Dukes (cherry-cherry hybrids): what is it and description of the variety Duke Miracle cherry

Many love cherries for its incomparable taste and aroma. Others like cherries, especially dark varieties with large, dense, sweet fruits. But today, dyuka - hybrids of cherries and cherries are in great demand. Dukes inherited the best qualities of their predecessors. Among the most popular varieties of dykes is the Miracle Cherry variety. To grow a healthy tree and collect high fruit yields, it is useful to know about the intricacies and characteristics of planting and caring for this crop.

Description and characteristics of cherry

To understand the features of dyukes, let’s go back two centuries. The name "duke" comes from the first hybrid Mau Duck (translated from English as "May Duke"), obtained in the nineteenth century in England from free pollination of cherries. This hybrid had unusual qualities: its fruits ripened very early, were large and sweet, like cherries, and he inherited a distinct cherry aroma from cherries.

It is interesting that the name "duke" is even more widespread in Russia than in Europe. In Russia, the first grade of duke was obtained by I.V. Michurin in 1888 on the basis of the Central Russian variety of Bel cherries and white Winkler cherries. It was at that time one of the most winter-hardy and frost-resistant hybrids of cherries and cherries, which is why it was called Krasa Severa. This variety grew well and regularly yielded crops in the Moscow region, the North-West region and even in some parts of Western Siberia, but flower buds often froze over it.

O. Ivanova, gardener-tester, Moscow region Magazine "Private household", No. 12, December 2017

Duke Miracle Cherry belongs to the varieties of the latest generation of dykes. It was obtained by crossing the Griot of Ostheim and Cherries Valery Chkalov. Srednerosloy, with a spreading crown - the tree looks more like a cherry. A characteristic feature of the variety is the early ripening of the fruit. Ripening period - from June 10 to 20, simultaneously with early varieties of cherries. Duke is very abundant fruiting. The first fruits of Miracle Cherry give in the second or third year after planting in a permanent place in the garden. The tree enters full fruiting at the age of 4–5 years.

Characteristics of the fruits of Miracle Cherry:

  • large-sized fruits weighing 9–10 g;
  • beautiful dark red, almost burgundy;
  • pulp of medium-density fruits, juicy;
  • the taste is dessert, sweet with a pleasant light acidity, there is a pronounced cherry aroma.

Photo Gallery: Miracle Cherry in spring and summer

Flowering dykes begin later than cherry, but earlier than cherry, so they need specific pollinators

In terms of productivity, large-fruited and taste qualities, dyuki surpass their parents - cherries and cherries

Miracle Cherry - a favorite treat with an exquisite taste of cherries and cherry aroma, attracts with its appearance

The main advantages inherent in the Miracle Cherry variety:

  • high yields, 12-15 kg of fruits from one tree;
  • large-fruited;
  • regular steady bearing;
  • high degree of drought tolerance;
  • increased resistance to dangerous fungal diseases coccomycosis and moniliosis;
  • good winter hardiness of the stem and average winter hardiness of the fruit buds.

The disadvantages of the variety include self-fertility. Trees bloom profusely, but the fruits either do not set at all or produce a very low yield. This property is characteristic of most dykes and requires the presence of pollinating trees on the site for cross-pollination.

Video: Duke - a hybrid of cherries

Features planting and growing dykes

In order for cherries to grow well and bear fruit, they must be carefully taken care of: in the spring, regularly prune, fertilize, water in the heat (especially on light sandy soils), thoroughly clean the weed and garden debris under the trees.

Miracle Cherry Dates

Since dykes are cherry-cherry hybrids, and cherries are cultivated mainly in the southern regions, frost resistance of dykes is lower than that of ordinary cherries. This limits the ability to grow Wonder Cherries in the northern regions. In the middle lane, mid April is considered the best time to land a duke. When the threat of spring frost passes, the seedlings are ready for planting. The development of cherry seedlings depends heavily on warming up the soil and the surrounding air: the temperature plus ten degrees is the boundary temperature, during which the vegetation processes begin and end. The plant goes into a dormant state when the temperature drops below plus ten degrees. Therefore, seedlings are best planted when the soil warms up above + 15ºС.

The second half of April is the best time for planting and transplanting garden fruit plants. And it, alas, is short: from thawing the soil to budding. Try not to miss out on these golden days, as spring novosady always take root better and are less prone to stress. Optimum air and soil temperatures at this time contribute to plant survival

V.S. Zakotin, scientist, agronomist, Moscow Region “Gardens of Russia” magazine, No. 4, April 2011

For the southern regions, it is recommended to plant seedlings in spring in late March or early April, or in autumn during October, a month before the onset of autumn cold weather.

