Eggplant in the Urals: how real is it
Eggplant in the Urals is very difficult to grow. This vegetable needs a long and warm summer, but a really summer month is, in fact, one - July. Therefore, eggplant is grown mainly in greenhouses: heated and ordinary. Of course, you can also plant the earliest varieties in open ground, but here - how lucky. However, if you try, you can outwit the bad weather.
The best varieties for the Urals
Linking the concepts of "Ural" and "eggplant", of course, we should not talk about the Northern Urals, but about such relatively comfortable living areas as Kurgan, Orenburg or Chelyabinsk regions. Yes, there is a harsh continental climate, but summer exists, and it is quite suitable for digging in the beds.
Since eggplant has a long growing season, only early or super early varieties can be grown in the Urals. In a good greenhouse, you can plant both mid-early and even mid-ripening, but they will require more careful leaving closer to the fall. Currently, there are a lot of varieties and hybrids of eggplant, and a number of them are recommended by the State Register of the Russian Federation for cultivation in all climatic zones.
Eggplant for open ground
Now on sale you can often find not eggplant varieties, but hybrids (F1), and in the risky farming zone they are much more reliable, but some well-deserved varieties grow and bear fruit well. In the Urals, it is difficult to grow eggplants in open ground; for such landings, one must choose one of the early or even super-early varieties and hybrids.
- Agate F1 is a high-yielding hybrid. Due to the very short growing season, he is perhaps the only representative of hybrids, prepared seeds of which at the end of spring can be sown directly in open ground, but under the film. Even in the Urals, before its first frosts, several of its fruits will ripen from such an experiment. Agate fruits of the usual color for eggplant, weighing 200–250 g, high yield. The hybrid is resistant to disease.
You can even try to sow agate directly in the garden, it has such a short growing season
- Emerald F1 - eggplant with a strong aroma and taste of mushrooms, is highly resistant to disease, and normally tolerates cold. From sowing seeds to picking the first fruits, 100-110 days pass. They are green, oval, weighing up to 300 g. It is considered a very non-capricious hybrid, bears fruit in any climatic conditions.
- King of the North F1 - able to produce crops even at very low temperatures; unlike most other varieties, does not like intense heat. The yield in greenhouses reaches 14 kg / m2, in open ground due to sharp fluctuations in weather conditions, almost half. From seedlings to harvesting takes about three months. The fruits are large, very long and thin, the taste is ordinary, without frills.
King of the North - an eggplant created especially for extreme conditions
- Vera is a variety for universal use, early ripening. The period from full germination to harvesting 100–118 days is one of the few varieties recommended specifically for the Ural region. Compact bushes, pear-shaped fruits, weighing 120-200 g, have a good presentation. Productivity is stable, but small.
- Dwarf early 921 - an early ripening variety, after germination, the fruits are harvested after 100 days. The bushes are very compact, the fruits are small, weighing about 120 g, of good taste. Productivity is low.
Dwarf early - one of the most popular early ripening varieties in the north
- The quartet is an early ripe eggplant, ripening 107–122 days after emergence. Bushes no higher than 60 cm, fruits of a shortened pear-shaped form, without gloss, weighing a little more than 100 g. The variety is resistant to most diseases and dry weather.
- Adamant is one of the new early ripe varieties, the fruit ripening period is less than 3 months after germination. The average weight of the eggplant is 250–300 g, the shape is round, white with light purple stripes of medium density color. The variety is resistant to various diseases, friendly ripening of the crop.
- Fabina F1 is one of the early ripening hybrids; in the southern regions, fruits can be tasted within two and a few months after emergence, in the Urals the period is delayed up to 3–3.5 months. The bushes are low, up to 60 cm, fruits weighing about 200 g, elongated, up to 23 cm long. The taste is excellent. The variety almost does not affect the spider mite, and fungal diseases are not afraid of it.
