Diseases and pests of redcurrant: treatment and prevention
On the garden plot, currant bushes from the moment of bud opening to maturation of lacquer-red clusters are threatened by host of pests and pathogens. Sometimes you think about what efforts it is worth to grow a healthy crop without losses. You have to choose: either consistently and stubbornly fight insect pests and pathogens, or immediately buy seedlings of varieties resistant to diseases.
Treatment and prevention of diseases of red currant
The gooseberry family, to which redcurrant belongs, has much in common, including disease. Plants are most often affected by fungal viral infections. And experienced gardeners recommend approaching the treatment issue strategically: to process not only individual affected, but all other bushes on the site.
It is important for the gardener to recognize the signs of the disease in the initial stage before it spreads.
Diseases of cultivated plants probably exist as long as the gardens themselves, or even longer, because wild-growing berries grow ill.
It is caused by a fungus, when damaged, the plants lose foliage. In particularly wet years, the disease can spread to all plantings.
A large number of dotted dark spots appear on the surface of the greenery, which grow to 2.5 mm tubercles. First, the lowest, shaded leaves are affected. As the disease develops, the tubercles break and the spores of the fungus come out. They spread by rain and wind. Arthropods also play a significant role in the transfer of pathogens.
Sores form on the affected parts, the berries fall off. Red currant is defenseless against the causative agent of anthracosis. Even if there are only a few lesions, the bushes can completely lose their leaf cover.
Even several foci of anthracosis can cause loss of redcurrant leaf cover
Plants affected by anthracosis lose their immunity, their frost resistance decreases. High risks of crop loss. There are no varieties immune to anthracosis. Relatively immune
- Dutch red
- Faya is fertile,
Treatment and prevention measures:
- A careful selection of seedlings is carried out.
- Before planting, the plants are immersed for 5 minutes in a 1% solution of copper sulfate, then washed with water.
- Planted only in places where currants had not previously grown, avoiding the proximity to trees and lowlands, contributing to the conservation and spread of fungus.
- Clean and destroy fallen leaves.
- Dig the ground under the bushes.
- In late autumn and spring, before the swelling of the buds, plants and the soil under them are sprayed with 1% solutions of copper preparations.
- In the summer, currants are treated at least 3-4 times with 1% Bordeaux liquid, first before budding, then immediately after flowering, then after 10 days. The final processing is carried out after harvesting.
Some guidelines recommend the use of Nitrafen. But it decomposes slightly, is very toxic and accumulates in the soil. Now it is forbidden to use in personal subsidiary plots.
When spraying plants, they make sure that therapeutic and prophylactic solutions abundantly irrigate the bush, and especially carefully treat the underside of the leaves.
Some authors believe that the causative agent of reversion is a virus, according to other sources, the disease has a mycoplasma nature. Blackcurrant is most affected by terry, red is affected sporadically. The disease is transmitted through infected planting material or through a tick.
When reversing, the appearance of the plant changes. From five-lobed leaves become three-lobed, cloves appear along the edge, the venation coarsens. They become smaller and lose their intense color. Terryness is most pronounced on the flowers. Instead, purple scales form. The whole plant is reborn. A large number of deformed shoots appear, the number of leaves increases.
Terry leads to the degeneration of currant flowers
Sometimes the bush looks asymmetrical: the part affected by terry is thickened due to excessive leafyness, and the other has a normal appearance.
Excessive moisture aggravates the lesion. In dry years, the disease can subside in order to reappear in rainy periods.
Given that currant mite contributes to the spread of terry, it should be detected as early as possible and carefully treated affected plants with a 1% solution of colloidal sulfur.
Early spring treatments of the bushes with a hot shower from a watering can and spraying with freshly prepared garlic infusion give a good result: 50-100 g of crushed garlic is poured with water (10 l), the plants are stirred and irrigated. The procedures are carried out after the currant fades and is repeated after a week.
Most often, the disease affects currant bushes growing near wetlands. It is caused by a fungus, for which sedge is necessary at an intermediate stage of development. Loss of redcurrant harvest due to damage by goblet rust reaches 70%. Rainy weather and dampness worsen the situation.
Neighborhood with sedge contributes to the spread of gobble rust on currants
On the underside of young leaves at the end of May bright orange growths with small indentations appear. With the further spread of the disease, damaged leaves and ovary fall off. Spores are carried to sedge, and the next phase of fungal development takes place on it. In early spring, they again appear on the currant, and the cycle repeats.
