Early white cabbage: the best varieties and care for the crop
Early white cabbage is not only tasty, but also very healthy. Therefore, it is grown by almost all gardeners. In the care of the culture has its own nuances, which it is advisable to familiarize yourself in advance. Another problem that arises before a gardener, especially a beginner, is choice. The culture in the respective stores is presented in a wide assortment - these are varieties, and hybrids, of Russian and foreign selection. Each of them is not without advantages and disadvantages, which you need to familiarize yourself with in advance.
Varieties of culture popular among gardeners
Early cabbage, as the name implies, ripens quickly enough. From mass seed germination to harvesting, from 70 to 120 days pass. Basically, the vegetable is eaten fresh, and is also used to prepare side dishes, second courses, as a filling for baking. You can pickle this cabbage and ferment it, but the “shelf life” of such preparations is small, only 3-4 months. She quickly softens, stops crunching.
In general, the storage period for early cabbage is short, only 8-10 weeks. You need to cut the heads of cabbage on time, otherwise they will massively crack. They are small in weight, so this variety is significantly inferior to later varieties in yield.
Outstanding taste qualities of early cabbage can not boast. Only a specialist can distinguish one variety or hybrid from another by this criterion. Other parameters (“crunchiness”, juiciness) also do not shine with variety. Therefore, varieties and hybrids for their own garden are chosen, focusing mainly on the ripening period, yield, the presence of immunity to pests and dangerous diseases.
- June. As the name implies, the harvest is harvested in the last decade of June. The growing season is only 90-100 days. The leaves are small, slightly “bubbly.” Heads are a bit flattened, not particularly dense, but you won't call them loose either. They weigh an average of 0.9–2.4 kg. From 1 m² receive about 5 kg of cabbage. The percentage of non-commodity products is 3% or less. Cold resistance is not bad, the variety withstands a short-term temperature drop to -5ºС. But he does not like her abrupt changes, the heads of cabbage crack almost immediately.
- Cossack F1. The head of cabbage ripens in 106–112 days. The rosette of leaves is sprawling (56–68 cm), but not high (21–28 cm). The leaves are small, dark green, the edges seem to be incised, the surface is slightly “wrinkled”. Heads are almost spherical, outside of salad color with a bluish tint, on the cut - yellowish-cream. They are small, only 0.6–1.2 kg, but rather dense, resistant to cracking. The average yield is 4 kg / m², the heads of cabbage ripen together. The hybrid is immune to bacteriosis and the "black leg", rarely suffers from keel and bacteriosis. But for some reason almost all pests love it very much.
- Paired F1. The Dutch is very early (crop harvested after 90–95 days) hybrid. The leaves are small, greenish in color, covered with a thin layer of whitish plaque. The stem is almost absent, it seems that the heads of cabbage are on the ground. They are medium-sized (0.7-1.5 kg), flattened in shape, dense. On average, they remove about 5 kg from 1 m². A characteristic feature is ascorbic acid in high concentration. The hybrid is successfully cultivated both in the open, and in the closed soil.
- Dietmar early. Cabbage comes from Germany. Heads of cabbage are cut in 105 days after seeds will germinate. They crack very often, if at least a little late with the cleaning. The shape is characteristic regular, almost round, weight - 1.5–2 kg. The stump is thin, barely noticeable. The leaves are bright green, very delicate and thin. This cabbage is easily confused with Peking. About 1 kg is removed from 1 m². They use it mainly fresh, it is practically not stored. The variety is immune to keel, is not affected by rot.
- Golden hectare 1432. Variety from the category of medium early. Rosette of leaves of small diameter, they themselves are not large, in the form of an ellipse, grayish-green. Heads are spherical, not too dense, weight varies from 1.6 kg to 3.3 kg. The percentage of marketable products is very high - 90–99%. Productivity is very good - 6–7 kg / m², keeping quality too. This cabbage is stored for 4–5 months. Plant it only in fertile soil, pay special attention to top dressing. Heads of cabbage do not crack, even if you leave them in the garden after reaching full maturity. The variety has "innate" immunity to keel.
