Early Russian - unpretentious sweet table grape variety
Grapes have long ceased to be a culture that is grown only in warm regions. The successful work of breeders can significantly expand the area of its distribution. Table variety Russian early - winter-hardy and disease-resistant grapes of early ripening.
Description of grapes Russian early
The variety was bred at the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after Ya.I. Potapenko in Novocherkassk. It was obtained as a result of crossing frost-resistant varieties Michurinets and Chasla with northern.
Early Russian is the parent of the Vortorg table variety.
Photo gallery: parents and descendant of the Russian early variety
- Grade Michurinets is resistant to disease
- The early table variety Vostorg was obtained as a result of hybridization of the Russian Early variety
- Chasselas Grapes North - an early ripening variety
Early Russian - table grapes with very sweet berries, for their slightly caramel taste the grapes were given a middle name - Sweetie. It is frost-resistant enough to grow it without shelter in Ukraine, where it ripens in late July - early August.
The variety is fruitful, 2-3 inflorescences are formed on one shoot. From one bush you can remove up to 25 kg of berries.
Early Russian is a fruitful variety, 25 kg of berries can be obtained from one bush
A short growing season makes this variety promising for cultivation in regions with short summers. A good harvest of berries can be obtained in the north of Belarus, in the Volga region and Moscow region.
As a result of selection, this variety retained the positive qualities of its parents; it has the following characteristics:
- early ripening period - 105–115 days;
- frost resistance up to -25 ° C;
- relative resistance to mildew, oidium, gray rot;
- medium and tall bushes;
- a cluster of medium size in the form of a cone, loose, weighs 200-400 g;
- the berry is round, medium size - 21x23 mm, weight 3-5 g;
- the color of the berry is dark pink, the skin is thin;
- sugar content - 17-21%;
- acidity - 6–7 g / l;
- taste is rated at 9 points out of 10.
Fully ripened berries are sugary-sweet, not for everybody. Some gardeners prefer to harvest slightly ripened fruits.
Video: introducing the Russian Early variety
Features of planting and growing
This variety is unpretentious, hardy and relatively resistant to common grape diseases. It does not require mandatory normalization and is able to tolerate a large crop.
Russian early is able to bring a big harvest
You can plant grapes in early spring and autumn. This grape is above average growth, so it is necessary to allocate enough space for development, about 12 m2. Before landing, it is important to choose a suitable sunny spot and prepare a hole:
- Dig a hole of a suitable size (width, depth and length should be 80 cm).
- Fill it with layers: sand (1 bucket), humus (2 buckets), the top layer of land from the beds (5 buckets). Add some ash. Stir, then repeat the layering process until the pit is full.
- Insert a plastic tube into the hole on the side with holes drilled in it with a diameter of 5 cm, through which it will be possible to water the grapes. You can also install the pipe without holes on the drainage layer of the pit.
It is possible to water through drainage wells not only one bush, but also whole rows of vineyard
- Water the hole. Earth settles, add soil.
- After 2 weeks, the pit will settle to the end, the landing site is ready.
The greatest grape harvest can be obtained if you grow it in a large formation and plant it near a gazebo or arch.
When growing grapes Russian early in arched form manages to get a big crop
Grapes are undemanding to the soil, but develops better on black soil. It is not recommended to plant it on wetlands with close standing groundwater.
Trimming, bush formation
Arched and arbor forms of grapes are preferable if in the region of growth in winter the temperature does not fall below the declared figure of -25 ° C, and Russian Early can be grown in non-covering form. In areas with more severe conditions, you should choose a form suitable for shelter for the winter and for cultivation in a greenhouse. In this case, the crop will not be so large, but stable.
Video: arched trim grape tips
Watering and feeding
This grape is watered and fed according to the usual scheme:
- regularly watering young bushes; old ones need watering if the soil is very dry;
- water during irrigation should be supplied directly to the roots of the plant, for this, when planting, a special watering pipe is installed in the pit.
Grapes need to be fed, despite the fact that the variety is considered unpretentious. In the spring, before flowering begins, mainly mineral complex fertilizers containing a lot of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are introduced under the bush. During the ripening period, the bushes are fed with potassium and phosphorus. The last time they feed in late autumn, before shelter for the winter with complex minerals. In addition, once every 2-3 years, organic fertilizers are applied (compost, manure).
Disease and Pest Treatment
This variety has a relatively high resistance to disease. In the southern regions, the probability of fruit damage by oidium is high.
Berries affected by oidium, as if sprinkled with flour
Oidium, or powdery mildew, affects juicy large berries of grapes, this fungal disease brought with seedlings from America.
The development of the fungus is facilitated by a moist warm spring. In neglected grape bushes that are not pruned annually, he feels at ease. In severe winters, the pest freezes.
To combat oidium berries we use the following preventive measures:
- We cut dried shoots in autumn and early spring, cut through the bush. We burn all the scraps.
- When watering grapes, we avoid getting water on the leaves and wood.
- In early spring and autumn, after harvesting, we spray the plant with copper-containing preparations (Abiga peak, Horus, copper sulfate). We dilute copper sulfate at the rate of 10 g of powder per 10 l of water. Other preparations are diluted according to the instructions attached to them.