The spread of glass rust results in the loss of a significant portion of the crop
To eliminate the risk of infection of the bushes, it is necessary to destroy the surrounding sedge and not to plant gooseberry plants in the wetlands.
It is recommended to treat currants during periods of greatest susceptibility to the fungus - from May 1 to June 15. To do this, the bushes are sprayed three times with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. The first treatment is carried out in early May, and subsequent with an interval of 10-12 days. When using a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid, spraying can be single.
The most resistant to goblet rust varieties of red currant:
- Faya is fertile,
Fungal disease, from which currant planting, located near coniferous trees, intermediate hosts of columnar rust pathogen, is most affected.
It appears in the form of yellow spots on the upper side of the leaves, from below they are covered with a fluffy red coating like a pile. The disease flares up and spreads in humid, warm weather.
Column rust inhibits the growth of shoots and leads to early decay of the foliage, which weakens the bushes and reduces the future yield.
The warning measures are the same as with anthracosis. To combat the disease, top dressing is used with preparations containing copper sulfate and zinc. Superphosphate and potassium nitrate have a beneficial effect during the period of kidney swelling. Ammonium nitrate is not recommended.
Relative resistance to columnar rust is manifested by the Chulkovskaya currant variety.
Column rust is caused by spores of pathogenic fungi.
Septoria (white spotting)
The disease has a fungal nature, characterized by the appearance of small red-brown spots on the leaves. In the future, foci of lesion increase in size, take a rounded shape. The spots brown on the periphery have a white center. The disease is accompanied by a complete fall of foliage. Infected shoots stop growing or grow weakly. The kidneys near the lesions dry out.
The first manifestations of the disease are noticeable from late May or early June. The demonstration falls on the second half of the summer. The loss of foliage negatively affects the fitness of the bushes for wintering, suppresses plants and reduces future yield.
White spotting affects redcurrants relatively rarely - planting of gooseberries and blackcurrants are more often affected. In Russia, there are no varieties resistant to septoria.
Measures to combat the disease are the same as with anthracosis. This is the use of fungicidal agents, you can also use a 3% solution of iron sulfate and carry out agricultural activities.
The resistance of plants to white spotting increases significantly when mineral additives containing boron, manganese, and copper are added to the soil.
Septoria currant leads to leaf decay and suppresses plant immunity
Sphereotka (powdery mildew)
A disease of fungal nature, common among all representatives of the gooseberry family, although red currant among them is the most resistant to powdery mildew. Mostly young shoots, buds, leaves of plants suffer. At the beginning of the disease, the affected areas are covered with a white coating, which later turns brown. Leaves are deformed, berries fall. The immunity of plants is suppressed, by the onset of winter they are weakened. If the disease is started, the bushes may die.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Protection measures against the library include the whole range of measures used for anthracosis. Preventive spraying is also practiced with a 3-5% solution of iron sulfate after autumn leaf fall and in early spring before buds open to eradicate fungi. For this purpose, the bushes themselves and the soil under them are carefully treated.
Three sprayings are used with a 1% solution of colloidal sulfur, which they begin to carry out before flowering, then they are repeated twice with a break of 10-12 days.
Many summer residents prefer traditional methods of controlling powdery mildew, using infusions of manure and water mixed in a ratio of 1: 3. The solution is left for three days, after which it is decanted, diluted in three times the volume and the bushes are plentifully irrigated.
The natural fungal antagonists multiplied in the infusion - bacteria - when sprayed, cover the plant, destroying plaque. For the procedure, cloudy weather is chosen so that the sun does not dry the bush ahead of time and the treatment is effective.
The Faya currant is the most resistant to powdery mildew pathogen.
Young leaves are more often affected by the syrotec
To treat and prevent the spread of fungal diseases of berries, the phytosporin microbiological systemic fungicide is increasingly used, the principle of which is based on the suppression of pathogenic fungi and bacteria by the vital products of spore cultures that make up the drug.
But still the best treatment is a warning. To maintain plant immunity and prevent the main diseases of currant, you need:
- Observe agricultural standards, maintaining the necessary distance between plantings for better ventilation, growth and nutrition.
- To provide illumination of plants due to a well-thought-out planting place and crown formation.
- Trim in time, getting rid of weak and damaged shoots, avoiding excessive thickening of the bushes.
- Maintain the required level of plant nutrition by applying organic and mineral fertilizers.