Site preparation

The choice of the site most suitable for growing cherry duke, in many respects determines the future development of trees and obtaining good yields. The place for planting trees should be flat, open, with good sunlight throughout the day. If there are slopes, then they should be gentle, with a slope of not more than 5-8º. The presence of shade negatively affects the quality of the fruit, the fruiting stability and yield indicators. In middle latitudes, it is advisable to plant dyke seedlings in areas with a southern, southeastern or southwestern exposure. The presence of a high fence and buildings near the landing site creates a kind of barrier to protect young trees from the cold northerly winds. For the southern regions, the tree growing area should be oriented west, northwest or north. This will allow in hot summer days to avoid excessive drying of the soil and burn leaves. Lowland areas, especially with stagnant water and humid cold air, are undesirable for growing Wonder Cherry. Such conditions are detrimental to wood. High-level groundwater is also contraindicated - their bedding level should not exceed 1.5–2 m. Usually, when the subsoil waters are close (less than 2 m from the ground), cherries are planted on a low mound of 0.3–0.5 m.

The plot for growing Wonder Cherries should be flat, well-lit, without lowlands and steep slopes

In the case when the seedlings plan to plant in the spring, it is recommended to prepare pits for planting in the fall. A pit dug in size is filled with a mixture of extracted soil and mineral-organic fertilizers and left until spring. The use of nitrogen fertilizers in the fall should be abstained.

With autumn planting, a pit is prepared in advance in about a month. The best soils for growing dykes are chernozems, brown and forest soils, loams and sandy loams, well-heated, with a loose structure to ensure sufficient water and air permeability of the soil. If the soil is clay, crushed, heavy, to loosen it before planting, add sand, compost, peat, and rotted straw. The acidity of the soil is of great importance when growing cherry duke. Her indicator should be neutral, in the range (pH) of 6.5–7.0. If this indicator is higher, then before planting, the soil is deoxidized by the addition of wood ash or dolomite flour (wood ash 700–800 g / m², dolomite flour - 350–400 g / m²).

Selection of seedlings

If there are no own seedlings grown for planting, it is advisable to buy them in a nursery or fruit growing farms. For planting, one should choose annual seedlings that have several shoots, a well-developed root system and completely ripened wood. In order to avoid the purchase of wild game or poor-quality planting material, it is necessary to purchase only varietal root and grafted seedlings.

Photo gallery: selection of seedlings and their planting

The cherry-duke seedlings prepared for planting should be healthy, with a smooth clean bark and a developed root system

When planting, the upper fertile layer of soil from the pit is mixed with humus and fertilizers, and ground from the lower layer is covered with a pit to the top. After planting, make a trunk circle in the form of a hole, which is covered with mulch

To make sure that the tree is planted correctly, a rail is horizontally placed on the edges of the planting pit: the root neck of the seedling should be 5–7 cm higher or higher than the rail

The process of planting cherries

Before planting seedlings mark the site. It should be borne in mind that the distance between future adult trees should be at least 3-4 m, and between the rows of trees at least 5 m. Having marked the site, proceed to the preparation of planting pits. If the soil is fertile, the size of the pit can be from 80x80 cm to 90x90 cm, depending on the size of the root system. The depth of the pit is usually 40-50 cm. It is recommended that the size of the planting pit be increased by 50% if the soil is not fertile or heavy.

A few days before planting, the roots of seedlings should preferably be kept in water with root formation stimulants (Kornevin, Zircon). You can make a pink solution of potassium permanganate or potassium humate to destroy possible pathogenic bacteria or fungus. This pre-planting treatment of the roots is carried out if the seedlings have a weak or damaged root system (especially if the seedlings have an open root system).

Step-by-step landing process:

  1. Given the length and density of the roots of the seedling, prepare a hole of a suitable size. The upper, most fertile soil layer (about 20-30 cm high), when digging, leave on the edge of the pit.
  2. To mix organic and mineral fertilizers evenly: 2–3 buckets of rotted manure or compost, 1 kg of wood ash, 100 g of simple superphosphate (or 60 g of double), 80 g of potassium sulfate (or 40 g of potassium chloride) per well.
  3. Loosen the bottom of the pit to a depth of 8-10 cm and moisten the soil with 1 bucket (10 l) of room temperature water.
  4. After the water has been absorbed, lay the mineral-organic substrate and soil from the pit dumped onto the edge layer by layer in the pit. Fill the pit no more than 2/3. After that, thoroughly mix the entire soil mixture and slightly compact.
  5. Drive the future support of the seedling firmly into the center of the pit - a stake with a diameter of 5-7 cm, a length of 130-150 cm. This must be done before planting the seedling, and not vice versa. Around the support, pour a small mound of planting soil mixture.
  6. The seedlings immediately before planting need to trim all broken, rotten and moldy roots.
  7. In the pre-prepared mixture of fresh manure with powdered clay, dip the roots of the prepared seedling. The density of the mixture is approximately like thick sour cream.
  8. Across the pit to place the rail. Lean the seedling against the support so that the root neck (the place where the trunk goes into the roots) is 6-8 cm above or below the surface of the soil.
  9. Gently spread and distribute the roots of the seedling down the mound down.
  10. Gradually fill the roots with the remaining soil from the dump, periodically compacting it.
  11. When the roots are covered with soil about 15 cm, it is necessary to water the tree abundantly and fill the pit with earth to the top.
  12. Mulch the soil around the seedling with compost or humus with a layer of about 10 cm.
  13. With a soft braid, carefully tie the planted tree to the "eight" support.