Fabina - strict in shape of the fruit and delicious eggplant
Eggplant for the greenhouse
Late-ripening varieties in the Urals do not ripen even in a greenhouse, therefore, here too, we are talking about varieties far from a late ripening period. In greenhouses it is necessary to plant those varieties that, for various reasons, do not respond well to sharp fluctuations in the weather, but are high-yielding and have high taste characteristics.
- Giselle F1 is a hybrid that can be grown both in greenhouses and in open ground. The plant is 170-190 cm high, semi-spreading, which is ideal for growing in a greenhouse: tall bushes save area. In greenhouses, its yield is 11.6-17.6 kg / m2. Fruits weighing up to 400 g, cylindrical in shape, have excellent presentation, are well stored. The first harvest is about 107–117 days after full germination.
Giselle is a very popular hybrid; it grows both in and outside the greenhouse.
- Maria is a high-yielding early ripe variety; in the Urals it can be grown only in greenhouses. Bushes are tall, semi-spreading. Resistance to diseases and temperature changes is high. Fruits are cylindrical, almost without gloss, of gray length, weighing about 200 g. Taste good, average yield.
- Early ripening 148 is an old, well-known variety. It is suitable for both open ground and greenhouses. Bushes are undersized, compact. Fruits are ready for harvesting 110 days after sowing seeds. The yield is small, fruits weighing 100-200 g, pear-shaped. Unpretentious to growing conditions.
- Diamond is a mid-season variety, one of the most famous in our country, grown since 1983. The time from seedling emergence to technical ripeness is 109–149 days; this period is highly dependent on growing conditions. The bush is 45–55 cm high. The fruits are cylindrical, weighing 100–150 g, the taste is excellent. The lower fruits touch the ground. Relatively resistant to disease. In relatively warm regions, it is grown in open ground, in the Urals they are planted in greenhouses due to the long period of maturation.
Diamond - a classic in the eggplant kingdom
- The Nutcracker F1 is a high-yielding mid-early hybrid, relatively tall. The fruit ripens on 98–105 days after full germination. The fruits are large, oval in shape, weighing 250–350 g, of excellent taste. Fruit ripening is gradual, yield is very high: maximum -19.5 kg / m2.
- Valentine F1 - an early ripe hybrid, tall. Fruits of elongated pear shape, weighing 200–250 g, excellent taste. Productivity is low, disease resistance is good.
Valentina is a hybrid that does not shine with the amount of the crop, but has very tasty fruits.
- Vicar is an early ripe variety, grows in low bushes, extends up to 15 fruits weighing 80–150 g, without shine. Fruit ripening occurs on 114 days after full germination. Differs in friendly return of a crop and resistance to temperature differences.
For the Urals, eggplant cultivation is a problem because this crop has the main requirement - a long and warm summer. Of course, in greenhouses, especially heated ones, you can create the necessary temperature, but any vegetable gets its true taste only in the sun. And the sun is extremely necessary for eggplant. Therefore, many gardeners try to plant blue ones in the open ground, but in the Urals they have to be covered with a film for most of the growing season.
Basically, in the Urals, eggplants are planted in greenhouses, but even in this case, seedlings cannot be dispensed with: even the earliest varieties should be spent about two months in comfortable home conditions, and eggplants will sprout very tight. Therefore, the whole story with their cultivation begins in the winter, when in February they begin to prepare everything for sowing, and at the end of the month seeds for seedlings are already sown.
In the Urals, ordinary summer residents open the garden season for the May holidays. At this time, sometimes it’s also impossible to work with the ground, but already it is necessary to start preparing beds for eggplant. Therefore, they have been doing this since the fall. For this culture, the beds should be warm, and the soil in them highly nutritious, so you need to make a lot of fertilizer, especially organic. At least 1 and a half buckets of humus or compost and a liter jar of wood ash are added per 1 m², as well as a tablespoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
When growing eggplant without good humus can not do
In addition to heat and light lovingness, as well as high requirements for the composition of the soil, eggplants need a lot of moisture. Water them often and a lot. Rows of eggplants should be placed from north to south for better lighting and warming by the sun. The best predecessors for eggplant are cabbage, onions, pumpkin and bean crops. Do not plant them after tomatoes, peppers and potatoes.
