Description of Victoria grapes, especially planting and cultivation
There are many grape varieties with their characteristic features. For beginners, it is better to grow unpretentious varieties that painlessly respond to errors in the cultivation process. Victoria grapes, even if agricultural technology is not followed, gives good yields, and with the right approach to cultivation, it can thank with berries of decent quality.
History of growing Victoria grape varieties
Victoria grapes were bred several decades ago. The variety was obtained by Russian breeders as a result of crossing the following types of grapes: Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera with the variety Save Sevilar 12-304. Variety Victoria belongs to the early table varieties. To better understand what constitutes this grape, it is worth considering in more detail its characteristics, especially planting and care.
Description of grape variety Victoria
Victoria grapes are conventionally divided into several varieties, which belong to the same group:
- Pink Victoria. The fruit is characterized by a purple-pink color and large sizes. The bushes are distinguished by their fruitfulness, have an average height. One shrub manages to collect up to 60 kg of the crop.
Pink Victoria has a purple-pink color and large berries
- White Victoria. This is an early ripening variety. Grapes are characterized by good resistance to major diseases. Fruits are yellow-green in color and medium in size. The weight of the clusters is about 500 g. A distinctive feature of grapes is high frost resistance (up to -27˚С).
White Victoria has a yellow-green color, medium size and is resistant to major diseases
- Romanian Victoria. Despite its early ripening, Victoria of this variety ripen unevenly. As a result, berries, white, pink and yellow can be on one bunch. The brush is formed quite large, up to 1 kg. Due to the loose fit of the fruits to each other, voids form inside the bunch. Fruiting in this variety is regular and plentiful.
Victoria Romanian berries can be white, pink and yellow
If we consider Victoria grapes as a whole, this variety is unpretentious to the climatic characteristics of the cultivation region. It can be cultivated even in Siberia or the middle zone. The variety has an attractive appearance and harmonious taste. With a complete ripening of the crop, the berries acquire a nutmeg shade. The peel has a moderate density, the flesh is juicy and moderately elastic. The branches on the shrub are quite powerful and elastic, which eliminates breaking off under the weight of the crop.
Saplings of the considered variety almost always take root with success. The ripening of the fruits occurs quite early and can be 115-120 days from the moment the kidneys opened. The berry can be white, pink or red-violet. Its dimensions are about 25 mm in length and 21 mm in width. The average weight of berries is about 5–6 g, and the shape is close to egg-shaped.
Video: Victoria grape features
Characteristics of the Victoria grape variety
Victoria, without exaggeration, is a neat and attractive grape variety. The bush is endowed with a well-developed rhizome, but has medium sizes and growth rates, i.e., shoots develop slowly. The average yield per bush is about 50 kg. Victoria's clusters of medium size, cylindrical in shape, are characterized by a low density of berries. The weight of the brush reaches 500-700 g, but sometimes more.
Large clusters can be collected from plants that bear fruit for more than one year. Despite the uniform ripening of bunches, you should not rush with their collection. A longer stay of the brush on the bush contributes to the acquisition of better taste. Since the flowers of the variety Victoria are female, pollination from other varieties with bisexual flowers is necessary for harvesting. In addition, the variety has a tendency to pea, that is, the fruits can be small in size.
Victoria grapes are able to produce abundant crops on those plants that bear fruit for more than one year
Features of planting and growing Victoria grape varieties
The future crop directly depends on the quality of planting material. This suggests that the choice of seedlings should be given close attention.
How to choose a seedling
A good quality seedling should be brown in color, be about 20 cm long. There should be fresh and green wood under the bark, which is easy to recognize by picking up the skin of the cuttings with a fingernail. You should also pay attention to the roots: there should be no growths and thickenings on them. A developed root system will contribute to better survival of the plant in a new place. The status of the roots is quite simple. To do this, it is enough to pinch off part of the root process with secateurs. If the cut is white and moist, then the seedling has a good root system. If the roots have a black or brown structure, then the planting material is considered unsuitable for planting. It is also worth examining the kidneys on the handle: when pressing on the eyes, they should not fall off or peel off.