- Constantly weed out weeds, preventing the reproduction of larvae of pests and fungal spores, while simultaneously improving root nutrition.
- Remove and destroy fallen leaves to prevent the spread of disease.
- Systematically loosen the soil around the bushes. At the same time, soil larvae and pupae die, and plant roots receive more air.
- Regularly water the currants and mulch the trunk circle.
- Do not plant bushes in the shade of trees and in lowlands.
- Prophylactically treat berry crops with fungicides and drugs that enhance plant immunity.
- Replace old degenerate bushes in time with more stable new varieties.
Prudent owners, who are responsible for choosing seedlings, take measures to care for plants, increase their resistance to diseases, bushes, as a rule, suffer less, and the crop is stable and of high quality.
Red currant pest control
Gall aphid, weevil, currant narrow-bodied goldfish, spider mite, gooseberry sawfly, bud mite, glass-case, currant gall midge, fire-rose - this is not a complete list of insects that threaten planting berries.
To prevent the spread of currant pests, you need to follow agrotechnical recommendations. To combat insect parasites, insecticides are used:
The use of drugs is necessary in strict accordance with the instructions, observing protective measures.
Redcurrant pests - table
|View||Signs of defeat||Treatment methods||Prevention|
|Gall aphid (red aphid)||Causes damage to young crown leaves. Blisters of a reddish-brown color, galls appear on them. Their distribution leads to suppression of the growth of new shoots and death of foliage.||If deformed leaves are found, they are removed and destroyed. The bush is treated with insecticides or safer biological aphids: |
The drug Biotlin is also successfully used against rosaceae aphids: flowering plants, cherries, cherries, plums. During the season, several treatments of plantings can be carried out with a break of 2 weeks, stopping spraying 10-12 days before harvesting.
|Some plants contribute to the reproduction and spread of aphids. It is not necessary to plant lavender, mint, monarda and others from the family Yasnatkovy near the currant and gooseberry, as they are a food medium for aphids, when the leaves of the currant are coarse. Flying from plant to plant, gall aphid is preserved on the site and affects gooseberry crops.|
(gray bud weevil)
|Not very picky in food, found on almost all berry shrubs, stone fruits, pear and apple. It feeds on buds, young leaves and buds, significantly reducing yield.||Against weevil effective drugs: ||It is believed that tobacco dust and conifer infusions scare away bugs.|
|Currant bark||A small bug with a brilliant greenish-gold color. The larva of goldfish makes moves in the core of shoots. Affected stems dry and die. Adult bugs fly out in June and feed on leaves. They lay eggs on the bark of young shoots, and the emerging larvae gnaw at the passages in them and remain to winter. In summer, in warm time, the flight of goldfish begins, and the cycle repeats.||To combat goldfish, regular sanitary pruning of shoots to healthy tissue is carried out not only in spring and autumn, but throughout the summer. During the mass departure of beetles, spraying with a 0.3% solution of malathion is effective.||-|
|Spider mite||It affects mainly bushes of red currant. It feeds on young leaves and berries. It is usually located on the underside of the leaf blade. Yellow and red spots appear on its surface. Small ticks gradually entangle leaflets and clusters of currant with their cobwebs. Berries lose their presentation, their taste deteriorates.||To combat spider mites, acaricides are used. The most common remedies: |
They are toxic, it is required to apply in sunny time with the observance of protective measures.
It is noticed that watering bushes with a jet of water favorably affects plants. Part of the ticks is washed off and, having lost access to food, dies. It is recommended to manually collect the affected leaves and clusters.