- During the flowering and ripening of berries, we use safe substances - soda and ash. We dissolve the ash according to the scheme: 1 kg of ash + 10 l of water, we insist 5 days. For soda, we use other proportions: 3 tbsp. tablespoons of soda + 3 liters of water. In solutions, add liquid soap for better adhesion to leaves and clusters, 2 tbsp is sufficient. spoons for 5 liters of infusion.
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If the plant is sick, we treat it with a solution of sulfur, 100 g per 10 liters of water. Sulfur kills the fungus, processing is carried out at a temperature above 18 ° C. Berries affected by the fungus cannot be eaten; they need to be burned.
Another common grape pest - itching - can also threaten your vine. A zoon, or grape tick, punctures the underside of the leaf and launches its saliva, which contains enzymes that cause deformation of the leaf plate.
A leaf affected by an itch gradually dries out
The leaves are sick, dry, fall off. The lack of leaf mass adversely affects the crop. If you do not fight the tick, the berries can also suffer and become unsuitable for eating. The spread of itching contributes to high humidity or, conversely, dry and hot weather. The lower leaves are affected first.
- obligatory digging of the soil under the bush;
- spraying with a 5% lime solution in the fall;
- spring spraying with Nitrafen before budding.
If a tick has settled on the plant, we cut off the affected leaves and burn them. If this does not help get rid of itching, we use insecticides - Fufanon, Actellik. We process the plant 2–4 times with a weekly interval. Spray no later than a month before harvesting.
Actellik needs to process grapes to get rid of itching
Young plants in the first 2-3 years need shelter. The greater the age of the grapes and the more powerful its trunk, the better it tolerates frosts; it can not be removed from the trellis in areas where conditions do not require mandatory shelter of the plant.
For the winter, grapes need to be covered with special materials and fir spruce branches
With a sharp drop in temperature, the bark on the sleeves of grapes of this variety does not crack. You can try to grow grapes in an arched form and cover it for the winter.
Video: how to cover arched grapes
Sweet berries with delicate thin skin attract wasps. If you do not deal with these predatory insects, you can completely lose the crop.
- remove the old hornet's nests;
- we cover with lids the open ends of the fence and trellis in which wasps like to settle;
- arrange saucers with a bait containing boric acid: put 10 g of powder on a glass of jam; as bait, you can also use overripe pear fruits seasoned with boric acid;
- close the bunches with bags of old tulle or thin non-woven material, the size of the bag should be sufficient so that the bunch fits freely in it, for example, 35x25 cm.
Photo Gallery: Protecting Bunches from Wasps
- The bags not only protect the clusters from wasps, but also protect the berries from excessive sunlight
- We sew a bag of tulle and put a bunch in it
- The bunch bag can also be made from a plastic sponge for washing dishes
My Russian early is already 26 years old! And I’m not going to delete it ... it’s just the very first that keeps pace - even before the Russian Korinka. It is very sweet and can be plucked with a pink color, it hangs for a long time, until the frost, the flesh is rather marmalade - non-liquid.Valentina N. (Kazakhstan, Petropavlovsk)
Sweet, even cloying, but there is no taste ... A small bunch, a small berry, low productivity, with a large growth force. Satisfactory, one might say, good pollination (for my conditions). Always good vine ripening. You can safely get a second crop in stepsons, they love wasps, but they don’t always have time. This variety, in my opinion, is for more northern regions and amateur summer residents, it cannot be killed by overload, it forgives almost all mistakes ...Vladimir (Saratov region)
Sugar content of berries 18 brix. Not sick, did not crack, wasps did not attract.
... I cut 8-12 eyes, this year all the eyes were inflorescences, but on the first two shoots the clusters are very small, so short pruning is not recommended for Russian early.Vasiliev V.V. (Belgorod region)
I would add that it takes a lot of space (meters ... 10-12 square). On the trellis, the harvest is small, there are many small clusters. It’s necessary to shelter (I’ve got a cold cover). I will translate it into a carport, there it will be a lot of sun and space.Alex17 (Kiev)
RUSSIAN EARLY this year is very fruitful. Today, the sugar content of the juice is about 20%, a very pleasant sweet taste. The disadvantages of this year on my site I would include increased unevenness of ripening berries compared to previous seasons. But in general, the variety again showed its stable character and pleased a family of kg of beautiful grapes. If you feed him well, then he gives out such huge vines that you need a lot of space. But it is not enough ... We have to control growth and development, despite such manners. But on the other hand, powerful wood makes it possible to survive harsh winters well ... But I have not managed to get large clusters on it yet.Alexander (Zelenograd)
... The disadvantages of Russian early (in my opinion!): Non-market appearance, small, as a rule, bunch, medium-sized berries, high sensitivity to easy overload, simple taste, liquid flesh, favorite wasp variety. There are two obvious pluses: high complex stability and early maturity.Poskonin Vladimir Vladimirovich (Krasnodar)
... without any chemical treatments, it bears fruit fruitfully at the south side of the house. Growth power is above average, overloaded with the crop .... A bush normalized by the crop by the end of July gives ripe clusters. With mediocre care pulls 40-50 kg. .... This year, too, did not harbor. Before the 30-degree frosts he covered burlap vines on the tent trellis with burlap.kirpo (Vinnytsia region)
Early Russian is a reliable grape variety for growing in the central and northeastern regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. This unpretentious variety that cares for high and early harvests of sweet berries can be recommended to beginners for developing the skill of growing grapes.