Daikon in the country: how to plant and grow Japanese radish
Daikon appeared in our gardens not so long ago, but quickly gained popularity due to its unpretentiousness, high yield and health benefits. It is often called Chinese or Japanese radish, and the eastern neighbors know a lot about healthy eating. This crop is easy to grow in open ground, but sometimes greenhouses are also used to get a very early or, conversely, late crop.
Planting daikon seedlings
Daikon is the closest relative of radish and radish. It would seem that there is no need to grow it through seedlings, especially since the growing season is only about three months. However, everything is not so simple. The fact that this unpretentious plant of the cabbage family is a culture of a long day. This means that in the middle of summer, when daylight hours are 15–17 hours, generative organs (flowers and fruits) grow rapidly, but root crops are almost not formed. Therefore, if you sow it in the garden in the spring, you can’t get anything but flowers and seeds.
If you plant a daikon in spring, it will bloom by mid-summer
Daikon has to be sown in the garden in the second half of summer, when the day is on the decline, and in this case it forms beautiful large and succulent root crops to frost. But if you want to get a crop by the end of spring or early summer, you have to deal with seedlings, planting it, depending on the season, in open ground or a greenhouse.
Soil selection and preparation
For seedlings growing daikon, it is best to use large peat pellets, sowing 2-3 seeds in each, and then remove extra seedlings. Daikon really does not like transplantation, and a peat tablet is planted in the garden entirely, along with seedlings, so the roots are not damaged at all. If there are no tablets, it is worth taking peat pots, which are also planted in the garden without removing seedlings from them. In them, as in other containers, it is necessary to place suitable soil.
For sowing daikon, it is better to use peat pellets with a diameter of 36 or 42 mm
Daikon is extremely undemanding to the composition of the soil in the garden, but when growing seedlings, clay soil should not be used: the soil should be loose, light, breathable, but well retaining moisture. Depending on the terrain, its composition may include various components, but it is desirable that peat is one of them: it ideally meets all the requirements. You can add turf soil, sand and even sawdust to peat.
If the origin of the soil is doubtful (it is not bought ready-made in a specialized store), then after mixing the components it must be decontaminated. It can be steamed in a gas oven for 30–40 minutes or, which is much simpler, spilled with a pink solution of potassium permanganate to a wet state. This is done a few days before sowing the seeds so that the soil can dry out later.
For soil disinfection, a sufficiently low concentration of potassium permanganate solution (2%) is sufficient - it should be pink
The soil is poured into pots with a height of at least 10 cm: even during the growing of seedlings, the daikon manages to grow quite long roots. In an extreme case, sowing in a common deep box is also possible, but it will be necessary to extract seedlings from it when planting in the garden very carefully.
Not all varieties are suitable for seedlings. If possible, you need to choose those that form not very long root crops, but rather short oval or even round ones.
For growing seedlings, it is better to choose round varieties of daikon
In principle, you can sow daikon with dry seeds, it will definitely sprout. But experienced gardeners, in order for the shoots to be friendly, are advised to pre-warm the seed material. For this:
- Seeds are dipped in hot water (about 50 ° C), where they are kept for half an hour (and, in fact, until the water cools down).
- After rinsing with clean cold water, put them in the refrigerator overnight.
- The next day, slightly dried and sowing.
Seeding dates for seedlings
Sowing dates depend on the climatic conditions of the region and on where the daikon will be grown before harvest: in open ground or in a greenhouse. This is a cold-resistant culture, that is, adult plants are not afraid of temperatures close to 0 ° C. But it will be necessary to plant seedlings in the garden when the frosts end and the weather is relatively warm. By this time she should be a month or a half.
Based on these calculations, if we are going to get the crop in open ground, then in the conditions of central Russia, Belarus and most of Ukraine, sowing seeds in pots should be carried out in early April. In the Ural and Siberian regions, the dates are shifted by a couple of weeks towards the summer, and in the south (Kuban, Lower Volga) you can sow in the middle or even at the beginning of March.
The time for sowing seeds for seedlings for greenhouse cultivation of daikon depends entirely on the quality of the greenhouse: in heated greenhouses, crops can be obtained all year long, therefore there is no great sense in growing seedlings. And the planting of seedlings in unheated is carried out when the temperatures at least 10-15 ° C are established inside. Counting from the estimated period of 35-40 days, and seeds should be sown for seedlings.
Daikon can be grown all year round in the heated greenhouse
Daikon seeds are quite large, so sowing is not difficult.