|Periodically pollinate bushes with odorous agents. Some gardeners plant nearby plants that repel ticks: tansy, chamomile, calendula.|
gooseberry or currant
|Sawfly larvae can eat the entire leaf blade to the veins, this leads to a weakening of the bush and shredding of berries.||Control measures come down to checking the condition of the leaves. If holes are found on them, and in the late stages of leaves eaten to the veins, all diseased parts of the plants are removed and destroyed. Of the chemicals, Actellic is effective.||Frequent loosening of the soil, autumn digging and sheltering the space under the bushes with dense material or a high layer of mulch significantly reduces the number of pests.|
|Kidney tick||It threatens representatives of the entire gooseberry family. Unnaturally enlarged rounded buds speak of plant damage. Normal shoots and leaves will not develop from them, and a crop will not form. Instead, many ticks spread that weaken the plant and can lead to the death of the bush. They are carriers of reversal pathogens.||Ways of struggle: ||The source of infection is often poor-quality planting material and untreated disinfectant tools after working in the garden.|
|Glassmaker||If during spring pruning of currants on a branch in the core area a black dot is found, this glass-box has chosen your bushes. Her larvae gnaw at the plants in the passages. Affected bushes can not eat normally, weaken and run the risk of dying.||It is necessary to extend the shoot to healthy areas or completely, if the damage is severe. All garbage collected after trimming is immediately burned. The mass flight of an adult glass-case coincides in time with the summer of goldfish, therefore, when spraying with a 0.3% malathion emulsion, both goldfish and glass-glass will be destroyed.||-|
|Leaf, shoot and flower gall midges||Larvae damage young currant tissue. After the invasion, ugly leaves remain, the stems cover ulcers and fissures, the damaged buds are deformed, the flowers fall off.||To combat the gall midge, the condition of the bushes is systematically checked. If signs of damage are detected, the affected buds, buds, leaves are immediately removed, shoots are cut off, and all collected plant residues are burned. In order to complicate the flight of adults, the root zone is dug up, mulched with peat or humus. Bushes are sprayed with 0.3% malathion before flowering, if necessary, after harvesting the berries are repeated.||-|
|Currant Fire||It starts flying at the time when buds form on the currant. She lays eggs in them. Hatched larvae eat flowers, then crawl into neighboring ovaries. So they, voracious and numerous, are able to destroy the entire crop.||With a significant lesion with a firearm, the bushes are sprayed with insecticides such as Actellic or Spark. Treatments with Fitoverm against larvae give a good result.||In addition to combating the use of insecticides and biological products, agrotechnical methods are used, based on knowledge of the development cycle of the firearm. Since the larvae pupate and in this state remain on the surface of the soil or shallow in the ground, weeds are removed around the plants and periodically loosen the soil around them. If you mulch the soil with non-woven material after loosening or just huddle the plants to a height of ten centimeters, the flight of butterflies will be difficult. After the flowering of currants, the bushes unravel, as danger passes.|
Pests of red currant - photo gallery
- Larvae of a fire-tree devour a crop of currants and gooseberries
- Flower currant gall midget lays eggs in buds, inside of which the entire development of larvae passes
- Flower currant gall midge leads to crop loss
- Glass larvae gnaw through the course in the core of the shoot, leading to its weakening and death
- Sawfly larvae infect gooseberries and currants
- A bud mite destroys both the crop and the plant itself
- When struck by a spider mite, it may seem as if the berries have ripened earlier
- Depending on weather conditions, the life cycle of a pest can last 1-2 years
- Самки долгоносика откладывают яйца в бутоны, подгрызая для этого цветоножки
- Галловая тля вызывает деформацию макушечных листьев и подавляет рост побегов
Борьба с вредителями красной смородины народными средствами
Многолетние наблюдения за растениями и вредителями ягодных культур дали садоводам возможность определить совокупность мероприятий по борьбе с ними. Это особенно важно, так как ослабленные паразитами культуры более восприимчивы к грибковым и другим заболеваниям. А страдающие от болезней кусты становятся лёгкой добычей для вредителей.
Народные способы борьбы с галловой тлёй и почковым клещом включают:
- Ранневесенние обработки кустов кипятком. Выливают на растения из лейки горячую (80–90оС) воду. Ошпариваются они до схода снега и распускания почек. Обрабатывают не только посадки смородины и крыжовника, но и почву под ними.
- Использование настоя древесной золы. На 400 г берут 3 л воды, кипятят, оставляют на сутки. Процеживают, объём доводят до 10 л и орошают кусты. Осадком мульчируют почву.
- Опрыскивание мыльным раствором. На 300–400 л тёртого хозяйственного мыла добавляют 10 л воды.
- Обработки настоем луковой шелухи: 500 г сырья заливают 2 л кипятка, настаивают двое суток, процеживают, доливаютт ещё 2 л воды и опрыскивают растения. Оставшуюся шелуху закладывают в компост или используют как мульчу.
Эти меры эффективны при длительной ясной погоде, иначе дождь сведёт на нет все усилия и мероприятия придётся повторять.
Вредители не выносят соседства с пахучими травами, особенно бархатцами, пряными овощами: луком, чесноком, а также томатом. Можно использовать эти растения для приготовления настоев и отваров против вредителей, а также в совместных посадках со смородиной и крыжовником.