Growing eggplant seedlings is not the easiest task, this process is more complicated than preparing tomato seedlings and even pepper, although it does not include any special moments.
When to plant eggplant for seedlings
Eggplant seeds, especially dry ones, sprout for a very long time, and properly prepared seeds sprout faster, but not simultaneously. The first seedlings may appear in 7-8 days, and then another 10-15 days later, the following will appear. Preparation of seeds and soil for growing seedlings begins in the winter.
The best time for sowing seeds for seedlings in the Ural region is the end of February. This period is almost independent of whether the crop will be grown in open or closed ground. In the Urals, in any case, seedlings will have to be planted at the very beginning of summer, and in the greenhouse in the middle or end of May. And the best seedlings for these places are already with buds. Of course, seedlings can be planted in a heated greenhouse even in April, but it is difficult to cook it even in winter even at home: there is not enough sunlight, artificial illumination is required, and it is too cool on a windowsill in winter.
Eggplant is best sown immediately in large peat pots. However, they immediately require a lot of space on the windowsill. Therefore, at first they are often sown in a small common box, and after growing seedlings, they are dived into pots. However, eggplants respond poorly to picking, halting growth for a long time, so many gardeners sow seeds in small separate cups, and as seedlings grow, they transfer it into large pots without disturbing the root system.
If there is peat and sand, the soil for seedlings can be made independently by mixing garden soil and peat in half and adding ten percent of the sand. About 50 g of any complex mineral fertilizer and a handful of wood ash are immediately added to a bucket of such a mixture. The resulting soil must be disinfected by pouring it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. However, for growing a small amount of seedlings, it is easier to buy ready-made soil in a store.
Seeds are also disinfected before sowing, using a dark solution of potassium permanganate. Seed disinfection lasts 20-30 minutes, after it rinsing with clean water is mandatory. It is advisable to harden the seeds in the refrigerator (in a damp tissue for 3-4 days).
To disinfect the soil, you need a weak solution of potassium permanganate (on the right), and for seeds - a strong solution (on the left)
In addition, it is worth treating eggplant seeds and a growth stimulator, this process increases seed germination and strengthens future plants. You can use Epin-Extra or Zircon, strictly according to the instructions. Some gardeners sprout seeds before sowing, but this is not necessary: you can sow immediately after the refrigerator.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
The prepared soil mixture is poured into small glasses (for example, from sour cream).
- Arrange in cups for 2-3 seeds.
Seeds can just be put on the ground, or in the holes
- We fall asleep with a layer of soil about 1.5 cm high.
- On top, you can simply put a layer of snow in a few centimeters. Melted, it evenly saturates the soil. In addition, snow water activates growth processes well.
Snow water is the best watering for crops
- We cover the cups with glass or a transparent film and put in a warm place, the temperature before emergence is required 25–28 ° C. If the soil dries out before emergence, it must be carefully sprinkled with water.
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As the seedlings appear, the glasses should be rearranged on a well-lit cool window sill, with a temperature of 16–18 ° С. This regimen is required for about a week, then the temperature is gradually increased to 23–25 ° С and left as such until the end of seedling cultivation. The worst seedlings are carefully removed, leaving in the cup one, the strongest.
Seedlings are watered with settled water at a temperature of 30–32 ° C 1-2 times a week, but in moderation: from soil deoxidation, the risk of black seedling disease increases. 12-14 days after germination give a weak top dressing: 1 tablespoon of any nitrogen fertilizer in a bucket of water.
Seedlings grow unevenly, and transshipment into larger pots must be performed selectively. In this case, you should try to extract a bush from the cup with all the available soil. The optimal volume of containers for the subsequent life of seedlings is about a liter, the soil is the same as in glasses. Handled plants without deepening, only strongly elongated specimens can be planted slightly deeper than they grew in cups.