Video: the process of planting cherries

An important point to keep in mind: almost all varieties of dykes are self-infertile and do not pollinate each other, therefore they need pollinators. If possible, one or two pollinating trees should be planted near several cherry dykes. Cherry and cherry are suitable as pollinators. Considering that the flowering periods of dyukes do not usually coincide with them, it is necessary to choose the right variety of trees for high-quality pollination. Cherry should be late, and cherry should be early. If there is no place for planting pollinators on the site, you can plant twigs of several varieties of cherries and cherries in the crown of the duke.

The best pollinators for Miracle Cherries are Molodezhnaya, Lyubskaya and Bulatnikovskaya cherries, Iput, Cherchonka, Yaroslavna cherries. Do not use cherries Krupnoplodnaya and Valery Chkalov as pollinators.

Watering and feeding dykes

Watering trees is one of the essential conditions for competent agricultural techniques for their cultivation. Cherry responds to watering by increasing productivity and enlarging fruits. Dukes, like all fruit crops, are not watered under the root, so as not to expose the root system and provoke tree diseases. For irrigation, two furrows with a depth of about 15–20 cm are formed according to the crown projection: the first is at a distance of 50 cm from the trunk, the next is also at a distance of 50 cm from the first. Given that dykes are drought tolerant plants, they tolerate underfilling better than waterlogging. As a result of excessive moisture, the soil under cherries is compacted, which leads to a violation of its natural aeration. Under the condition of regular rainfall in spring and summer, adult trees need abundant watering 4 times during the growing season:

  • immediately after flowering (simultaneously with top dressing);
  • when filling the fruit (approximately 15–20 days before their ripening);
  • moisture recharging (winter) watering in October after leaf fall.

During irrigation, from 3 to 6 buckets of water are applied under each tree so that the root layer of the soil is well saturated - 40 cm. Young seedlings of dykes are watered twice a week for the first 15-18 days after planting, then they go to watering once a week. Two buckets of water are enough for one seedling. After completely absorbing water, the soil under the cherry is mulched with compost, dry grass or peat. Trees should be watered early in the morning or in the evening hours after sunset. In addition to mulching, it is necessary to periodically loosen the soil within the trunk circle, as well as regularly remove weeds. For young trees, this should be done at least once a week.

Depending on the size of the tree, one or two furrows are formed for irrigation according to the crown projection. Alternatively, several small watering holes can be made in the trunk circle.

Video: cherry care

Provided that the landing pit was filled with a full range of organic and mineral fertilizers, dukes can not be fertilized in the next two to three years. Trees aged 3-4 years should not be overfed with fertilizers (especially organics), as this can cause excessive shoot growth to the detriment of fruiting. When applying root dressing, loosening the soil under cherries is necessary so that the roots have normal aeration and fertilizers are evenly distributed in the soil layer.

Table: feeding cherry duke with mineral and organic fertilizers

Top dressing period Root dressing Foliar top dressing
mineral

fertilizers

organic

fertilizers

mineral fertilizersorganic fertilizers
Amount of fertilizers per 1 tree
Early spring

(before blooming

kidney)

Urea or

ammonium nitrate

20–25 g per 10 liters of water

Manure rotted,

compost 5–8 kg

under digging

---
The end of May-

the beginning of June

(fruit ovary

---Urea (urea)

15 g per 5 l of water

-
Mid june

(fruit ripening)

Superphosphate 250 g +

potassium chloride

150 g per 35 l of water -

per 1 adult tree

or 2 seedlings

---Superphosphate 30 g

+ potassium sulfate

20 g - per 10 l of water

Mid septemberSuperphosphate 75 g +

potassium chloride 30 g

under digging

Manure rotted,

compost 3-4 kg / 1 m²

under digging

wood ash

1 liter can per 1 m²

--

Cropping and shaping the crown of Miracle Cherry

Duke Miracle Cherry is a hybrid of cherries and cherries, so he inherited their signs: the tree received average growth from cherries, and the location of branches from cherries. Flower buds are located, like a cherry - mainly on bouquet branches and annual shoots. If the duke is not formed appropriately, then its crown will have a narrow pyramidal shape with branches elongated upward, in contrast to the predominantly round crown of cherry. Vertically directed shoots of fruit trees adversely affect the fruiting process, reduce crop yields and complicate the process of fruit collection. To solve this problem, pruning of the main branches and fouling shoots is used.