Daikon seeds are not too small, they can be sown and individually
Produce it this way:
- Seeds are sown to a depth of about 2 cm, and watering the soil before or after sowing is the choice of a gardener: it depends on the density of the soil. As a result, the seeds for pecking should leave in a very moist substrate.
- After sowing, the pots or boxes are covered with glass or a transparent film and put in any place: until the shoots, the daikon does not need light, and the temperature should be room temperature.
- Shoots will appear, depending on the variety and temperature, in 4-7 days. Immediately after this, the glass is removed and the seedlings are transferred to a cool, well-lit place.
Caring for a daikon in the seedling period is elementary: in fact, there is nothing to do except watering. True, we must make sure that he has enough light and is not too hot.
"Enough light" does not mean that you need lighting in the morning or evening. On the contrary, daylight hours should not be long, otherwise instead of root crops, a flower garden will be obtained in the garden. But during the day, a sufficient amount of natural sunlight should fall on the pots.
But watering is needed systematic: the slightest drying of the soil for daikon seedlings is fatal. If sowing was carried out in a common box, shoots should be thinned out as they grow, so that they do not interfere with each other. After two weeks, seedlings can be fed with a weak solution of complex fertilizer, although this is an optional procedure.
10 days before planting in the garden, seedlings are tempered, accustomed to fresh air (taking to the balcony). If it grows in separate peat pots or tablets, by the time of planting it can be only two true leaves: in established warm weather, it is better to transfer the daikon to the garden than to keep it in the apartment. But if these are plastic pots or, moreover, a common box, you have to wait until at least four leaves develop.
Daikon seedlings will be ready for transplantation from the total capacity when there are at least four true leaves on the seedlings
Daikon transplant to the ground
It is possible to transfer seedlings to the bed when daytime temperatures steadily rise to at least 10 ° C, and frost stops at night. The soil should be prepared in advance, better - in the fall. Daikon grows almost everywhere, but better - on light sandy loam or loam. Not all varieties normally grow on clay soils: long-fruited ones cannot break through heavy soil, therefore varieties with round or oval root crops are planted on clay.
Since many daikon varieties grow to a length of 60 cm or more, and it is unrealistic to dig ground into such a depth with a shovel, many gardeners act differently:
- Having dug up a bed on a bayonet of a shovel, they shift the earth to the side.
- Then digging is repeated, introducing fertilizers into the lower layer of the earth (on 1 m2 - a humus bucket, 50 g of superphosphate and a liter can of ash).
- The land laid aside is returned to the place and the bed is leveled.
Daikon needs a lot of space, so there is no less than 30 cm distance between the holes, and preferably up to half a meter. Planting seedlings in the usual way, without deepening, at the same level as it grew at home. If you have to remove it from boxes or pots, you need to do this extremely carefully and with a large lump of earth, having previously completed holes of the right size in the garden. Seedlings are well watered and mulch the soil slightly with any dry bulk material.
Daikon can not be thickened: in most varieties, even the leaves are very large
Sowing daikon into the ground is very simple, and since this is done in the second half of summer, there is time to prepare the beds. Usually by this time harvested salad products and even garlic. It is precisely after garlic that it is very convenient to sow daikon seeds.
Preparation of beds
Daikon is able to grow on any soil, but since most varieties have very long root crops, the earth must be dug up as deep as possible. Daikon is sown in the summer after any previous culture, which means that the soil by this time is already relatively depleted, and the natural biological balance has not been established. Therefore, you need to dig a bed with fertilizers, but this in no case should be fresh manure (it is very good if manure was introduced under the predecessor in the fall). In summer, you can make well-rotted compost (up to a bucket per 1 m2) and mineral fertilizers, but it’s better not to get carried away.
In the right compartment - rotted compost, which you need to bring to the bed under the daikon
Superphosphate acts for a long time, and it must be applied in advance, and there is not much time left before sowing the daikon. You can add a little azofoska (40 g per 1 m2) to the soil, and it is better to limit yourself to wood ash (pouring a liter jar on each square meter of area). Ash is also good at repelling cruciferous fleas and various caterpillars. Before sowing, the bed should be leveled with a rake and outline landing grooves.
Almost all daikon varieties are suitable for summer outdoor sowing. The specific one should be selected based on the characteristics of the soil on the site: in the case of heavy soil, one must buy seeds of short-fruited varieties.
Preparation of seeds for sowing is usually not required, although some gardeners warm the seeds in hot water for 20-30 minutes. The author of these lines, who has been growing excellent daikon crops for the past three decades, has never done this: the seeds bought in a reliable store always come together quickly and without any problems.