- Dumas F1. The ripening period is only three months. Heads weigh an average of 1.5 kg. They are not too dense, do not crack. Outside, the cabbage is bright green, yellowish on the cut. The hybrid tolerates "crowding" well in the garden, so it often lands in a greenhouse, greenhouse, just under cover material.
- Transfer F1. Heads are cut 110 days after seed germination. Leaves are pale green, medium-sized. Heads of cabbage are almost round, weigh 0.8–1.5 kg. They are loose, white-green on the cut. The stump is small. Fruiting friendly, stable annual. The hybrid practically does not pay attention to the vagaries of the weather, has a good immunity to most fungal diseases typical of the culture. The percentage of non-commodity products is not more than 6%. This hybrid is not suitable for salting and souring.
- Malachite. Compact power, small leaves. Harvest ripens in 100 days. Outside, heads of salad are tinted, yellowish-white, dense on the cut. The mass for this group of varieties and hybrids is not bad - 1.3–1.5 kg. Good transportability is characteristic. This cabbage does not crack. About 1 kg of cabbage is obtained from 1 m². It is valued for the presence in a high concentration of vitamin C, potassium, magnesium, and iron.
- Express F1. Ukrainian ultra-early hybrid. Harvest ripens in just 60-95 days. Heads of cabbage are small (0.9–1.3 kg), not too dense, whitish-green at the cut. The leaves are oval, thin. Cabbage ripen en masse, rarely crack. The shelf life for the early variety is quite long, about four months, but only if suitable conditions are provided (temperature 8 ° C, stable high humidity).
- Arctic Circle F1. Hybrid with high frost resistance, specially developed for cultivation in the northern regions of Russia. From the moment of transplanting seedlings into the ground until the harvest takes about a month and a half. Plants tolerate a drop in temperature to -10 ° C, but require good lighting and regular soil moisture. The leaf rosette is compact, up to 50 cm in diameter. Heads weigh an average of 1–1.6 kg. They ripen massively, practically do not crack.
- Nozomi. Cabbage comes from France, but with Japanese roots. The Russian State Register is recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus. From the day the seedlings are transplanted to the bed to the ripening head of cabbage, 43–45 days pass. The leaves are small, grayish-green, the stem is very short. Heads of cabbage are dense, weigh approximately 1.3 kg, and do not crack. The percentage of non-commodity products is not more than 10%. The variety is extremely hardy - it is practically indifferent to frosts, plentiful watering. Characteristic is the presence of good immunity to fungal and bacterial diseases typical of the culture and absolute to the “black leg”.
- Explosion. One of the recent and very successful developments of Russian breeders. The state registry recommends cultivating it in Western Siberia. The stalk is short, the rosette is almost horizontal. The leaves are small, pale green. Heads are a bit flattened, weigh 1.1–1.4 kg, and are loose. The percentage of non-commodity products is not more than 8%.
- The miracle is ultra-early F1. Cabbage is very juicy and tender, has a high content of vitamins, macro- and microelements. Heads are round or slightly flattened, rather dense, weight varies from 1 kg to 2.5 kg. Harvest ripens together. This cabbage is extremely rarely infected with diseases and attacked by pests.
- Point. An early variety without restriction regarding the region of cultivation. Harvest ripens in about 110 days. Leaves are rounded, small. Heads of cabbage are greenish-gray on the outside, white-yellow, dense on the cut. In shape they resemble a dome. The average weight is 0.7–1.7 kg. Cabbage does not crack, has good immunity. For early cabbage, the variety is very productive - up to 10 kg / m².
- Number one is mushroom 147. The name is rather cumbersome, therefore, most cabbage gardeners know this cabbage as “early mushroom”. Bred back in the early 40s of the last century. The growing season is 60–80 days. The leaf rosette is compact, the stem is short. Heads of cabbage are round or flattened, weight varies from 0.9 kg to 2.2 kg. The percentage of non-marketable products is 2–13%. Harvest ripens together, cabbage tolerates cold and drought well. But the heads of cabbage often crack. The variety is often infected with keel and bacteriosis. Productivity - 2.5–7 kg / m².