A quality grape seedling should have a well-developed root system, which will contribute to a good survival and development of the plant
Grape planting time
Victoria grapes, like any other garden crop, can be planted in spring or autumn. However, some wine growers are of the opinion that autumn planting is more preferable. This is due to the fact that during the spring procedure, some seedlings take root worse and enter fruiting much later. With autumn planting, the end of October is considered the best time.
Planting Victoria Grapes
Since Victoria belongs to heat-loving plants, for planting this variety it is better to choose places protected from drafts, with good lighting and fertile soil. A seat is prepared a few days before the alleged planting of a seedling, and preferably a month. A hole is dug under the plant with the following dimensions: 0.8 m wide and 1 m deep. A drainage layer of crushed stone with a thickness of 5 cm is laid at the bottom of the pit, after which 10 cm thick fertile soil is poured. 2 buckets of humus are poured over the soil and again a fertile layer. Humus is a rotten manure, that is, it has lain for several years in the open. Garden soil can be used as fertile soil. After filling the pit with components, all layers are mixed.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Having dug a hole under the sapling, filling it and mixing all the components, they plant the plant
When the landing site is prepared, dig a hole according to the size of the root system of the seedling and lower the planting material into it, filling it with soil and slightly tamping. The seedling is deepened to the level of the root neck. Since grapes propagate by cuttings, the plant has no root neck. Therefore, it is believed that it is conditionally located above the roots. After planting, the seedling is watered with 2-3 buckets of water. To exclude the slope of the plant, you can dig a wooden peg into the ground, to which a seedling is tied. At the end of the work, the soil is mulched, for example, with straw or sawdust, which will provide better oxygen to the roots of the plant. The distance between seedlings should be 1.5–3 m.
Since grapes as such have no root neck, it is believed that it is conditionally located above the roots
Victoria grape care
Caring for Victoria grapes after planting consists in carrying out such agrotechnical procedures as cultivation, watering, pruning, top dressing. Particular attention should be paid to care in the first 3-4 years after planting, as the culture is still being formed during this time. Regular loosening of the soil and removal of weeds near the bush will provide not only better “breathing”, but also the flow of more nutrients to the roots.
Grapes love moist soil, so you should not forget about watering, but waterlogging should also not be allowed. It is recommended to combine irrigation with fertilizer. Top dressing contributes to the good development of the plant and increase the future yield. Nutrients are added in the following sequence:
- The first top dressing is carried out in the spring when setting the temperature at around + 16 ° C. As fertilizers, you can use superphosphate (20 g), potassium salt (5 g) and ammonium nitrate (10 g), which are diluted in a bucket of water and watered under the root at the rate of 10 liters per bush.
- The second top dressing is carried out with potassium and phosphorus in a ratio of 1: 2 during the formation of the ovary. A bucket of water consumes about 30 g of the mixture.
- When berries are ripened actively, nutrients are added consisting of potassium sulfate (25 g) and superphosphate (50 g), which are also dissolved in a bucket of water. Ready solution is watered the plant under the root.
Video: fertilizing grapes with organic fertilizers
An important procedure is also pruning, which is carried out every fall, removing all unnecessary that has grown over the summer period. The formation of vines improves the development of the bush, contributes to the timely ripening of the crop. In addition, carry out the tying of branches. This procedure is necessary to prevent breaking of branches under the weight of bunches, which become heavier as they mature. Despite the fact that Victoria grapes belong to frost-resistant varieties, it is still recommended to insulate it for the winter. As materials, you can use fabric, spruce branches or just dry soil.
Victoria Cultivation Features
Victoria grapes are a quick variety. Literally 2-3 years after planting, you can get the first crop. Due to the fact that the variety is endowed with a tendency to crack berries, watering should be carried out correctly. When the crop begins to ripen, which usually happens in August, artificial irrigation is completely stopped, but only if it rains periodically. If the weather is dry, moderate watering will still be required. Otherwise, after precipitation there will be a sharp jump in moisture in the soil, which will lead to cracking of the skin on the berries. If the summer was rainy, it is recommended to install a canopy over the vineyard. Thus, it will be possible to control soil moisture.
