Do-it-yourself trellis for grapes: how to make supports under the vineyard
Few gardeners resist the temptation to grow a wonderful sunny berry - grapes on their plot. After all, fruit vines, which include grapes, successfully develop and bear fruit even in the middle lane. However, in order to get a good crop, the plant needs to create favorable conditions. He needs space for growth, adequate lighting, water, and, of course, the support that the liana could cling to. Grape trellis prevents sagging vines and performs a number of other useful functions. For example, it helps to create a shadow where it is needed, and just decorates the area. Learn how to make such a useful design with your own hands.
Grape growing practice
Traditionally, grapes are grown in the southern regions: here the plant does not need shelter in the winter. In the south, and trellis is not always used. For example, in Central Asia and the Middle East, vines are simply placed on the surface of the soil. America and Europe are characterized by an unsupported standard culture. Often in the Caucasus, a large tree is simply used as a support, around which grape lashes are placed.
But with the development of technologies for growing this berry, as well as with the improvement of methods of protection against frosts, the plant began to actively spread to the north. The supports supporting the grape’s strength for abundant fruiting have not become superfluous. The principles of the structure of the supporting structure depend on several factors.
Of course, such a young plant does not yet need trellises, but it should already be planted taking into account the fact that this design has enough space
- landing schemes;
- plant varieties;
- technologies used pruning.
Given these circumstances, they select suitable trellises.
If grapes are first planted on the site, it is not necessary to immediately use stationary trellises, it will be enough to build temporary supports. But with the installation of a stationary structure, it is not recommended to tighten. In the third year from the planting of the plant, you can expect the first crop. By this time, the bush itself must be fully formed, and its root system reaches a fair amount. If construction of the trellis is started during this period, this can adversely affect the plant.
Choose a place for the vineyard
It should be understood that trellis is not a temporary structure. It is installed for many years. So, the choice of place for the vineyard should be approached responsibly. Find a free area on the site, well lit by the sun. Rows of supports should be oriented in the server-south direction. This method allows to achieve uniform illumination of the plant throughout the daylight hours.
These trellises are a prime example of how you can use the empty space between the rows. As you can see, it is densely planted
The necessary gap between the rows cannot be less than 2 meters. If the plot is small and we are faced with the task of using its entire space as efficiently as possible, row spacing can be used, for example, for planting vegetables. Here are just the design of the trellis in this case, you should use a single-plane.
Vine Support Structures
Tapestries come in the following designs:
Bushes can be located each at its support or in a row, when several plants are oriented to one support. You can build several rows, but it should be remembered that in one row there should be only bushes of one variety. Different grape varieties often require different care, and with close planting it can be difficult.
In addition to its main task - supporting the vines, the trellis can also perform a decorative function. She decorates the plot and creates a romantic atmosphere.
Single Plane Vertical Trellis
This support is called single-plane because the plant attached to it will develop in one plane. This type of trellis is also different, which we will talk about a little later. Each of the varieties of supports has its own advantages. Outwardly, they are several columns, between which a wire is horizontally stretched.
To build a single-plane trellis you do not need to buy a lot of materials. Just a few pillars and wire provide reliable support
Advantages and disadvantages of construction
This is a relatively inexpensive design that is easy to install. On it, the plant is well ventilated, nothing will prevent its pruning. Grapes placed in one plane are easy to shelter for the winter. And between the rows of supports you can grow vegetables or flowers.
However, it is problematic to form powerful plants with several sleeves in one plane: there is a danger that plantings will thicken. In addition, the trellis area does not allow to place many vines.
Materials required for work
To build your own trellis for grapes with your own hands, you will need the following material:
Pillars can be from different materials. For example, steel, reinforced concrete, wooden. The height of the future structure depends on the length of the pillars. For a personal plot, the height above the soil of 2 meters is considered optimal, but in practice there are trellises up to 3.5 meters.
You can use poles from different materials: metal, wood, and concrete are suitable for this purpose. It is important that they are reliable, because the structure will be in operation for a long time.
The wire is best used in galvanized steel rather than copper or aluminum, because it is copper and aluminum products that most often become the prey of metal hunters in the winter, when the owners do not live in the country. The optimum wire thickness is 2-3 mm.
We build a single-plane trellis
A single-plane trellis needs to be arranged in a row with an interval of 4-6 meters. Since the main load will be at the beginning and end of the row, it is for these supports that the strongest pillars are chosen. Additional reliability will be given to them by wire extensions or slopes, allowing to redistribute the load.
Pillars in a row can have a diameter of 7-10 cm, but it is better to make the extreme supports more massive. They should be dug into the ground to a depth of not less than half a meter. If a tree is chosen as the material for the pillars, the places of contact of the wood with the ground must be secured. For this, a 3-5% solution of copper sulfate is used, in which the columns must be aged 10 days. This will protect your structure from decay.
It is not recommended to treat the pillars with antiseptics or special impregnations, since aggressive liquids can damage the roots of the grapes. If the poles are metal, their lower part should be covered with bitumen, which protects the metal from corrosion.
When we choose the height of the structure, it must be taken into account that the posts will be deepened into the ground by half a meter, so their length should be equal to or greater than 2.5 m
The next stage of work is pulling the wire. If there are several rows, the bottom should be located about 40 cm from the ground. The clusters should not touch the ground, and under their weight the wire can be deformed, so the recommended distance should not be ignored. The next row can be pulled at a distance of 35-40 cm from the previous one. Often summer residents are limited to three rows, although a trellis with four or five rows is considered the most effective.