- Dietmarsher Fryer. Achievement of breeders from the GDR. This cabbage was brought back in the 60s of the last century, but it entered the State Register of the Russian Federation only in 1995. The growing season is 76–112 days. The stalk is short, the outlet is quite powerful. The leaves are egg-shaped, unusual lime color with a purple tint, with smooth edges. Heads of cabbage are almost round, medium-sized (0.8–1.1 kg). the stump is practically absent. It is characterized by a high content of vitamin C. It is susceptible to all types of bacteriosis. Not suitable for pickling.
- Mirror F1. Another early hybrid from the Netherlands. 45-50 days pass from transplanting seedlings into the ground to heading out. The state registry recommends cultivating this variety in the Central region. The stalk is long, the socket is very elevated. The leaves are small, bright green. The head of cabbage is almost round, on the cut is yellow-white, loose. The average weight is 1–1.4 kg. The percentage of non-commodity products is not more than 7%. Not affected by Fusarium.
- Kevin F1. Dutch hybrid. Ripens in 50-60 days after transplanting cabbage seedlings into the soil. Recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus. The outlet is elevated, the leaves are not particularly large. Heads are spherical, leveled (approximate weight - 1.2–1.5 kg). Outside, they are grayish-green in color, yellowish on the cut, not too dense. The percentage of non-commodity products is quite high (13%), but this pays off with excellent taste due to the high sugar content of the leaves. The hybrid has "innate" immunity, is not affected by Fusarium. It can be stored for 12-15 weeks.
- Princess of the early market F1. Harvest ripens in 85–110 days. Heads are very presentable - almost round, dense, aligned (approximate weight - 0.9–1 kg). Outside, the cabbage is pale green, on the cut is yellowish. The leaves are very juicy, sweet. Harvest ripens together.
- Zorro. Czech grade. From the time of transplanting seedlings to heading 48–55 days pass. They are slightly flattened, pale green, weighing 1-1.5 kg. The socket is compact, squat.
Photo gallery: early white cabbage, popular among Russian gardeners
- June cabbage, as the name implies, brings one of the first crops
- Cabbage Cossack F1 - a hybrid that for some reason enjoys the special love of most pests
- Cabbage Parel F1 is valued for its high concentration of vitamin C
- The cabbage of Ditmar early has very delicate leaves, it is often taken not for white, but for Beijing
- Cabbage Golden hectare 1432 for the early variety has a wonderful keeping quality
- Cabbage Dumas F1 does not particularly suffer from thickened plantings
- Cabbage Transfer F1 brings the crop no matter how lucky the gardener is with the weather in spring and summer
- Cabbage Malachite practically does not crack
- Cabbage Express F1 - a very successful achievement of Ukrainian breeders
- Cabbage Zapolyarye F1 was specially created for cultivation in almost extreme climatic conditions
- Nozomi cabbage has "innate" high immunity, is characterized by unpretentiousness and certain environmental plasticity
- Cabbage Explosion - a novelty of the Russian selection
- Ultra Wonderful Cabbage Miracle F1 rarely suffers from disease and pest attacks
- Cabbage Point High Yields
- Cabbage Number one mushroom 147 differs in cold and drought resistance
- Cabbage Dietmarsher Fryer was created in the GDR, but Russian gardeners got to know it relatively recently
- Cabbage Mirror F1 - one of the most popular Dutch hybrids in Russia
- Kevin F1 cabbage is never affected by Fusarium
- Cabbage Princess F1 early market looks very presentable
- Zorro cabbage appreciated for its compact outlet
How to grow cabbage seedlings
Soil early cabbage prefers nutritious, but light. This also applies to her seedlings. Seeds are germinated in a mixture of humus and fertile turf (approximately 1: 1). Never use fresh manure. It is a very suitable habitat for many fungi, spores of viruses and bacteria. Eggs and pest larvae winter there. If the soil seems "heavy", any baking powder is applied - perlite, vermiculite, coarse sand.