The main purpose of pruning cherries is the formation of a strong stem and skeletal branches, timely rejuvenation of aging shoots, prolonging the intensity of fruiting and its active period, regulating growth, improving the quality of fruits. Pruning of dykes is done depending on the age of the tree: before the fruiting period begins - for the correct formation of the crown, after the cherry has entered the period of stable fruiting - to regulate tree growth and yield.

For Wonder Cherry, the following types of pruning are required:

  1. Formative. With its help, a crown of a certain type and size is created, the formation of skeletal and fouling branches occurs. It is used for young seedlings that are in the process of strong growth, and continues until the beginning of the fruiting period. For dykes up to the age of five, pruning is performed annually, after - if necessary. With this pruning, the foundation of the crown of skeletal branches is laid, on which fouling shoots subsequently grow. At the same time, regulatory trimming is performed. Its goal is to weaken the growth of the tree and accelerate fruiting.
  2. Regulatory (supporting). Allows you to save the size of the crown and maintain the best level of its lighting inside and out. As a result, an optimal ratio is created between active vegetation and fruiting of cherries. When the length of the shoots reaches 30 cm, the regulatory pruning is to create a balance between the number of vegetative and fruit branches.
  3. Anti-aging. This type of pruning stimulates the growth of overgrowing new shoots in dukes older than eight years. At the same time, the number of branches with flower buds increases, which allows to extend the productive age of the tree and helps to increase cherry productivity.
  4. Regenerative pruning is done when the tree is damaged by adverse conditions (illness, pests, frost) or in the absence of the necessary care. This pruning helps the plant return to normal growth and fruiting.

To create a harmonious healthy crown of cherries, remove all shoots below the skeletal branches, drooping shoots of the lower branches, thickening the crown and branches growing up

The basic principles of forming pruning young duke seedlings:

  1. The crown of the tree is formed according to a sparse-tier scheme.
  2. One-year-old cherry seedlings are pruned immediately after planting. Lateral shoots shorten up to 3-4 most evenly located buds. The central shoot (conductor) should be 10-15 cm above the growth point of the upper of the lateral shoots. If the seedling has buds ready to open, they must be removed. Shorten all the shoots down the trunk by 2/3 of the length.
  3. In the second year in the spring, all annual growths should be trimmed to the outer bud to avoid their growth vertically upwards.
  4. By the spring of the third year, 6–9 skeletal branches are formed on the site of previously shortened branches. They are cut in half, leaving 50-60 cm last year's growth. Side-by-side competing shoots shorten up to three buds. The branches vertically growing inside the crown are cut out completely so that they do not thicken the crown.

Video: Formative pruning duke

Cherry pruning is performed both in winter and in summer. The best time for cutting dykes is considered the end of winter and early spring - before budding. At the same time, the ambient temperature should be at least + 8–10ºС. It should be borne in mind that the delay with pruning greatly weakens young seedlings. Adult cherries can also be pruned in the first decade of June. Reducing the height of the tree can be achieved by trimming the upper part of the crown to the side branch. This operation should be carried out after the entry of trees into fruiting. Earlier pruning may enhance duke growth. Reducing the crown is carried out in the summer, combining it with the harvest.

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For young seedlings, for which there is still no thickening of the crown, pruning can be replaced by deflection of branches. To do this, strong, well-developed shoots that do not participate in the formation of skeletal branches, but can be used as fruit-bearing, deviate from the vertical by 45-60 degrees. Such a deviation allows you to slow down the growth of the tree and contributes to the growth of the branch with fruitful shoots. The most effective for enhancing fruiting is the deflection of skeletal branches of the first order at the age of two to four years. When branches are rejected, their straightness must be maintained. The most suitable time for this process is May-June.

Various methods are used to deflect the branches: they are fastened to the trunk or lower branch (Fig. 1, 2, 3), to a peg in the ground (Fig. 4) or to a cable stretched below (Fig. 5), and they also put a spacer between the branch and tree stump

Shelter of trees for the winter

Cherries-dyukov are characterized by good winter hardiness of the stem and average winter hardiness of fruit buds. Therefore, special events to prepare the trees for the winter season are not carried out.

