raspberries from diseases and pests
Raspberry bushes are treated with infusions of herbs immediately after flowering 3-4 times with an interval of 5-7 days.
This year I decided to spray my raspberries with non-purchased drugs. All the same, it’s chemistry, though useful, as they say. My recipe is this. As soon as the raspberries began to prepare for flowering, sprinkled it with soda water. She did such a “shower” once a week. Soda water is done like this: boil water and pour ordinary baking soda into it: 2l - 1 tbsp. l Cool down. Experienced agronomists ensure that soda does not affect the taste or color of the berries, but the worms will not be accurate. Well, the time will come - we'll see.Svetlana Alekhina, Tver Region
Do not rush to cut raspberries. There will be more berries if you pour over a bucket, and then feed them with green slurry, slurry, or in a simple way - with urine. Three days - before foaming (fermentation), then dilute 1 to 3 with water, half a bucket on the bush. Until August 15, raspberries can be watered - how many times you pour, how many times you collect. No need to be afraid of overfeeding with nitrogen, it is not delayed in berries. This is a feature of raspberries - a constant biochemical composition. In May, an Actellicus had to be doused with a fly and a bug from a watering can, and with Topaz in April from violet spots. And to shoot the shoots after September 15 (after cutting) - Actellik. And in October - urea (500 g per bucket of water). And more feces, after freezing, under bent bushes.Karen
As for spraying with soda, in my opinion, from folk remedies tobacco infusion will be more effective, but only after flowering. Spraying during the flowering of raspberries with at least soda, at least something else does not make much sense, since the raspberry beetle lays eggs not in the flower, but in the ovary. In addition, it is unclear how it is possible to “repeat spraying every 5 days during the raspberry bloom”, if the total flowering time of ordinary (non-remontant) raspberries lasts only 5–7 days. And repairing varieties are not required to be protected from this pest.Sergey Golovin, specialist for the protection of berry plants, doctor S.-kh. of sciences
Malicious diseases and pests of raspberries will recede if you do not neglect the rules of planting, regularly destroy weeds, monitor the moisture of the soil to make organic and mineral fertilizers. Unfortunately, sellers of seedlings are not conscientious, and widely advertised raspberry varieties are sometimes susceptible to diseases no less than old and proven ones. Therefore, experienced gardeners recommend starting preventive procedures on the site in early spring. Agrotechnical measures that prevent the spread of berry pests and diseases affecting the roots and shoots are effective when the processing time is observed. Известны десятки способов, исключающих применение химии и опасных для здоровья препаратов. Малина не останется в долгу и щедро наградит сладкими, ароматными ягодами.