In the finished substrate for the prevention of diseases (first of all, the “black leg”), chalk or activated charcoal crushed into powder, sifted wood ash (a tablespoon of 1.5–2 l) are added. For the same purpose, it must be disinfected. Soil can be steamed, frozen, fry in the oven.
The “viability" of the cabbage seeds is easy to verify by dropping them in brine for five minutes (30 g per liter of water). Floating to the surface can not even be planted. You definitely will not wait for shoots from them.
Cabbage seeds must undergo pre-planting preparation, this has a positive effect on germination
The roots of cabbage seedlings are very delicate, when they are dived and transplanted, they are certainly damaged, a large percentage of seedlings die. To avoid this, the seeds are immediately planted in separate peat pots with a diameter of 8–11 cm, then transferred to open ground together with a container.
To increase germination and disinfection, seeds of cabbage need special preparation. The quickest way is to soak them for 15–20 minutes in a thermos with water heated to 40–45 ° С, and then literally dip them for a couple of minutes in cold (about room temperature). After that, for disinfection, they are etched in a biofungicide solution prepared according to the instructions (Ridomil Gold, Gamair, Acrobat-MC, Topaz, Tiovit-Jet) for a quarter of an hour. Treated seeds are washed in warm running water, dried on napkins or paper towels, and can be planted.
The so-called shock therapy takes much more time. During the week, seeds wrapped in wet cloth or mixed with wet peat or sand are kept in the refrigerator at night, and during the day they are transferred to the warmest place, for example, on a window sill, illuminated by the sun, a heating battery.
Another option is to soak the seeds in any biostimulator for 12-14 hours. Of store-bought preparations, gardeners most often use Epin, potassium humate, and Kornevin. Folk remedies have not the worst effect - aloe juice, honey, succinic acid. After that, the seeds are kept in a bright raspberry color potassium permanganate solution for the same time.
The optimal time for planting early cabbage on seedlings is from the first days until March 25–27. In open ground it is transferred after about 45-50 days. By this moment, seedlings should form 5–6 true leaves, a stalk 5–7 mm thick and reach a height of 15–18 cm. Accordingly, early cabbage is transferred to the bed in April (from the second decade to the end of the month).
Experienced gardeners sow early cabbage several times, with an interval of 10-12 days, providing themselves with a fresh crop almost until the end of summer.
Seedlings are grown according to the following algorithm:
- Fill the peat cups with the prepared substrate, moisten generously and level it. Plant 3-4 seeds in each tank, deepening a couple of millimeters, no more. Sprinkle with fine sand on top.
- Cover the pots with glass, tighten with a transparent film. Before emergence, the cabbage is not watered, the tanks are ventilated daily, opening for 6-8 minutes to get rid of the accumulated condensate. Keep the pots in the dark and warm at a temperature of 23-25 ° C.
- After seed germination, transfer containers to light. As a rule, it takes a little time - 5-8 days. The optimal daylight hours for cabbage - 12-15 hours. To ensure this, in most of the territory of Russia will have to seedlings seedlings. Not only special phytolamps are suitable for this, you can use ordinary fluorescent and LED. In the first week, the temperature is lowered to 10–12 ° С, then the optimal indicator for seedlings is 14–16 ° С during the day and 8–10 ° С at night.
- You need to water the cabbage every 2-3 days, as the top layer of the soil dries. Water is poured along the edges of the pot, avoiding drops falling on the stems and leaves. You need to feed the seedlings before transplanting into the ground twice - about 10 days after the appearance of the second real leaf and another 1.5–2 weeks later. For the first time, use any mineral nitrogen-containing fertilizer (1.5–2 g / l), then use a special complex top dressing for seedlings (Rostock, Kemira-Lux, Uniflor). It is undesirable to use organics at this time so that the plants do not become infected.
- In the phase of the third true leaf, of all the seedlings in the tank, you need to leave only one. “Unnecessary”, so as not to damage the root system, cut off or pinch off near the ground.