Young trees of hybrids tend to give strong (80–120 cm) annual growths. Their upper part (30–40 cm) often does not mature, freezes in winter, and in the spring it has to be removed. Experienced gardeners advise pinching the tops of the shoots in the summer when they reach 60–80 cm. This contributes to the growth of shoots in the second half of summer. The crown becomes thicker, summer shoots (especially if the summer is dry and hot) have time to mature well, lignify and winter without noticeable frost damage. With a gradual decrease in air temperature, the crown of Miracle Cherry can withstand winter frosts to -30 ° C. Thaws in the winter-spring period with a subsequent decrease in temperature to minus 25ºС are more dangerous for her. This causes freezing of flower buds and leads to a decrease, and sometimes a complete lack of yield.

In order to avoid winter damage, at the end of July it is necessary to bend the upper part of the not yet lignified shoots with an arc in the direction of better lighting and secure with twine. This operation will help the timely maturation of annual growths and apical buds, which, in turn, will increase the winter hardiness of the tree, in addition, the fruiting of the plant will accelerate and the size of the crown will decrease.

G.M. Utochkin, Full Member of the Moscow Institute of International Relations, Chelyabinsk . Gardens of Russia Magazine, No. 1, March-April 2010

When preparing dykes for winter, a number of works should be carried out in the garden:

  1. The space under the trees is cleared of weeds, damaged fruits and leaves. The soil should be dug shallow with fertilizer.
  2. If necessary (if the autumn is dry), water-charging irrigation is carried out - 50-60 l (5-6 buckets) of water under one tree. After watering, the soil is loosened and mulched with compost or peat up to 10 cm thick.
  3. Tree trunks must be whitewashed with garden whitewash or a mixture of slaked lime with mullein. The whitewash height should reach the middle of the skeletal branches.
  4. The stamp of dukes is frost-resistant, so they do not shelter from frost. Stems and lower branches protect against damage by rodents. To do this, the trunk is neatly wrapped with a fine mesh. For young seedlings, mesh or agromaterial can be wound between the net and the trunk.

Autumn whitewashing of the cherry-duke trunk helps to avoid freezing during sudden winter thaws and prevents the pest larvae from wintering

Disease Diseases and Pests

Due to the combination of the signs of cherries and cherries, dykes are resistant to the main, most dangerous fungal diseases, and to the defeat of most insect pests. The development of fungus-resistant varieties of dykes is one of the most effective ways to solve the problem. Currently, modern varieties of this culture are known that have a fairly high resistance to infection by fungal infections. However, under adverse climatic conditions (rainy cold summers, winters with very severe frosts), insufficiently qualified care or the selection of a cherry variety that is not suitable for the region, in rare cases dykes can be affected by fungal diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to prevent these diseases.

Fungal diseases Miracle Cherries

Duke varieties are mostly resistant to such dangerous cherry diseases as moniliosis and coccomycosis. Occasionally, trees can be affected by claustosporiosis (hole blotch), cytosporosis, and anthracnose. But this is the exception rather than the rule, and with good tree care and competent agricultural technology, these diseases can be avoided. However, there is a real threat of other diseases that Wonder Cherry can be affected.

Table: Miracle cherry diseases, their symptoms and treatment

View

diseases

Cause of the disease and

related factors

Signs of illnessConsequences of the diseaseMeans of treatmentPreventive measures
Root

bacterial

fruit cancer

The disease is caused by bacteria

living in the soil and the remnants

affected by the disease

decayed roots.

Bacteria enter the root

cherry system

through her mechanical

damage.

Promotes Alkaline Disease

soil environment

and drought.

In the spring on the root neck and on all roots appear

growths. At first they

smooth as they grow

swell up. Autumn growths rot

and collapse

isolating new bacteria

Mostly affected

young seedlings.

Due to defeat

root system

growth slows down

and tree development.

After a few years, it dies.

After harvesting the soil under the dukes

treat Bordeaux

a mixture. To remove the growths on the roots,

then 2-3 minutes

withstand roots at 1%

copper sulfate solution

(100 g per 10 liters of water). Damaged parts

roots burn.

Regular watering

trees.

Alkalization Control

the soil.

Timely treatment

damaged roots

May larvae

beetle, wireworm.

Weed removal

and plant cleaning

residues.

Careful disinfection of the garden

formalin tool

or chloramine

Milky shine1. Non-parasitic form.

Causes disease

wood freezing in

the result of a lack of moisture

and nutrition deficiency

lime in the soil.

2. The parasitic form.

Cherry is infected with a fungus,

living in the roots and trunk.

1. In the middle of summer, green leaves change color to dirty

milk with

silver shine.

Leaves become stiff and brittle.

New shoots

stop growing. No fruit

tied up

and the ensuing ones fall off.

The color of the wood does not change.

2. The disease occurs

in the spring. Signs

leaf damage

and fruits are similar.

In addition, it turns brown and

wood dies away

Stump and branches.

Cameo-detection is observed.

1. Affected leaves fall off for 2-3 weeks

earlier than usual.

