The device of wooden bridges and moorings: design options
The construction of wooden walkways and piers is always organized in order to ensure convenient and safe access of people to water. Over time, new technologies based on the use of modern building materials are added to the methods of building these surface structures. Now you can choose to build a wooden pier on a pile foundation that will last more than one year, or build a pontoon structure for seasonal use in a couple of days. The choice of the design of the berth and the method of its construction are influenced by the features of the soil in the coastal zone of the reservoir, the relief of the coastline, the speed of the river, as well as the loads created in the spring by a melting ice shell. Dimensions of the structure depend on its purpose and intensity of operation.
Docks and marinas can be used for bathing and sunbathing, mooring of small boats (rowing and motor boats, catamarans, jet skis, boats), romantic water recreation in arbors installed directly on a wooden floor.
A section of the shore of a reservoir equipped with special devices for mooring small boats, as well as their parking, repair and maintenance, is called a berth. From the point of view of the engineering device, these structures are divided into the following subspecies:
- mooring walls erected along the shore of a reservoir of gabions and reinforced concrete products;
- pontoon berth, arranged on a floating platform of plastic barrels, pipes, special containers;
- berth on wooden or metal screw piles driven in or screwed into the bottom of the reservoir;
- pier - a pier located perpendicular to the coastline of a water body.
Making descent to the reservoir using the construction of marinas and moorings increases the attractiveness of the vacation spot and provides the necessary level of safety
Construction of moorings on a pile foundation
In Russian villages stretching along the banks of full-flowing rivers, you can see wooden moorings for fishing boats built on a pile foundation. Previously, solid wood was used as piles. Most often, larch, oak or alder logs were used. Currently, preference is given more to metal piles, which can be driven and screw. These types of piles differ from each other in structure, as well as in the installation method.
Option # 1 - driven piles
Hammered piles are made in the form of steel pipes equipped with a pointed tip. These piles are driven into the ground by pile drivers (piling machines). A similar installation method may adversely affect the condition of the metal. Piles can "lead" and even twist in a spiral. In the case of such a metal deformation, the pile will not reach a layer of solid soil, which means that it cannot be a full-fledged support for the berth under construction. Not always special equipment can drive up to the construction site of the berthing facility. Therefore, when installing a pile foundation with their own hands, they use screw piles.
Option # 2 - screw piles
A screw pile, like a driven pile, is made of a metal pipe. A blade of a certain configuration is welded near its lower cone-shaped end, and at the other end there is a head necessary to secure the foundation of the future berth. Thanks to this rotor blade, the pile is easily screwed into the bottom soil, without having to exert too much physical effort. During a smooth rotation, a screw pile evenly enters the ground. The risk of deformation of the pipe walls is minimal. The length of screw piles can reach 11 m. If necessary, the pipe can grow or, on the contrary, cut.
Installation of a wooden pier of complex shape in the winter greatly simplifies the work. On ice you can easily get to any place of construction
The greater the load must withstand the pile, the larger should be the diameter of its trunk. In this case, the thickness of its walls also matters.
Before starting installation work, it is necessary to calculate the exact number of piles, to select the desired diameter taking into account the load. Calculate the minimum distance between adjacent piles at which the grill material will not sag. The length of the piles is selected based on the type of soil and the depth of freezing in the area.
After screwing the screw pile to a certain depth, concrete is poured into the cavity of its trunk (grade M300 and above). This technique increases the bearing capacity of the support element. When installing a pile foundation in winter, special additives are added to the concrete solution. By the way, it is preferable to carry out the installation of piles for the pier in winter. On ice it is much more convenient and cheaper to carry out work than in water. If the soil is heterogeneous in structure, then the piles are installed at different depths, after which they are leveled at a given level.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Schematic illustration of a wooden pier built on a pile foundation. The length of screw piles is determined by trial drilling, during which you can find out the depth of solid soil layers
Screw piles are reusable. They can be screwed in, and if necessary, dismantling the surface structure can be twisted. However, it is not recommended to fill the pile shaft with concrete. Screw piles can last several decades, especially if their surface is treated with a special chemical composition. This means that the pier, built on a pile foundation, can be operated for a long time.