The wire needs to be fixed as securely as possible. Depending on the material of the pillars, wire rings, nails or metal staples are suitable for this purpose. Some of the nuances of building a single-plane support can be found in the video:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Varieties of single-plane trellises
We will consider several types of supports to choose the one that is optimal for your household.
You can make an option with a double wire. A distinctive feature of this design is the method of fastening the wire. At the extreme poles, crossbars are strengthened, between which the wire is pulled. Thus, a corridor is created along one plane, the wire in which is stretched both on the right and on the left.
Here so schematically it is possible to present the design of a single-plane trellis with a visor. The presence of a visor allows you to increase the useful area of the support without increasing its height
Another option is a trellis with a visor. Vertical trellis gets a continuation directed to the side. Several additional wires are pulled onto it. Thanks to this design, the usable area, the possibility of ventilation and lighting are increased, and the care of grapes becomes easier.
Double wire trellis, like any other design, also has its followers. The choice of support model always depends on the specific conditions of its subsequent operation.
The T-shaped model is also popular. The height of the supports for this model does not exceed 150 cm. The wire on them is fixed in pairs: two rows on the upper ledges of the trellis on the right and left with a distance of 50 cm and two rows on the lower, also on the sides - 25 cm of the gap.
The advantages of the model is that young shoots do not need to be tied up: they appear inside the corridor and independently cling to the supports.
And finally, the last option is a trellis with a dangling increase. With this design, the garter of the stem is made to the supports. The growth hangs down.
The gain is on the upper platform with several rows of wire located horizontally
How to provide protection for cover varieties?
If the vine is sheltered for the winter, it is best to use the tunnel method. To do this, a protective film or roofing material is thrown through the lower wire, forming a kind of protective niche.
Single-plane constructions are used mainly for covering grape varieties, because it is quite simple to tunnel the vine on such a trellis
If it is planned to cover the grapes with slate or baskets, it is better to initially shift the columns from the base of the vine by 40 cm. Then the roots will also suffer less when digging holes under the columns, and it will be easier to cover the plants.
Double Plane Grape Trellis
In two planes, the support for the vines can also be installed in various ways. To make a suitable support for country grapes with your own hands, you need to have an idea of all the possible options, then to choose the best.
This is a two-plane trellis, which is intended for non-covering grape varieties and allows you to grow quite powerful abundant fruiting plants
Varieties of two-plane trellis
Supports in two planes are:
- Direct. The structure of the structure includes two parallel planes located next to each other.
- V-shaped. The same two planes are placed obliquely - at an angle to each other.
- Y-shaped. The lower part of the structure is one plane, and then the planes diverge at an angle of 45-60 degrees to each other.
- Y-shaped with growth that hangs. The design is similar to a single-plane model with a visor, only visors are on each of the planes, they are directed to the sides opposite to the central axis. The base of the structure is Y-shaped.
Thanks to a more powerful design on such supports, it is possible to grow varieties with active growth. As a result, the yield per unit area increases. The design allows the clusters to be in shelter and not to suffer from direct rays of the sun or from the wind.
This Y-shaped design is particularly popular for the successful combination of the advantages of a single and two-plane trellis: it is well ventilated and illuminated, allowing you to keep branched powerful plants
Of course, this structure is more complex than a single-plane one. And the materials on it will need almost twice as much. In addition, mounting it is not so easy. And this design is used mainly for non-covering varieties.
How exactly do a two-plane grape support can be found in the video:
We build a V-shaped two-plane design
Consumption of material is based on one three-meter row of trellis. If desired, you can make several rows, respectively increasing the amount of material used.
So we need:
- 4 metal pipes of 2.5 meters each;
- crushed stone and cement;
- 30 meters of wire;
- wooden pegs for marking;
- chalk and tape measure.
The length of our structure will be 3 meters and a width of 80 cm. We outline such a rectangle in the place chosen for the vineyard. We’ll drive pegs into its corners. In the place where we have the pegs, you need to dig holes. The width of each pit is 30cm, and the depth is 40-50cm. We will insert pipes into the resulting pits, the lower part of which is treated with bitumen.
As a result of our work, such a V-shaped design should be obtained. Its construction took about twice as much materials as a single-plane trellis
It turns out that at the base of the structure, the distance between the pipes is 80 cm. We divide their upper ends 120 cm from each other. We fix the position of the pipes with gravel, and then pour the diluted cement into the pits. Work can only be continued after the cement has completely hardened.
Now you can pull the wire. The lowest string should be at a distance of 50-60 cm from the surface of the earth. If it is assumed that the clusters of grapes will be very large, the distance from the soil can be increased. The remaining rows should be spaced 40-50cm apart. You can fix the wire using special hooks. It is not only aesthetically pleasing, but reliable.
If the poles are made of wood, it is very convenient to use such wire fasteners: they help extend the life of the wire
Decorative trellis for non-covering varieties
If non-covering grape varieties will be grown on the site, you can use decorative supports of the arbor, arched, bowl-shaped and other decorative types for these purposes. You can make them from various materials, but the easiest way is from wood.
Decorative trellis with grapes can create a shadow where it is needed. But you need to wait until the grapes grow
How to make such a trellis can be found in the video:
Of all the trellis designs presented in this article, it is difficult to single out one to call it the most convenient and reliable. Each option has its own supporters. The choice depends on many factors, and you have to do it yourself. We hope that we have provided you with enough information to make it error-free. Build a trellis with your own hands, and the grapes will delight you with a plentiful harvest for many years.