Whatever eggplant seedling pot is made of, it must be large
2-3 weeks days before transplanting seedlings into the beds they temper them, taking them out onto the balcony at first very briefly. At the same time, the temperature should not be too low: 12-14 ° C for seedlings - already low. Before planting, seedlings are well watered. Ready for planting seedlings should have a height of 20–25 cm and 5–8 large green leaves. If buds have already arisen - very good.
Transplanting seedlings into beds
When growing eggplants in the Urals in a greenhouse, you can plant them there in early May, but they usually do this around May 20. With a lack of heat, additionally cover with non-woven materials. In open ground, planting seedlings here can be planned no earlier than mid-June, when the soil warms up well. And even at this time, arcs must be installed, covered with a film, then replaced with a spanbond, and by the end of June they will only remove the shelter during the day.
It is possible to plant eggplant seedlings in the garden only when the soil has warmed up to at least 15 ° C. This means that in the Urals it will not be possible to do without preliminary and serious preparation of the bed. For eggplants it is necessary to build warm beds. To do this, choose a well-lit place, closed from cold winds.
Last summer, a pit was prepared with a depth of 20–25 cm along the length and width of a future bed. Various organic wastes are placed in it: sawdust, foliage, tree branches, mowed grass, household garbage, etc. If there is peat, they carefully sprinkle the bed. Periodically, water it all with infusions of mullein or chicken droppings. Autumn fall asleep originally removed soil.
The sides of the resulting high beds are enclosed with any flat materials. In the spring, the bed is well sprinkled with wood ash and spilled with warm water with the addition of mullein. After watering, cover with a film to ripen the soil. On the day before transplanting the seedlings, the soil is loosened, and then holes of the required size are made. The planting scheme depends on the variety, but between the bushes should not be less than 35 cm, and between rows - from 50 to 70 cm.
On the bushes there may be only 4 leaves, but it must be a strong plant, and it must be transferred to the ground without disturbing the roots
When planting, the seedlings are not buried, they are planted directly, without tilt. Peat pots are planted together with seedlings; non-peat seedlings are transshipped with all the contents of the pot. It is worth immediately providing for pegs, if the bushes in the future require garter. Seedlings in the garden are watered with warm water, and the soil is mulched. Be sure to cover the garden with a film.
Eggplant in the Urals is much more often grown in greenhouses. In greenhouses, especially polycarbonate, the required temperature is reached for them quite early. But long before planting, carefully prepare the beds. In the fall, all plant debris is removed and the soil is set. If there were plant diseases, it is better to completely replace the entire soil. In the autumn, they dig the earth with fertilizers.
In the spring, a week before transplanting, the garden is watered with a weak solution of copper sulfate and covered with a film. After 1-2 days, the film is removed and the soil is allowed to reach a state where it will be possible to work with it. It is well loosened, leveled with a rake and planted seedlings. Planting patterns are the same as outside the greenhouse. For tall varieties you can apply a checkerboard fit.
Video: planting eggplant in the beds
Sowing seeds in the garden
Even in the south of our country, when growing eggplants, they rarely do without seedlings. In the Urals, this is unrealistic, although you can try it by choosing extra early hybrids for this. In this case, the use of greenhouses does not have a serious advantage over unprotected soil.
To get a crop of even the earliest eggplant, seeds must be sown in the garden at the very beginning of May. To do this, the garden bed must be fully prepared in the fall, including the construction of a film shelter. By the time of sowing, the soil at a depth of 10 cm should warm up to at least 15 ° C. So, first you have to pour the bed with hot water, and then cover it for several days with a film.
Seeds are sown very densely: their germination capacity under such difficult conditions will be much lower than usual. In rows that are arranged after 50-60 cm, seeds are sown every 5-6 cm. After emergence, seedlings are thinned several times, removing the weakest specimens. The film is removed only when the present summer.
Eggplant after transplantation at first grow very slowly, growth resumes only after two weeks. In these two weeks, you only need to make sure that the soil is slightly moist and loose. Subsequent care includes watering, top dressing, loosening and forming bushes.
