Dogwood planting, especially growing in the regions of Russia and Ukraine
Dogwood is a perennial tree-like shrub that is grown not only in the south, but closer to the north of Russia. The prevalence of this culture is understandable. Eating berries and infusions of them normalizes high blood pressure, strengthens the walls of blood vessels and improves digestion.
Dogwood landing rules
Dogwood is a plant distributed mainly in the southern part of Russia - in the Crimea and the Caucasus, although new varieties grow in the northern regions. They are resistant to frost and can withstand temperatures up to -30 ° C. In colder winters near the shrub, the ends of the twigs can freeze.
Dogwood - a tall tree-like shrub-longevity
General recommendations to gardeners
For planting, you need to choose a bright and spacious place, where the nearest shadow source will be at least 5 meters. But if the region is very hot in the summer, then it is better for the shrub to provide partial shade by planting it among the trees.
Groundwater should be deeper than 1.5 meters. The soil is suitable calcareous, and although cornel will grow on acidic soil, it will not affect its development for the better.
Another feature of the planting is the number of bushes. Since the cornel blooms very early, at an air temperature of + 12 ° C, and the bees do not fly at this time, pollination occurs cross-wind. To better tie the berries, you need to have 2-3 bushes on the site, at a distance of 3-5 m.
Dogwood blooms early when the bees are not flying yet, therefore it is pollinated by the wind
In any climatic conditions, six months before planting, they dig a place under the bush to a depth of 50-60 cm, choosing the roots of perennial weeds, especially wheatgrass and bindweed. They make organic and mineral fertilizers. About 1 kg of manure is enough per 1 m2. In the fall, green manure is planted: peas, winter cereals, and in the spring - vetch or fatselia with the subsequent incorporation of green mass into the soil.
Planting dogwood is preferable to the first frost.
How to plant and grow a bush: useful tips - video
In the fall, a landing pit is sure to be prepared. Then by spring, the earth will settle and become saturated with spring waters. After winter, the plant wakes up early enough, and it needs to be planted before the buds open. In the southern regions this is mid-February, in Central Russia - the first half of March.
Seedlings of two years old, 1–1.5 m high, with a stem diameter of about 2 cm, take root well. They should have 3-5 skeletal branches and a well-developed root system. It is better to choose seedlings with a lump of land where they grew before.
Dogwood seedlings are better to take two years of age, from the nursery of your area
Dogwood landing pattern
In a hot climate, dogwood is best planted in partial shade of tall trees. Each bush should have an area of 4 * 4-6 * 6 m. More frequent planting will complicate the processing of plants, harvesting fruits and pollination.
In the southern regions, dogwood is best grown in partial shade of tall trees.
Several ways to plant a bush
For breeding dogwood, planting is most often used by seedlings that bear fruit already for 2-3 years. For comparison, the bushes grown from seed form an ovary only for 8–10 years, in addition, they do not always preserve the properties of the parent tree. There are other, vegetative methods of propagation of dogwood: layering, vaccinations, green cuttings.
Planting dogwood seedlings
- At a place chosen for planting a cornel, dig a hole up to 80 cm in depth and width. The excavated soil must be decomposed into two heaps: the upper part of the soil and the lower. If the soil was fertilized six months before planting, nothing needs to be added. If soil preparation has not been carried out, then mineral (100 g of nitrogen and 200 g of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers) or organic fertilizers are applied to the bottom of the pit and thoroughly mixed with the ground.
The landing pit is prepared in advance, introducing humus and mineral fertilizers into it
- Before planting, inspect the seedling: if the open roots are dried, they need to be soaked in water for about 2 hours.
Before planting, open roots are best left in the water for 2 hours.
- In the center of the pit, a hill of fertile land is poured. A stake is driven in next to tie a bush. It is important to place it from the side where the wind mainly blows. The seedling is placed in a hole, leaving the root neck 3-4 cm above ground level.
Sapling roots are necessarily straightened when planting, make sure that they do not bend
- Fill the plant with soil removed from the pit, pour 2-3 buckets of water. After settling the soil, mulch the near-stem circle with humus or dry earth. Tie a seedling to a peg.
Sometimes it is not possible to plant several varieties of dogwood nearby for cross-pollination. Then, 2-3 seedlings of various varieties are placed in one pit. This is done in the usual way, then the trunks are intertwined. So on the bush there will be branches of various varieties that are perfectly pollinated. Sometimes between the seedlings put an iron stake, braiding it with trunks.
We grow a bush from seed
Cornel bone is planted to breed new varieties. You will see seedlings in about 800 days, that is, only in the second year.
Wild dogwood species are propagated by the seed method, on the seedlings of which cultivars are then inoculated
It is noted that seeds from unripe fruits germinate after 6–7 months. A method of accelerated dogwood cultivation was proposed by Svetlana Nikolaevna Litvinenko. She peeled the berries, took out the seeds and treated them with a 2% sulfuric acid solution for three days. After this procedure, they were sown in a sandbox to a depth of 2-3 cm and constantly moistened for six months. By spring, the first shoots appeared. Of course, it was not 100%, but they sprouted quickly.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Further care of the seedlings is usual: to prevent drying out, to shade from the hot summer rays, periodically weed weeds, mulch the soil. In the first year, seedlings will grow only 4 cm above ground level. By the second year by 15 cm, then they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Most often, wild dogwood species are grown in a seed way, on which seedlings are then grafted on cultivated varieties.
Propagate dogwood with green cuttings.
Dogwood is well propagated by green cuttings, which are cut at the end of July from 5-6-year-old bushes and older. It is important to take a new shoot at least 15 cm long.