2. The disease begins

on separate shoots

then covers the whole tree. Under the influence of poisons

secreted by the fungus

for 3-4 years

cherry dies.

1. Regular watering of trees during

growing season

fertilizing with potash and phosphorus fertilizers, loosening and liming

the soil.

2. Branches with signs of defeat

cut and burn. Slices

disinfected with a 1% solution of Bordeaux

mixes and cover with oil

paint or tool

Runnet. All affected

pieces of wood are cut and burned.

1. Landing zoned

varieties of dyuk.

Increasing winter hardiness of trees.

Frost protection and

sunburn by

whitewash boles.

2. Timely termination

hollow, frost hole.

Treatment of frost wounds 1% copper or 3%

iron sulphate.

Whitewashing trunks and

branches of milk of lime (2 kg of lime per 10 liters of water).

Garden cutting

cook or oil paint. Destruction of diseased plant debris.

Photo Gallery: Cherry Duke fungal diseases

A distinctive feature of root cancer is multiple growths on the roots and root neck

Affected leaves have an unnatural lead-white with a metallic sheen.

With a parasitic form of milky sheen on the trunk of the duke, increased gumming is observed

In addition to the methods for preventing fungal diseases of cherry-duke indicated in the table, there is a traditional treatment of fruit trees from diseases by spraying before and after flowering with a 2% solution of Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate.

Wonder Cherry Insect Pests

Of the many pests affecting fruit trees, the Duke Miracle Cherry is susceptible only to the cherry mucous sawfly, cherry fly and aphid.

Table: Cherry Duke pests and control

Type of pestType of damage

of trees

Type of insecticideMethod and Period

tree processing

Mechanical destruction

pest

Cherry mucous

sawfly

Larvae eat cherry leaves, “scraping” tissue

on the top of the sheet.

Then the sawfly switches

on berries, damaging them

peel

1. Karbofos

(75 g per 10 liters of water),

Rovikurt (10 g per 10 l of water).

2. Spark-M from the tracks

(5 ml per 5 l of water) or

Spark DE (1 tablet

for 10 liters of water).

Fufanon, Novaction -

according to instructions

1. Spraying in July -

beginning of august.

2. Spraying off

larvae before and after

flowering after harvest

Autumn digging of the soil

in trunk circles

and row spacing

Cherry flyLarvae of eggs laid

in fruits, feed them

pulp. Damaged

the fruits darken, rot

and fall off

Lightning, Spark, Karate,

Inta Vir -

according to instructions

The first spraying -

in the middle of May

(ovary formation

by cherry).

Second spraying -

At the beginning of June

(start of ripening

fruit)

Deep digging soil

in trunk circles

early spring and autumn

after leaf fall.

Damaged and

mummified fruits

need to collect in the fall

and burn

Cherry

(black) aphids

Larvae and adults

aphids live and breed

on top of the shoots

sucking juices from young

foliage and ovary.

Damaged leaves

curl up

turn brown and fall off.

Insect contributes

leaf formation

and shoots of soot black cherry

fungus that upsets

normal process

photosynthesis plants

and slows down its growth and development.

1. Contact insecticides

Novaction, Karbofos,

Kemifos.

2. Intestinal insecticides

action spark, confidor,

Inta Vir, Actellik

3. Systemic insecticides

Aktara, Commander

4. Biological insecticides

Fitoverm, Spark-Bio, Actarin, Biotlin

Spraying according

instructions

Biological insecticides are used in the spring before

flowering and after it,

as well as during

fruit set

Wash leaves with water from

hose under

strong pressure.

Spraying places

clusters of aphids on

shoots of soapy water

with the addition of various

infusions and decoctions with sharp

smell: infusions dry

orange peel

tobacco leaves, pods

hot pepper, decoctions

tops of solanaceous crops or wormwood

Photo Gallery: Damage to Cherry by Insects

The sawfly larva eats the top layer of the leaf, skeletonizing it to the base

Feeding on the pulp of the fruit, the larva causes its decay, the damaged fruit deteriorates and falls

Aphids suck juices from young shoots, leaves and ovaries and spreads soot fungus

Protective measures against cherry flies are as follows: digging the soil in near-stem circles 15–20 cm in autumn and spring, full harvest. Spraying with any permitted insecticide is mandatory: the first - 10-12 days after the fly, the second - 10-12 days later.

T. Alexandrova, fruit grower, agronomist . Household Farm Magazine, No. 2, February 2010

Video: Cherry Fly Miracle Cherry Processing

One of the measures to combat aphids is the fight against ants. They spread aphids on fresh shoots, settle them there and feed on the bed - sweet aphid secretions. There are a number of ways to get rid of ants in the garden. You can pour boiling water into the anthill or spray it with the Absolute insecticide. A good effect is also achieved by installing sticky hunting belts on the cherry stem. Climbing up the trunk, ants fall on a sticky surface and lose their ability to move. But in addition to the harm that ants cause by breeding aphids, they bring certain benefits, being the orderlies of the garden. In order not to disturb the ecological balance, you can try to simply move the anthill out of the site.