The right time for sowing daikon is the main condition for this crop to give a normal crop of root crops, and not go out of color. Wrong sowing dates are the main reason that the harvest of this vegetable fails. Therefore, the timing is almost independent of the region, be it the Moscow Region, the Urals or the Kuban: sowing should be carried out when daylight hours have already decreased by at least an hour, and this happens both in the south and the north in the second half of July. Another question is that in the northern regions (Siberia, North-West Russia), the daikon may not have enough warm time to give a full crop, but this question is solved only by the choice of varieties.
So, if any varieties can be sown in the south after July 15, then in the middle zone of Russia it is better to abandon the latest varieties, and in the regions with severe climatic conditions, choose only the early ones, such as Sasha, Misato Red, Misato Green. In these varieties, the growing season does not exceed one and a half months, and already in September they can be harvested. And in order to completely insure against flowering, they can be planted even in early August.
Photo gallery: early daikon varieties for central Russia
- Daikon variety Sasha gives a harvest in 35–45 days
- Misato Red daikon variety is distinguished by a beautiful color of the root crop and pulp
- Misato Green daikon pulp - crispy, juicy, with moderate spiciness without bitterness
Trying to sow a daikon directly in the garden in the spring is futile: this can only be done in the south and no later than the beginning of April. Then the culture will have time to give a good harvest; True, it will not be stored, but for the early replenishment of the body with vitamins, it will fit perfectly. May crops are performed only for the purpose of obtaining seeds.
Rules and landing patterns
The sowing pattern of the daikon in open ground is the same as in the case of transplanting: in rows of 30–45 cm (depending on variety), between rows of 50–60 cm. A denser planting is possible only for the smallest varieties and if harvesting is supposed to be gradual, by pulling not fully grown plants. The procedure is as follows:
- It is more convenient not to outline the holes, but to make sowing grooves in the entire length of the bed with a depth of about 2 cm at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other.
- If the ground is not very wet, grooves before sowing should be shed well from a watering can without a strainer.
- In grooves, seeds can be laid out in 2-3 pieces a few centimeters apart. A few days after the emergence of seedlings, it will be clear which of them should be removed and cut into a salad. (By the way, if there is sufficient distance between the seedlings, then in a week and a half they can be carefully dug up and planted, but only in cloudy weather!)
- Having sprinkled the crops with soil, it is necessary to compact it lightly.
- If there is no intense heat, you can no longer water it, otherwise it is better to water it from a watering can, but with a strainer.
- It is not necessary to cover summer crops; in a few days, seedlings will appear as well. But to throw over a bed of mowed grass (without seeds!) Will be very good.
Seeds can be sown in the furrow at any distance, depending on how many are available.
Daykon care in the garden
Daikon almost does not require serious care, it only needs to be watered often. Drying of the soil even for one day threatens that the yield will drop sharply, and the root crops will become stiff. In the heat, watering is necessary almost every day, and one should not be afraid to overfill: even with the formation of puddles this radish will not decay. To slightly reduce the frequency of watering, you just need to periodically loosen the soil slightly, at the same time removing weeds. Even better is to mulch it with a thin layer of peat or good humus.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Most daikon varieties stick out very much from the ground, sometimes half the height of the root crop. At first, that part of it that rises above the ground should be slightly spudded, this makes the vegetable only tastier. When the harvest time is near, hilling is stopped.
Most daikon varieties stick out very much from the ground, so it’s better to
On fertile soils, daikon gives a quite decent crop even without top dressing; there is enough fertilizer that was introduced during digging. In other cases, after the formation of 4-5 leaves, the bed is sprinkled with wood ash before watering, and half a teaspoon of azofoska is brought next to each plant.
If the seeds and soil were not infected with anything, diseases on this radish are extremely rare, but it has a lot of pests. This is primarily the cruciferous flea, as well as the cabbage fly and whitewash. Marigolds, planted nearby, more than half solve this problem. In addition, periodic spraying with infusions of hot pepper or tobacco dust, as well as dusting with ash after watering, are effective.
Marigold sown next to daikon is not only beauty, but also protection
Harvesting is carried out as necessary, but when the first frost occurs, it is time to completely empty the beds. It is possible to pull out the daikon only on light soils; most often you have to use a shovel or pitchfork. It should be borne in mind that the root crop sometimes goes underground for half a meter, if it is damaged during excavation, it will not be stored. Therefore, even such a seemingly simple operation is best performed together.