- Harden seedlings begin about 7-12 days before transplanting to the garden. To accustom her to new living conditions, pots are taken out daily to fresh air. In the early days, 2-3 hours are enough, then the time is gradually increased. The last few days she even “sleeps” on the street.
It is not worth delaying the planting of seedlings in the ground, overgrown seedlings are much worse adapted to new living conditions
Video: planting cabbage seeds for seedlings and further care for seedlings
For planting early cabbage in the soil choose a cool cloudy day. If the street is frankly cold, you can wait, but not for long. Overgrown seedlings take root in a new place much longer and worse.
Plantings can be slightly compacted compared to varieties of medium and late ripening. They leave 30–35 cm between plants and 35–40 cm between rows. The depth of the hole is 8–12 cm (the lighter the soil, the greater). About half an hour before planting, they are abundantly shed with water so that the seedlings are planted in the “mud”. At the bottom put a teaspoon of simple superphosphate, a handful of humus, a little onion husk to repel pests. The seedlings, along with the pot, are buried in the ground to the first pair of leaves, the substrate is tamped, again moistened well with plain water or a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. Somewhere after 30 minutes, the moisture is absorbed, and then planting can be mulched. It is undesirable to use peat crumbs or sawdust for this, especially conifers - they strongly acidify the substrate.
In order for cabbage seedlings to take root in a new place faster, plentiful watering is required
Video: planting cabbage seedlings in the ground
Planting seeds in the ground and preparing for it
Cabbage, including early cabbage, a rather demanding gardening crop. If you do not create optimal or close conditions for it, you should not count on a good harvest.
Culture is demanding on heat and lighting. They plant it only in an open place. Unacceptable even light partial shade. At the same time, the presence of an obstacle protecting the landing from sharp gusts of cold wind and drafts without closing them is desirable nearby.
Cabbage is planted in a well-lit and sunny area
Ideally, any cabbage is transferred annually to a new place. If the area of the site does not allow this, the bed should be changed at least once every 2-3 years. Crop rotation is very important for the prevention of diseases and pests, the attacks of which the culture is very susceptible. It is necessary to consider what exactly grew on this place earlier. Any plants from the Cruciferous family (radish, radish, daikon, rutabaga) are categorically not suitable as cabbage. Plant it well after beets (plain and leafy), potatoes, herbs, garlic, onions, green plants, legumes, cereals. If cabbage in the garden is infected with a keel, you can return it to this place no earlier than in 7-8 years.
The root system of plants is superficial; culture does not tolerate stagnant moisture categorically. Under such conditions, the development of rot is almost inevitable. If in the selected area the groundwater is at a depth of a meter or less underground, it is advisable to find another place. When there is no alternative, crests are built about 50-60 cm in height.
A bed for planting cabbage is prepared in the fall. The substrate is dug up at least one bayonet shovel in depth, cleaned of rhizomes and other plant debris. In the process, humus or rotted compost (3-5 l / m²) is added to improve fertility. Fertilizers need phosphoric (10–15 g / m²) and potash (5–7 g / m²), for example, simple or double superphosphate, kalimagnesia. The natural source of these macronutrients is wood ash. Enough liter cans per 1 m². A useful additive is dolomite flour or eggshell crushed to a powder state (200-400 g per linear meter). Cabbage does not tolerate acidic soil, you can not wait for the crop.
Dolomite flour - a natural deoxidizer of the soil
About 7-10 days before transplanting seedlings, the bed is deeply loosened and nitrogen-containing preparations are applied. It is not worth zealous with them; 5–10 g / m² is enough. Its excess in the soil reduces the immunity of plants, interferes with the process of head formation. Unhealthy nitrates accumulate in the leaves, they coarsen, veins thicken.
Urea, like other nitrogen-containing fertilizers, stimulates cabbage to actively build green mass
The vegetative period of early cabbage is not too long, but it is a heat-loving culture. Therefore, seeds are planted in open ground relatively rarely, especially in temperate climates. It is justified only in the southern subtropical regions. Short-term exposure to temperatures up to -3 ° C seedlings can withstand, but no more. And in the Urals, the Far East, Siberia, spring return frosts do not surprise anyone.