Separate piles are combined into a single structure using a channel welded to their heads. Sometimes a beam is used as a link. All welds need to be treated with a special compound made on the basis of epoxy resin, enamel or paint. This coating protects joints in a humid environment from corrosion.
On soils made of rock, installation of a pile foundation is not possible. In this case, other options for the arrangement of piers and piers are considered.
As the materials used for laying decks on berths and piers, waterproof wood of valuable species (larch, acacia, ipe, kumaru, garapa, bangirai, massranduba, merbau) is used. Each grade of expensive wood has its own unique color and special texture. Construction can be cheapened by using modern water-repellent polymer and wood-polymer materials, on the basis of which special deck and terrace boards are made. These materials are ideal for the construction of surface structures, as:
- not amenable to the process of decay and decomposition from exposure to moisture and precipitation;
- they are not subject to deformation, because they do not dry out, do not swell, do not bend or warp, do not warp or crack (unlike many types of natural wood);
- able to tolerate significant temperature changes, exposure to ultraviolet radiation without loss of decorative qualities;
- have high abrasion resistance;
- withstand large shock loads;
- has a non-slip corrugated surface that allows you to safely move along the pier during or after rain.
The polymer deck board used for the installation of flooring on piers and piers does not need to be protected with varnishes and oils, which greatly simplifies the maintenance of its surface.
Installation of wood flooring on a rigid frame, mounted on a pile foundation. Processing boards with protective compounds protecting them from premature wear
Installation of wooden flooring is carried out by using the technology of hidden fasteners. When finishing the finished berth, railings, descents into the water, as well as mooring fenders and other devices necessary for the operation of small boats are installed.
An example of assembling a simple pontoon pier
To build a small pontoon-type berth, a wooden beam, planed boards, nails, self-tapping screws, metal corners, 200-liter barrels and ropes for securing them are purchased. The square frame of the structure is assembled from a bar with a section of 100 to 50 mm on the shore. The length of the side of the square is 2.5 meters. The frame is reinforced in the corners with the help of wooden bars, which are installed additionally. The corners of the frame should be straight (90 degrees).
The structure, assembled from a wooden beam and pressurized barrels, is an example of the simplest pontoon type berth providing an approach to a reservoir
The buoyancy of the berth is provided by four 200-liter barrels previously used for the storage of petroleum products. Barrels must be absolutely airtight. To meet this requirement, sealant or silicone is applied around the plugs to prevent water from getting inside. For better fastening the barrels to the frame structure, use additional bars (50 by 50 mm), which are attached to the main frame using metal corners. In these bars, holes are drilled through which the ropes are pulled to securely fix the barrels located on both sides of the frame parallel to each other.
An inverted frame, ready for launching, is transferred to a pond without a deck, which will make it several times heavier
Then the wooden frame of a rectangular shape is turned over, while the barrels are at the bottom of the structure. In this position, the structure is installed in a pond near the shore. An anchor system is used for its fastening. You can also attach the structure to a pile screwed into the ground on the shore of a reservoir, or to a pillar dug into the ground and concreted. At the last stage, a flooring from planed boards is nailed to the frame. A small bridge is also being constructed, providing access to the pier from the shore of the reservoir.
The final view of the pontoon pier used in the summer. With the onset of cold weather, the surface structure is disassembled and put away for storage until the next season
Another variant of the device of bridges
Poles are built from truck tires that have worked out their terms. To do this, rubber tires are connected to each other by cables or strong ropes. Then the connected tires are rolled into the water and installed on the bottom of the pond. Improvised posts should stick out of the water. The stability of the pillars in the water is provided with the help of river cobblestones thrown into the tires. Then, wooden bridges are installed on the constructed poles.
What to do if your pier has sailed away?
The owner of a site overlooking a river or lake can build simple surface structures on his own. Piers that go a few meters from the coast inland to the pond should be built by companies with competent specialists and professional equipment. If you save on the design and construction of the pier, by inviting dubious firms to perform work, then you can "lose" the surface structure. It will simply sail away from the shore.