Video: daikon growing tips
Features of planting in a greenhouse
When growing a daikon, a greenhouse may be required in two cases:
- if there is a desire to get a crop very early, when in the open ground the soil is not yet ripe for planting;
- if you live in a very cold region, where during the July sowing in open ground, even the early daikon varieties will not have time to ripen before the onset of severe cold weather.
Greenhouse cultivation is not at all more complicated than usual; everything is done exactly the same. The timing of planting seedlings or sowing seeds in a greenhouse is determined by the quality of the greenhouse and the region: for example, in Japan, daikon is grown in greenhouses year-round, controlling the temperature and giving additional illumination in the winter months. In an unheated greenhouse in the middle zone of our country, daikon can be sown in late March, in the north - from mid-April. For autumn cultivation, sowing in the greenhouse is carried out throughout August, but in the north, perhaps these dates can be shorter, depending on how well the greenhouse keeps heat in autumn.
If we are talking about spring cultivation of daikon, then it is worth taking early varieties in order to have time to plant cucumbers, peppers or tomatoes in the vacant place after harvesting. Moreover, the place in the greenhouse must be protected, and early-ripening varieties are usually more compact, they can be planted even if necessary according to the 10 × 20 cm scheme. It is advisable to maintain a temperature of about 18 ° C after sowing, and after emergence, immediately open the window leaves to temporarily lower it is up to 7–8 ° C. This measure causes rapid root growth. After a week, the optimum temperature regime should be established: 16–18 ° C during the day and 10–12 ° C at night.
Caring for a vegetable in a greenhouse is usual:
- regular watering
- weed removal.
- frequent airing: this regulates the temperature and eliminates the risk of disease.
Since the soil is rarely changed in a greenhouse, it quickly depletes, so it is advisable to feed daikon once a week: first with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer, and with the beginning of root crops loading, with an infusion of ash.
Most daikon varieties take up a lot of space in the garden, and it’s a pity to occupy a greenhouse for it.
Daikon predecessors when landing
When answering a question about the best and undesirable precursors of vegetables in the garden, gardeners usually have in mind two points:
- the predecessor should not have the same list of diseases and pests with the crop in question;
- both cultures should have significantly different "food" preferences, that is, the predecessor should not greatly deplete the soil with those elements that are required in large quantities by the second culture.
In order not to get confused about what crop to plant for, you can use the ready-made crop rotation table
In addition, some gardeners themselves enrich the soil with certain nutrients. So, for example, it is known that nitrogen-fixing bacteria live on the roots of peas and beans, which absorb nitrogen from the air and translate it into an organic state.
So, it is clear that daikon can not be planted in the garden where any cruciferous crops have grown over the past couple of years:
- any kind of cabbage,
Daikon grows well after carrots, cucumbers, any pumpkin and solanaceous crops. But by the middle of summer, these vegetables still grow in full swing in the garden, and it’s wasteful to keep the land idle in small areas for so long! Therefore, they try to plant daikon after those crops that are already harvested by the end of July.
Among the vegetables that leave the beds early, for a daikon, the best predecessors are:
- new potatoes.
The Japanese radish is indifferent to other cultures.
What can and cannot be planted daikon nearby
Существуют различные таблицы соответствия садовых и огородных культур друг другу, основанные на сходстве и различии агротехники, а также на природе основных болезней и вредителей. Так, например, хорошо известно, что лук и морковь прекрасно уживаются на одной грядке, поскольку взаимно убивают врагов своих соседей — луковую и морковную мух.
Для дайкона хорошим соседом считается репчатый лук, который своими фитонцидами отгоняет крестоцветных блошек и бабочек. Другие дружественные культуры:
- любые тыквенные культуры: кабачки, патиссоны, тыква, огурцы.
Не следует сажать дайкон рядом с такими растениями:
- любые виды капусты,
Видео: смешанные посадки дайкона и других культур
Особенности посадки дайкона сортов Саша и Миноваси
В настоящее время существует большое количество сортов дайкона, причём не только японского происхождения, но и российской селекции. Пожалуй, одними из самых популярных являются импортный представитель Миноваси и отечественный — Саша. Они довольно сильно отличаются друг от друга как по внешнему виду, так и по оптимальным условиям произрастания.