In the first case, the landing can be planned for the first half of May. Then, if you're lucky with the weather, you can harvest the crop in early August. In the second - the procedure is carried out a month earlier. The preplant seed preparation described above is required.
Of 3-4 seedlings in each well, leave one, choosing the most powerful and developed
They are planted in well-moistened holes, three to four pieces each, observing the scheme recommended for seedlings. The sowing depth is 3-4 cm. From above they are covered with a thin layer of humus mixed with fine sand. Before emergence (it will take about a week to wait), the bed is tightened with plastic wrap. Then arcs are installed above it and any white air-tight covering material (agrospan, lutrasil, agril) is pulled over them. After about a month, when the seedlings are sufficiently strong, it can be removed for a day, and after another 2-3 weeks - completely removed.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Care for cabbage seedlings obtained directly in the garden is almost the same as that needed for seedlings on the windowsill. At the same time, preventive measures must be taken to prevent the development of diseases and pest attacks. For young shoots, they are much more dangerous than for adult plants. Water the substrate as it dries 3-5 cm in depth. The garden is regularly weeded, very carefully loosened after the next watering, or at least every 10-12 days.
Cultivation of early cabbage in greenhouses, hotbeds or under cover material is also practiced. Harvest can be obtained 2-3 weeks earlier. Seed planting dates are also carried forward 15–20 days. But amateur gardeners do so rarely. Basically, in this way, early cabbage is grown by those who then plan to sell vegetables. Heads of ripen, when it is still in short supply, demand increases. There are no special nuances in planting care. It is only necessary to pre-disinfect the soil by spilling it with 3% copper sulfate or a saturated violet solution of potassium permanganate. Also, the greenhouse and the greenhouse are regularly ventilated. Humidity and stuffiness are a very suitable atmosphere for most pests.
Growing cabbage under cover material allows you to get a crop 2-3 weeks earlier than usual
There is nothing complicated in caring for early cabbage. The main thing a plant needs is proper watering. But we must not forget about weeding and loosening the beds. Do this very carefully, the roots of the cabbage are located close to the surface.
Water for irrigation must be heated. The best time for this is morning before sunrise or late evening. The culture is hygroscopic, with a deficiency of moisture, plants slowly develop, heads of cabbage do not tie. But a regular bay is harmful to her - this provokes the development of rot.
The frequency of watering in each case is determined by the weather. If the street is not too warm, the substrate is moistened every 3-4 days. In the heat in the absence of precipitation - twice a day, it is additionally desirable to spray the plants. In the first 3.5–4 weeks after planting, 5–8 liters per bush is enough, then the rate is increased by one and a half times. The substrate should be wetted by about 25-30 cm.
Cabbage reacts very positively to sprinkling and drip irrigation. You can also pour water into circular grooves dug at a distance of 25-30 cm from the base of the stem. If watered right under the roots, they quickly become bare and dry.
Cabbage is a moisture-loving culture, this applies to both young seedlings and adult plants
Early cabbage is especially in need of watering in June, during the formation of heads of cabbage. Somewhere 2.5-3 weeks before harvest, it is reduced to the necessary minimum so that the leaves become juicier. With alternating periods of artificial “drought” and a sharp bay, heads of cabbage almost inevitably crack massively.
Since the vegetative period in early cabbage is quite short, of the fertilizers, preference is given to natural organics. Only during the first month after transferring to the bed, you can use nitrogen-containing mineral fertilizers (10-12 g per 10 liters of water). The rate per plant is about half a liter of the finished solution. The procedure is combined with watering. Spend it about 13-16 days after transplantation.
The next top dressing is needed for cabbage in 10-12 days, the third - in a couple of weeks. In both cases, they use independently prepared infusions of fresh cow manure, bird droppings, nettle greens, and dandelion leaves. The finished product must be filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:15 for litter and 1:10 for the rest of the raw material.