- A section on the shrub is done from below, at a distance of 1 cm from the bud, obliquely, the leaves are removed and the stalk is placed in a 3% heteroauxin solution for up to 12 hours.
- In the shade, prepare a small area for rooting cuttings with fertile soil and fill it with 10 cm well-washed sand.
- Cuttings are planted in sand at an angle of 45 ° and watered.
- Cover the cuttings with a film so that between the top and the coating there is an air gap of up to 20 cm.
- Keep the temperature in the greenhouse around + 25 ° C, if it rises above, ventilate.
- Periodically watered the cuttings by sprinkling so that the sand remains moist, and the water does not erode the roots.
- After 3 weeks, the cuttings take root, and they begin to harden, periodically raising the film for ventilation, first for several minutes, then for several hours a day and after 2 weeks it is completely removed. Cuttings at this time are fed with a liquid solution of ammonium nitrate at the rate of 30 g per bucket of water. They can be planted in a permanent place next fall.
On average, in 5 weeks you can get seedlings from cuttings that are ready for planting next fall
Transplanting a bush to a new location
Small dogwood growths sometimes have to be transplanted. Of course, it will not be possible to transplant an old tree without consequences, but it is quite possible to divide a young plant and at the same time to relocate to a new place. It is best to transplant and divide the bush in the fall, 1 month before frost, while the soil is still warm and soft. They carefully dig it out, trying to keep the maximum number of roots. Since the root system of the dogwood lies at a depth of about 40 cm, it is not very difficult to transplant it. All old branches and roots of the plant are cut, leaving good and healthy; a large bush can be cut into 2-3 parts. Planted in the same way as an ordinary seedling.
How to plant and grow dogwood in the regions
Many vacationers in the Crimea fall in love with this berry and want to grow it in their plots throughout Russia and the near abroad. For this, new varieties are being developed that are capable of bearing fruit even in Siberia.
Dogwood landing in the south of Russia (Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, Stavropol)
In Volgograd and at its latitude, dogwood survives well and bears fruit regularly, although there remains a risk of freezing of shoots during spring cold weather. Therefore, it is better to grow it in a bush form, rather than a tree, so that in the first years you can hide from frost.
The dogwood variety Volgogradsky grows in a bush up to 3 meters in height, ripens in August
Variety Volgograd grows in compact bushes with erect shoots. Leaves are ovate, pointed, flowers are bright yellow, in bunches, fruits of a cherry hue, elongated oval. Dogwood flowering period is April, ripening is August-September. Productivity is high, resistant to disease.
By trimming the shrub, you can create decorative shapes and diversify the landscape of the site.
Dogwood landing in central Russia
Closer north to the heat-loving culture, which is dogwood, shoots often freeze out according to the level of snow, and because of early flowering, it is not pollinated enough by bees. For cultivation in the central regions, zoned varieties are suitable:
- Vladimirsky (high-yielding variety with large dark maroon berries weighing up to 8 g, which ripen in late August and early September);
- Vydubitsky (high-yielding, mid-season variety, dark red berries);
- Elena (an early frost-resistant variety, medium-sized berries, ripen in early August);
- Firefly (large-fruited variety with red-black berries, high yield, ripens in the second half of August).
Dogwood berries ripen for a long time, so it is better to purchase early ripe varieties for central Russia.
In the middle lane and in Siberia, dogwood varieties zoned here better take root
Dogwood landing in the Urals and Siberia
When planting dogwood in Siberia, you should choose the lightest areas, without a shadow. Under local conditions, it is better to grow it in stanza form. In the spring, low branches bend to the ground and sprinkle with soil. They make small trenches in the soil and place year-old shoots in them. The top is cut off so that the main forces go to the formation of roots. By the fall, the escape will take root. Separate it from the main bush, and you will get a seedling ready for planting. This method allows the plant to bloom immediately after snow melts: in late April and early May.
It takes about 100 days to ripen the fruit, only in September the berries begin to pour, and often they simply do not ripen due to the onset of cold weather.
Growing dogwood in a stlan form will protect the plant from freezing shoots
Another option for growing a frost-resistant plant is to plant seedlings of seeds. A dogwood planted in this way blooms only after 8-10 years, then the fruits tied to the bush must be harvested and sown again. The second generation of dogwood will be already more resistant to frost than the first. Then you can sow the seeds obtained from the berries of the second generation of dogwood, and grow bushes even more adapted to frost. From them you can take cuttings and layering for further propagation.
That is how in the suburbs appeared the dogwood garden of Vladimir Vasilievich Nikolaev. He solved the problem with bees simply: he placed a hive in the insulated attic, and in early spring the bush was pollinated.
Dogwood landing in Ukraine
Alkaline soils of the south of Ukraine are very suitable for growing dogwood, and thanks to multiple over-sowing, the shrub perfectly bears fruit throughout the country. Near Kiev-Pechersk Lavra wild old plants are found, whose age is already more than 100 years.
The only problem for growing dogwood in the country is planting material, since not every nursery sells seedlings. Inoculating a plant is no more difficult than with an apple tree or pear.
The best varieties for growing in Ukraine are:
Dogwood varieties for growing in Ukraine - photo gallery
- Kizil Lukyanovsky is considered one of the best varieties - due to the high yield and taste of berries
- The cornel berries of the Gentle variety have a very sweet flesh and a strong aroma
- The fruits of dogwood varieties Coral remind plum
- Amber berries can ripen at home after harvest in August
Dogwood is a healthy berry worthy of growing in any garden. The heat-loving shrub has spread widely in the southern regions, but gradually conquers more northern gardens.