Grapes love moist soil, but too much moisture should be avoided
In addition to the main dressings that are introduced during the growing season, Victoria can be fertilized with microelements in a chelated form on the leaf, i.e., in the foliar way, for example, with Reacom. This increases the resistance of the plant to disease, improves the taste of the fruit. Chelated fertilizers are the most digestible form of nutrients that is used mainly for micronutrient nutrition. To obtain a beautiful and full-bodied bunch, experienced winegrowers resort to this technique: with the help of a paint brush, they "comb out" the bunch at the beginning of the growth of berries. This procedure allows you to remove underdeveloped, as well as weak and damaged ovaries. At first, a thinned bunch does not look very attractive, but as the fruit grows, it acquires a beautiful appearance.
The Victoria grape variety is prone to decay and damage to clusters by wasps. This suggests the need to remove the lower brushes, since you will not get a crop from them, but only contribute to the development of diseases and create a bait for insects. To protect the shrub from wasps, it is recommended to plant spicy herbs nearby, cover the clusters with gauze or mesh bags. During the ripening of the berries, you need to inspect the clusters and remove those that have cracked fruits.
To protect the grapes from wasps and birds use a special mesh in the form of bags
When considering the Victoria grape variety, it is worth mentioning the diseases to which the plant may be exposed, as well as preventive measures. Among the most common diseases are:
- Powdery Mildew It appears in the form of dark dots on leaves and spots on the shoots.
- Gray rot. Berries become wrinkled, a white coating appears on them. For prevention purposes, the culture is sprayed with an iodine-based solution.
- White rot. A fungal disease that occurs as a result of exposure to sunlight or hail. It manifests itself in the form of white mold on foliage and berries.
- Chlorosis. The appearance of the disease is indicated by pale leaves, which acquire a dull yellowish tint. The problem is due to a violation of the photosynthesis process. For treatment, iron-containing drugs are used.
- Black spotting. Leaves grow dull, black dots appear. The fruits also darken, the taste worsens. Treatment consists in removing the affected parts of the plant.
One of the diseases Victoria can be affected by is leaf chlorosis.
To prevent the onset and development of diseases, Victoria grapes during the ripening period are recommended to be processed with special preparations. These include iron sulfate, Bordeaux fluid, Ridomil (contact and systemic fungicide), Tsineb (has a systemic and contact effect on pathogens). Treatment with systemic fungicides is carried out in the spring before budding, after the formation of berries and in the autumn after harvest. Contact fungicides are used for prolonged rains, as well as after heavy fog and rain, that is, in high humidity.
This year, amid rainy sores, Victoria makes me happy. Nevertheless, this variety has positive advantages: high frost resistance and disease resistance. As for the wasps, the problem is solved - the bags for clusters have long been waiting in the wings. In addition, despite the rains, the bush showed high productivity and good pollination, without peas.Nadezhda Nikolayevna
I removed Victoria about 4 years ago: the weakest of all that I had; small clusters; the abundance of stepchildren striving to tie 2-3 clusters; thin, easily traumatized skin, which is why it is the favorite of wasps and other insects and birds. In addition to a decent taste and high frost resistance, in Victoria did not find other advantages. Very low-tech low-yielding form, people do not buy it especially on the market. And the ripening period is not so early.Vladimir Karkoshkin
I like Victoria, the taste of berries with nutmeg, ripens - mid-August, the clusters are not so .. but normal, I’ll try to pinch after flowering, and yet, sometimes individual berries crack. All troubles disappear, as I treat Mikosan.Parkhomenko Elena
Despite the existing shortcomings, Victoria grapes are a fairly popular table variety among beginners and experienced growers. In order not to abandon this variety, you have to resort to different methods of protection and care of the plant. The main inconvenience is associated with the need to plant a pollinator.