Nettle infusion - natural and absolutely free fertilizer
Last planting is fertilized about 1.5 months before the head of cabbage. For ultra-early varieties, three top dressings are generally sufficient. A good option is dry wood ash or its infusion.
Wood ash - a natural source of potassium and phosphorus
The culture immediately reacts negatively to the lack of manganese, boron and molybdenum in the soil. During May-June, it is sprayed twice with a solution of potassium permanganate, boric acid, ammonium molybdenum acid (1.5–2 g per liter of water).
On the contrary, it is advisable to feed early cabbage grown in a greenhouse with mineral fertilizers. For the second and third feeding in this case, use complex liquid preparations (Clean Sheet, Master, Kemira-Lux) or Azofosku, Nitrofosku. For the latter - simple superphosphate and potassium nitrate (15–20 g per 10 l). Somewhere 30 minutes before the procedure, the cabbage must be abundantly watered so as not to burn the roots.
Video: Early Cabbage Care Tips
Harvesting and storage
Collect early cabbage as it ripens, focusing on the density of the head of cabbage and the length of the growing season indicated by the manufacturer. Choose a dry non-hot day for this. Cabbage cut in the rain should be allowed to lie on spread cloth napkins for at least a day.
It is not worth delaying the harvest. Heads of cabbage tend to crack. If you can’t cut them off in a timely manner, you can cut a stem about a third of the thickness and slightly “loosen” the plant. The supply of nutrients to the head of cabbage will be limited, and it will cease to increase in volume.
Early varieties and hybrids of cabbage are not stored for a long time, in the process they lose much in presentability and benefit
Cabbage is cut with a sharpened knife, dusting with crushed chalk or activated charcoal. Long early varieties and hybrids are not stored, a maximum of 2–2.5 months. To do this, each head of cabbage is wrapped in several layers of plastic film and put in the refrigerator, in a special compartment for storing vegetables and fruits. But by the middle of the indicated period, the cabbage loses much in juiciness, the leaves wither, practically do not crunch.
Cultural diseases and pests, methods of dealing with them
Like other varieties of white cabbage, early varieties often suffer from diseases and pests. Although in this sense they have a definite advantage. They are planted earlier, plants have time to grow stronger before many dangerous insects “wake up”.
Most often, the culture suffers from the following diseases and pests:
- Fusarium Leaves turn yellow, lose their tone, large spots spread out between the veins. Then they are deformed, the plant dies literally in 10-12 days. Brown-black “rings” are visible in the stems on the cut. The pathogenic fungus penetrates the tissues through the roots, for a long time the symptoms do not appear on the aerial part. It is impossible to cure fusarium with modern means. Affected plants are dug up and burned. The soil in this place is disinfected with a dark crimson solution of potassium permanganate, 5% copper sulfate. In a greenhouse or greenhouse, it is generally advisable to completely change the soil. To destroy spores of the fungus, the seeds are etched in a solution of Agate-25K, Immunocytophyte, Strobi. The same drugs process the substrate 2-3 times during the growing season.
- Mucosal bacteriosis. It appears when the heads of cabbage have already formed. Leaves from the outside are covered with “wet” dark green spots, spread an unpleasant putrefactive odor. Gradually affected tissues change color to brown, turn into a slimy mass. If the problem is noticed late, the cabbage can only be thrown away. At an early stage, all affected tissues are cut with a sharp disinfected knife. To be safe, it is better to grab some healthy looking ones. "Wounds" are treated by sprinkling with crushed chalk, wood ash, activated carbon. For prophylaxis, the wells before planting seedlings or seeds are shed with Binoram, Fitolavin or Planriz.