Video: environmental aphids

In the event that these methods of controlling aphids were insufficient or its colonies are too numerous, take radical measures - spraying with insecticidal drugs. These include means of contact (instantaneous) action, intestinal action and systemic drugs. Systemic insecticides are considered the most effective, they have a long duration (from two weeks to one and a half to two months, because they penetrate into the tissues of plants gradually), as well as resistance to washing off.

You can not use these funds during the flowering of cherries (this can lead to the destruction of pollinating insects) and later than a month before harvesting.

The most safe include biological insecticides - Fitoverm, Iskra-Bio, Actarin. Their action is purposeful and affects only certain types of insect pests. Spraying with these drugs is used in the spring before flowering and after it, as well as during fruit setting.

Video: chemical processing of cherries from aphids

The very first treatment of dykes, for the destruction of overwintered pests that have not yet awakened, is recommended to be carried out in late March or early April, before the sap flow begins. Processing is carried out by spraying the trees with a 7% solution of urea (urea) - 700 g per 10 liters of warm water. The second spraying is carried out in the stage of the "green cone" (the beginning of the budding of the kidneys).

Spraying should be done only at a positive air temperature - at least ten degrees.

Collection, storage and use of the Miracle Cherry harvest

Variety Miracle Cherry refers to early ripening, the fruits ripen in the second decade of June. Productivity of the variety is quite high, from 12-15 kg of tasty, sweet, juicy fruits are harvested from one tree. Like most varieties of dykes, Wonder Cherry is a universal variety and is of interest both for fresh use and for processing. Fruits are subject to quick freezing, high-quality juices, preserves, jams, wines and liquors are made from them. Also demanded are the products of gardeners in the confectionery industry.

Photo Gallery: Using the Wonder Cherries in Cooking

Freshly picked cherry - the most delicious and healthy

Cherry jam is considered to be classic and especially revered

In the summer heat there is nothing nicer than refreshing cherry juice

Favorite delicacy of children and adults - delicate, slightly sour ice cream

Refined taste and aroma gives sweet and sour cherry to desserts and confectionery

Frozen cherries do not lose their taste during the year

For fruit crops, there are two degrees of maturity - removable and consumer:

  • at removable maturity, the growth of fruits and the accumulation of organic substances are completed, they become suitable for transportation, technical processing or long-term storage, but have not yet acquired the taste qualities completely characteristic of the variety;
  • consumer maturity occurs when the fruits acquire the color characteristic of the variety, aroma and the best taste;

In cherries, the removable and consumer maturity practically coincide.

For further transportation, cherry fruits are harvested in 4–5 days, for technical processing - 2-3 days before full maturity, and for on-site sale - in a state of consumer maturity.

For immediate consumption, the fruits are removed at full maturity, for canning - 3 ... 5 days, for transportation - 5 ... 7 days before full maturity. Cherries can be stored for 10 days from the date of collection at a temperature of -0.5 ... 0ºС and a relative humidity of 90%. Frozen cherries are stored from 9 to 12 months. For the production of dried fruits, varieties with a high dry matter content in the fruits are selected.

Yu.V. Trunov, doctor S.-kh. Sciences, Professor Fruit growing, 2012

The main representatives of the varieties of cherry duke

In addition to the Miracle Cherry variety, the family of dukes is represented by a rather large variety of varieties. They have many common qualities, such as high winter hardiness, excellent taste characteristics of the fruit, resistance to major diseases, large-fruited and good productivity. The difference is that in some dukes during winter colds only flower buds can be damaged, while in others - also skeletal and fouling shoots. A different degree of frost resistance limits the regions of cultivation of this crop: in the northern regions, dykes do not ripen and poorly bear fruit.

Table: characteristics of the main varieties of cherry duke

Name

varieties

Dimensions

wood

Characteristic

fruit

Term

ripening

fruit

Productivity, kg

from one tree

Winter hardiness Resistance to

diseases and

pests

Grade Advantages Variety disadvantages
The size,

weight

Flavoring

qualities

Duke NurseMiddle layer

3-4 m

Large

7.5-8 g

Sweet, great dessertMiddle, end of June-beginning of JulyTall, regular,

10-15

High by the tree

and flower buds

Resistant to coccomycosis, moniliosisWinter hardiness of a tree; large-fruited; high palatability of fruitsProductivity is less in comparison with other dyukas
Duke HopeVigorous, 5–6 mLarge