Eggplant in the open ground
Why did you need big pots for seedlings? Well, if there was enough space to hold her at home for about three months, right up to setting buds. Then there will be more chances that in the open field it will come to a normal crop. It turns out to shoot film from arcs in the Urals only in July. From the second half of June, eggplants open during the day, but return the shelter for the night. And in August, cooling may again come, and the plants will again require wrapping up: not constant, but with a clear decrease in temperature.
The film in the Urals is never far removed
Watering is required constantly: the soil on the bed with eggplant should always be slightly moist. It is watered with water warmed up in the sun, under the root. Until the buds open, the garden is watered once a week: in the morning or in the evening, spending about 1 m2 of water per bucket. After blooming, water more often. After each watering or rain, cultivation is carried out, accompanied by the destruction of weeds.
Hobbing eggplant in the Urals is not used. Until the fruit is set, top dressing is not carried out, but then they are given twice a month. Initially, infusions of mullein or bird droppings are used, and during the period of intensive growth of the fruits, it is not necessary to give nitrogen, therefore, only superphosphate and potassium sulfate are used. You can replace mineral fertilizers with wood ash infusion.
Formation of bushes in the open ground in the Ural region is not involved. However, when the plants reach 40 cm, they pinch the top. After that, only the number of ovaries is normalized, leaving no more than 5–6 of the largest specimens on the bush. После удаления лишних завязей обрывают и все вновь образующиеся цветки. Обрывают листья, закрывающие плоды от солнца.
Eggplant in the greenhouse
Баклажаны на Урале требуют неустанной заботы и в теплице: даже в защищённом грунте успех мероприятия зависит от текущей погоды. Баклажанам нужны солнечный свет и настоящее, стабильное тепло. Освещение солнцем должно быть максимальным, а температура внутри теплицы — порядка 25–30 оС, почти при отсутствии суточных колебаний. И если в случае жаркой погоды в теплице можно легко поддерживать температуру, просто открыв форточку и двери, то на ночь их всё равно приходится закрывать.
Таким образом, получается, что вырастить на Урале баклажаны, приезжая на дачу только по выходным, не удастся.
В теплице полив нужен более частый, чем вне её. Режим подкормок не отличается от такового при выращивании в открытом грунте, но формирование кустов является обязательным. Когда баклажаны вырастают до высоты 30 см, на главном стебле прищипывают верхушку, и далее начинают расти боковые побеги. Их можно оставить 4–5 штук. Обязательно удаляют все желтеющие листья, а также листья, закрывающие плоды от света.
В теплице особенно важно оголить плоды, дать им как можно больше света
В теплице желательно и дополнительное искусственное опыление цветков, которое проводят, перенося кисточкой пыльцу с одного цветка на другие. Особенно важна эта процедура при слишком высокой влажности в теплице.
Harvesting and storage
Плоды баклажанов на Урале бывают готовы к съёму не ранее августа. В идеальное по погоде лето в открытом грунте с куста можно собрать не более 5–7 плодов, да и в теплице большее количество дадут только некоторые сорта. Баклажаны снимают в фазе технической зрелости: они должны дорасти до характерного для сорта размера, приобрести нужную окраску, набрать мясистую съедобную мякоть. Семена в фазе технической спелости ещё белые, мягкие на ощупь, совершенно несозревшие. Урожай надо снимать еженедельно, плоды лучше срезать секатором, вместе с плодоножкой. Перезревшие баклажаны пригодны только на семена.
Баклажаны хранятся очень недолго: этот срок редко достигает месяца. Они должны храниться вместе с плодоножками, оптимальная температура при этом 1–2 оС, относительная влажность воздуха 85–90%. Поскольку хранить их трудно, плоды стараются перерабатывать в первые же дни после снятия.
Видео: сбор урожая баклажанов
На Урале лето очень короткое, его совершенно недостаточно для выращивания баклажанов в открытом грунте. Однако тепличное выращивание чаще всего приводит к гарантированному успеху. Но даже в теплицах сажают в основном раннеспелые сорта и гибриды, и даже тепличное выращивание требует немало сил и стараний.