- "Blackleg". It mainly affects seedlings or seedlings in the garden during the first month after emergence. The base of the stem darkens and thins. The plant lays on a bed, dries up. For prevention, granules of Trichodermin are introduced into the soil when digging the beds, the seeds are soaked in Fitosporin-M solution. Seedlings are dusted with crushed chalk or activated charcoal, the bed in the process of loosening is sprinkled with wood ash or colloidal sulfur. Alternative means of prevention 4–5% ethyl alcohol or infusion of onion husks. Having found the first suspicious signs, watering is reduced to the minimum necessary, water is replaced with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Slug. Shell-free mollusks feeding on plant tissues. In large leaves, they eat noticeable holes, young seedlings can be destroyed entirely. A sticky coating remains on the surface, casting silvery in the sun. For prevention, the bed is surrounded around the perimeter, planting spicy herbs, any other greens and flowers with a sharp aroma. Pine needles, sand, chopped nutshells, wood ash are sprinkled to the base of the stem. When there are few slugs, they are collected manually (preferably early in the morning) or lured using traps (containers dug into the ground filled with beer, kvass, fermented jam, slices of cabbage). Plants are sprayed with strong coffee, mustard powder infusion or 1:10 diluted with ammonia diluted in water. Chemicals are used only in case of mass invasion, which is extremely rare. The best effect is given by Meta, Sludge, Thunderstorm preparations.
- Cruciferous flea. Small glossy bugs eat small holes in the leaves, literally in a few days turning them into a sieve. The peak of their activity occurs just in May, therefore it is early cabbage that suffers the most from the pest. To scare off the fleas, the soil on the bed is sprinkled with a mixture of dried tobacco leaves, ground pepper and wood ash, coriander, calendula, nasturtiums are planted nearby, pieces of fabric moistened with kerosene or turpentine are laid out between rows. Plants are sprayed daily with 1:10 vinegar essence diluted with water, infusion of tobacco chips, water with the addition of a few drops of essential oil with the aroma of pine needles. In the absence of effect, chemicals are used - Aktara, Bankol, Actellik, Decis.
- Aphid. Small pale green insects clinging to leaves in almost continuous mass. On the lumen in them small discolored dots are clearly visible - places where pests suck out juices from tissues. Effectively repels aphids any sharply smelling greens. It can be planted next to the garden or used as raw material for the preparation of infusion. Also suitable are onion or garlic shooters, tobacco chips, dry mustard, chili pepper pods. They process cabbage every 5-7 days, if pests have already appeared on it - 3-4 times a day. A good effect is given by a solution of soda ash or foam soap. From the chemicals, any general-acting insecticides can be used - Inta-Vir, Tanrek, Mospilan, Confidor-Maxi.
Photo gallery: diseases and pests dangerous for early varieties and hybrids of cabbage
- It seems that the cabbage affected by Fusarium withers and dries for no reason.
- Eating cabbage infected with mucous bacteriosis is not recommended.
- "Black Leg" is a disease that can deprive the gardener of most or all of the cabbage harvest already at the seedling stage
- The presentability of cabbage, on which slugs were “marked”, is sharply reduced
- Most often, it is the early varieties and hybrids of cabbage that suffer from the cruciferous flea
- Aphids - one of the most "omnivorous" garden pests, she also loves cabbage
Loved the early cabbage explosion. Really very early, resistant to cracking. With early cabbage I apply one trick. I never pull out, but cut off the heads of cabbage. By the fall, a few more cabbage heads grow on the site of the cut.
The earliest cabbage I know is Nozomi's hybrid. This is a small head of cabbage, matures in five weeks. The hybrid is resistant to excessively moist soil.
I tried many varieties early. Yes, they are sweet, but they explode !!! And in a week the whole garden can crack, and what to do with so many cabbage in the summer? Ducks and chickens had to feed their labor. As a result, I abandoned early cabbage altogether, now I plant more colored and kohlrabi for summer use.
N @ t @
Of the early varieties, I prefer Parel F1 (Dutch seeds) - it does not crack! Flat head cabbage, about 1 kg, sweet, very juicy. Until mid-August in the garden, then eat.
There is nothing complicated in growing white cabbage. Its early varieties are not intended for storage, but they are very good fresh. Harvested in July or even at the end of June. On the market, culture is represented by many varieties, it is advisable to study the merits of each variety and hybrid in advance in order to make an informed choice when buying.