Дайкон сорта Саша
Считается, что дайкон Саша обладает повышенной устойчивостью к стрелкованию. Однако при слишком раннем летнем посеве он всё равно плохо отзовётся на длинный световой день. Зато за счёт высокой скороспелости при посеве в самом начале августа он успевает сформировать качественные корнеплоды в любых климатических условиях. Даже при самых неблагоприятных условиях его вегетационный период не превышает полутора месяцев, а при хорошем уходе урожай бывает готов и через 30 дней после появления всходов.
У Саши не очень крупные круглые корнеплоды (массой от 200 до 400 г и около 10 см в диаметре), они по внешнему виду скорее напоминают обычную белую редьку. В фазе полного созревания над поверхностью почвы возвышается примерно половина плода. Вкус плотной хрустящей мякоти характеризуется как отличный, без горечи, что позволяет использовать его в диетическом и даже детском питании.
Саша занимает мало места, у него не очень высокая урожайность, зато он вкусен и поспевает очень быстро
Этот сорт можно выращивать и в открытом грунте, и в теплице. За счёт ультраскороспелости Сашу можно сеять не только в конце лета для осеннего потребления, но и ранней весной, одновременно с обычной редиской. Выращивать его через рассаду нет никакого смысла. Однако (с точки зрения температурного фона) Саша не очень любит серьёзные колебания дневных и ночных температур (грубеет мякоть корнеплода), поэтому в те периоды и в тех климатических зонах, где такое возможно, сроки его посева, как весеннего, так и позднелетнего, следует корректировать.
При летней посадке дайкона Саша можно посеять его между рядками ещё не убранного, но уже почти готового лука, убив этим двух зайцев:
- с одной стороны, будет сэкономлена площадь (а в первые полторы недели этот дайкон не занимает много места);
- с другой — луковый запах будет отпугивать вредителей от молодой листвы дайкона.
Поскольку этот сорт образует не очень крупные растения, сеять его можно загущённо: между семенами достаточно расстояния 15–20 см, между рядами — около 25 см. Однако обычно его сеют гораздо чаще, а по мере отрастания всходы прореживают: молодая листва дайкона добавляет пикантности любым летним салатам.
Через две недели после всходов у дайкона Саша начинает формироваться корнеплод, поэтому, если к этому моменту ещё проведены не все прореживания, выдернутые в последующем экземпляры можно уже крошить в салаты вместе с корешками.
Дайкон сорта Миноваси
Этот среднеспелый японский сорт, включённый в Госреестр РФ, пребывает на грядке около двух с половиной месяцев. Корнеплоды цилиндрической формы вырастают очень длинными, массой до 1, 5 кг, характеризуются отличным вкусом. Обладает повышенной устойчивостью к стрелкованию. Поскольку уже в первые недели своего развития Миноваси образует длинный корень, его почти невозможно выращивать через стадию рассады (для этого попросту нужны очень глубокие горшки).
Миноваси — дайкон «классической» формы, длинный, один из самых вкусных сортов
Миноваси можно сразу сеять семенами в теплицу или в открытый грунт. В связи с довольно длинным вегетационным периодом весеннее выращивание в условиях средней полосы возможно только в теплице, куда его сажают в самом начале апреля или чуть раньше. Можно попробовать посеять и в огороде (в конце апреля), но лучше выбрать для этого более скороспелые сорта, а Миноваси оставить для осеннего потребления и высеять во второй половине июля.
Растения у этого сорта довольно крупные, поэтому минимально возможные расстояния при посадке — 30×60 см. Кроме этих расстояний, следует учитывать и то, что корнеплод проникает в землю на значительную глубину. Поэтому, если плодородный слой невелик, перед посевом в намеченных местах опытные огородники пробивают ломом лунку на глубину минимум полметра и вносят туда местные удобрения (литровую банку компоста, немного золы, чайную ложку азофоски). Затем лунку засыпают почвой и сеют дайкон обычным образом.
Во второй половине июля Миноваси высаживают после уборки лука или чеснока, внеся в грядку полное минеральное удобрение. Процессы посева и ухода за Миноваси не отличаются от таковых для других сортов, но убирать урожай надо очень аккуратно: длинные корнеплоды очень ломкие, иногда, чтобы не сломать, приходится выкапывать их почти как садовые кустарники.
Видео: урожай дайкона сорта Миноваси
Daikon is a healthy and tasty vegetable, its root crops are striking in their size, and agricultural technology is striking in simplicity. In fact, for the successful cultivation of daikon, only two conditions are needed: timely sowing and abundant watering. Therefore, getting a decent harvest of this Japanese radish is quite within the power of anyone, even a beginner, a summer resident.