5.8 g

Sweet-sour taste with cherry aromaMiddle, end of June-beginning of JulyTall, regular,

16.4 - 21.6

High in a tree, in flowering buds, above averageResistant to coccomycosis, moniliosisLarge dessert fruits; high productivity; disease resistanceStrong growth; self-infertility
Duke IvanovnaMiddle layer

2.5-4 m

Large

8-9 g

Sweet Sour DessertMid-Late, Mid-JulyTall, regular,

15–20

The highest among dukesResistant to coccomycosis, moniliosisGeneral winter hardiness of a tree; large-fruited; high palatability of fruits;

high and regular yield

Not identified
Duke Griot MelitopolVigorous, 4.5–5 mLarge

6.9 g

Sweet and sour, refreshingMiddle, third decade of JuneTall, regular,

20–25

High in a tree, in flower buds - mediumResistant to coccomycosis, moniliosisWinter hardiness of a tree; large-fruited; high palatability of fruitsStrong growth; self-infertility
Duke ToyVigorous, 5–6 mLarge

8.5 g

Sweet and sourMiddle, end of June-beginning of JulyTall, regular,

45–72

The average tree, in flowering buds is below averageResistant to coccomycosis, moniliosisLarge-fruited; very high productivity; drought tolerance;

disease resistance

Self-infertility; insufficient winter hardiness

Video: presentation of varieties of cherry duke

The best pollinators for varieties of cherry duke:

  1. Duke Nurse - Cherries Meeting, Podbelskaya; varieties of cherries Krupnoplodnaya, Valery Chkalov.
  2. Dyuk Ivanovna - Cherries Shalunya, Podbelskaya; varieties of cherries Large-fruited, Franz Joseph.
  3. Duke Nadezhda - Kent's Cherries, Black Large, Lada; varieties of cherries Valery Chkalov, Large-fruited.
  4. Duke Griot Melitopol - cherries Waiting, Meeting, Podbelskaya and cherries varieties Vinka and Valery Chkalov.
  5. Duke Toy - minx cherries, Samsonovka and cherries Valery Chkalov, Large-fruited, Franz Joseph.

Reviews

I will not talk about Russian varieties now, but in Ukraine they are very good: Meeting, Toy, Miracle Cherry, Favorite. Cherries Alpha, Donetsk giant, Erdie Botherme and others. By the way, Podbelskaya also has a clone - Griot Podbelsky. Duke and it should be tastier, more productive and large-fruited - because it is a hybrid of cherries with cherries.

Stanislav N., Kiev

I had vaccinations of cherries (Iput, Fatezh) on Vladimir's cherry in the crown - the tree “burned”, but they managed not to get sick. But everything had to be removed. There is also a Miracle Cherry Duke tree, but the taste is intermediate, there is no sourness of cherry and not as sweet and juicy as cherries ... Youth Cherry has the same taste (as if also mixed with sweet cherry).

Boris 12, Moscow

Bees pollinate the wonderful cherry, there will be no problems with pollination in Donetsk, almost everyone has sweet cherries in the garden. In rare years, because of the weather, bees can stop flying, and then it is very good if a pollinator variety grows nearby. Nearby - it is up to 10 meters, the closer, the better. For pollination, tree planting does not depend on the side of the world, it is more important here where the wind will blow from.

Cherry, Ukraine

To coccomycosis varieties with varying degrees of resistance is complete. But this is not very relevant, if only one variety resistant to moniliosis would be a gift. I have the only duke growing - Miracle Cherry, a young tree, the first flowering was. Last year, against a frantic infectious background (15 meters away, all the neighboring red cherries from moniliosis) did not get sick, gave several berries. Nearby Julia was not sick either. I think the future is for dukes ...

Evgeny Polyanin, Kamyshin, Volgograd Region

Wonder cherry - a great choice! Wonder cherry blossoms along with early cherries, which pollinate it well, but there is an exception - Valery Chkalov, for example. Miracle Cherry itself cannot pollinate anyone; its pollen is sterile. Neighbors do not grow cherries, she herself would have found a pollinator :)? According to pollinators, here is a quote from the author of the variety: “The best pollinators are sweet cherry varieties Donetsk ugolok, Donchanka, Yaroslavna, Homestead, Sister, Annushka and others. The exception is Valery Chkalov, yellow Drogan, Krupnoplodnaya, Farewell and Valeria (L. I. Taranenko, 2004). ”

Ptichka, Ukraine

Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of dyukas, the characteristics of varieties and the features of caring for this crop, it is not difficult to choose the right pet for your garden. The main thing is that healthy trees give joy in the spring - the aroma of flowers, and in the summer - luxurious fruits. Even a not very sophisticated gardener can grow such a tasty and beautiful Miracle on his plot of land.

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