Применение отваров бархатцев и луковой шелухи спасает от многих насекомых-паразитов. Некоторые не выносят запах хвойных растений, особенно хорошо он отпугивает долгоносика. Для опрыскивания готовят настой из 2 кг хвои, залитой 2 л кипятка. Раствор оставляют на сутки, сцеживают и доводят объём до 10 л.
Кусты также опудривают табачной пылью или порошком пиретрума. Чтобы состав дольше оставался на листьях, их можно заранее оросить мыльным раствором.
Опрыскивание концентрированным раствором мочевины (700 г на 10 л воды) поздней осенью и ранней весной избавляет кусты смородины от личинок вредителей и предупреждает развитие грибковых болезней. Обрабатывают и землю под растениями.
Рекомендуется регулярно осматривать кусты: при обнаружении изменений на зелени, бугорков, которые бывают при поражении галловой тлёй или листовой галлицей, все больные побеги срывают и уничтожают.
Нужно привлекать на участок птиц для борьбы с вредными насекомыми: развешивать кормушки и оставлять поилки. Необходимо постоянно уничтожать муравейники.
Вредители смородины — видео
Сорта красной смородины, устойчивые к болезням
Сорта красной смородины Виктория, Файя плодородная и Чулковская проявляют устойчивость к наибольшему числу болезней семейства крыжовниковых.
- Виктория — сорт европейской селекции. Ранний. Высокоурожайный. Ягоды средней величины, хорошего вкуса. Направление использования — десертное, годится Виктория и для переработки. Сорт устойчив к антракозу и бокальчатой ржавчине;
Сорт Виктория характеризуется зимостойкостью и высокой урожайностью
- Файя плодородная — американский среднеспелый сорт. Winter hardiness is average. Ягодки небольших размеров, с тонкой нежной кожицей. Кисть длиной 6–10 см. Сорт относительно устойчив к антракозу, бокальчатой ржавчине, сферотеке;
- Чулковская — сорт народной селекции. Широко распространён на территории Российской федерации. Early ripe. Self-fertile. Созревание дружное. Ягоды по размеру средние или мелкие. Вкус обычный. Transportability is good. Проявляет устойчивость к грибковым болезням, но поражается махровостью. Зимостойкость средняя, цветки могут пострадать от весенних возвратных заморозков. Drought tolerant.
На территории России сорта Чулковская и Файя плодородная выращиваются повсеместно
Некоторые садоводы обливают кусты смородины кипятком весной, когда ещё не сошёл снег, садоводы надеются таким способом избавиться от зимующих вредителей. Многие агрономы считают этот агротехнический приём устаревшим и бесполезным. Сейчас есть много современных средств, которые помогут бороться с вредителями. Обливание кипятком не спасло мои кусты смородины и пришлось их выкорчёвывать. Ранней весной, пока не распустились почки, можно обработать кусты смородины раствором железного купороса, 1 чайная ложка на 100 грамм воды. Если почки проклюнулись, то применяйте препарат Здоровый сад, в это время можно обработать кусты Цирконом или Эпином, это повысит сопротивляемость растения весенним перепадам температуры и поможет одолеть грибные и бактериальные инфекции.angren [131K]
Главное — обрезка! Я в основном сухие срезаю (или засыхающие) и повреждённые чем-либо, а также важно, чтобы рядом не было затенения. Один куст у нас на даче (как назло, самой крупной смородины) в малиннике оказался! Когда расчистили, кустик отблагодарил: и ягоды крупные были, и побегов много пошло))))Stassy Q
Red gall aphids eggs winter in cracks in the cortex and at the base of the kidneys, so spraying is carried out in the spring, in April, when the buds swell and larvae appear. And also in the fall, in September and before the leaves fall, when the aphid lays eggs. Approximately in the second half of June, when new shoots and leaves cease to form, aphids fly and feed on plants of the clamaceae family (monard, mint, lavender, sage), which are the second fodder plant for this aphid, therefore it is better to plant these plants away from currants and get rid of such weeds as white cinnamon (deaf nettle). Scalping currant bushes in early spring with hot water and the use of insecticides can not always fully protect against this pest, therefore, as soon as young leaves affected by aphids appear, it is better to cut them off. It is better not to use Fufanon for processing, it refers to organophosphorus preparations that accumulate in plants and are dangerous to humans.Tatuniki
For successful gardening, in addition to being observant in identifying diseases and plant pests, persistence and consistency are necessary. Only in this case, the planting of currants will be thanked with bunches of healthy berries with a rich taste.