Cultivation of Antonovka apple trees

Antonovka has been known for a long time. There are copies that have already turned 150 and even 200 years old. The aroma of this wonderful apple in the last century became known far beyond the borders of Russia, in which, most likely, this variety appeared as a result of folk selection. He is popular in Europe and Africa, where he was brought, suffering from nostalgia, emigrants. Where and how to grow Antonovka, what varieties she has, we will help the gardener to figure it out.

Description of the variety and its popular species

The history of Antonovka is long and confusing. In Russia, Belarus and Ukraine over the past century, there have been more than two hundred varieties, species and varieties of Antonovka. Strictly speaking, this is not a variety, but a variety, combining many varieties. Of course, most of these “varieties” are synonymous. Even in the State Register, where Antonovka vulgaris was listed in 1947, eight synonyms of the variety are indicated: Antonovka, Antonovka Kurskaya, Antonovka simple, Antonovka cup, Antonovskaya apple, Wax yellow, Dukhovoe, Krasnoglazovskaya. For the first time Antonovka under this name was described in 1848 by N.I. Krasnoglazov. Zoned in the North-West, Central, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Ural, Mid-Volga and East Siberian regions. It is grown in the northern regions of Ukraine, throughout Belarus, Europe, Algeria, Tunisia and other countries.

Antonovka apples grown north of Bryansk, Orel, Lipetsk, Michurinsk are considered winter. Grown south of this line, have an autumn period of consumption. Winter hardiness is high. Flowering later, the apple tree is resistant to return frosts. The variety is self-fertile and, to ensure fruiting, Pepin saffron, Wellsie, Autumn striped, Anise are planted next to it. Fertility is low - it yields the first fruits 7-8 years after budding, and after 1-2 years it is already possible to get a marketable crop. Productivity is high, but not regular. In industrial gardens, 200 c / ha is stably obtained, sometimes 500 and even more than 1 thousand kilograms were removed from individual large apple trees.

According to the State Register, Antonovka is struck by scab and very much by moth. VNIISPK - the All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding - calls the variety unpretentious and relatively resistant to diseases, and the prevalence of scab medium marks only in years of severe epiphytoties (the spread of plant diseases in large areas).

The tree is vigorous, possessing a high-spherical crown and elevated main branches. With age, they are distributed in the parties, well overgrown. Fruiting is carried out on ringworms and spears located on four-year-old wood, and often on two-year-old wood. Trees grow for a long time, there are specimens that have reached 150-200 years.

Antonovka has a tall tree with a spherical, sprawling crown

Fruits, as with most old varieties, are not aligned. The average weight of an apple is 120-150 grams, the maximum is 300 grams. The shape of the fruit is from flat-round to oval-conical, sometimes cylindrical with a wide-ribbed or faceted surface. A thick short peduncle holds the apple well on the tree until the ripe maturity. The skin is shiny, slightly oily, fragrant, rusted in the depths of the funnel. When removed, the color is greenish-yellow, then it turns straw-yellow. Slightly pink or golden tan appears on an insignificant surface of an apple. Numerous large subcutaneous points of white color are clearly visible.

The flesh is slightly yellowish, juicy, grainy. The taste is sweet and sour, excellent. The variety is also popular because of the strongest “Antonovsky” aroma of ripe apples.

The usual pick-up time is September. Shelf life is three months. Antioxidant treatment allows you to extend it for a month. The transportability of the fruit is high. The purpose is universal. They are used fresh, jam, jams, jam, compotes, juices are made from Antonov apples. Particularly popular in the soaked form.

Soaked apples Antonovka

Due to the high content of pectins (a polysaccharide of natural origin that can turn liquids into gel), apples of the Antonovka variety are the only raw materials for the preparation of the famous Belevskaya pastila, which has been produced in the Tula Region since the end of the 19th century.

From Antonovka make the famous Belevsky pastila

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

The advantages of Antonovka include:

  • High environmental adaptability.
  • Winter hardiness.
  • Productivity
  • Great taste and aroma of the fruit.
  • The high content of pectin, which makes the variety indispensable in the production of pastille, marmalade.
  • Good fruit transportability.
  • Drought tolerance.

The disadvantages of the variety:

  • Insufficient shelf life of apples, especially in southern areas.
  • The frequency of fruiting.
  • Exposure to scab disease and moth damage.

Video: review of the apple tree Antonovka in the suburbs

Antonovka is white

This apple tree has not found wide distribution and now it can be found only in individual old gardens. It has large (150 grams), spectacular white fruits. Their taste is more acidic than that of Antonovka vulgaris, the aroma is less pronounced. Collected in late August and early September. They are not stored for long - taken early - until November, taken late - are poured on a tree and are not subject to storage. VNIISPK also notes a lower winter hardiness of the variety, a greater susceptibility to scab and fruit rot.

In the village with the romantic name Lipovaya Dolina, located in the north of Ukraine (Sumy region), in a public recreation area, various old apple trees grow along the alley. Including about 10-20 pieces of Antonovka white variety. They are quite old - they are about 40-50 years old. Coming to visit relatives in August, my wife and I always enjoy the fragrant, juicy fruits of these apple trees. It's a pity to see how they disappear crumbling. There are many apples and no one collects them. The taste of these apples is somewhat more acidic than the usual Antonovka, but this is exactly what we like. What is interesting - we have never seen trees affected by scab, and also wormy apples did not come across to us. However, no one processes them and they grow on their own. True, in the fall, residents arrange subbotniks, collect fallen leaves, cut dry branches, whitewash trunks, dig stem-tree circles.

Antonovka white An old variety of folk selection Autumn. In many ways, it resembles the ordinary Antonovka, but the trees and all organs of the Antonovka white look more powerful. It is a diploid and crosses well with Antonovka vulgaris, which refutes the opinion that the variety belongs to clones of Antonovka vulgaris. Perhaps this is her seedling. Winter hardiness and scab resistance of fruits and leaves are lower than that of Antonovka vulgaris. Productivity is high. Strong-growing trees with a powerful wide-round crown, medium density. Shoots and branches are thick. The fruits of Antonovka white are larger (average weight 150 g), broadly conical, more ribbed, very young, oval, tall on young trees. The skin of the fetus is thin, dense, smooth, shiny. The main color is greenish, with full maturity almost white. The integumentary - in the form of a light pink blush on the sunny side or absent.

Antonovka White’s apples are quite large

The pulp of the fetus is white, rough, juicy, sour taste, with a light spice. Taste quality of fruits is lower than that of ordinary Antonovka. The fruits of Antonovka white ripen a little earlier than that of ordinary Antonovka, removable maturity occurs in the first ten days of September. They are characterized by a greater diversity of fruits, they are stored less. With early picking up to November, with a little belated, they begin to pour on the tree and are unsuitable for storage. The taste is not so hot. Most likely, fruits for processing.

Autumn, Moscow

Antonovka dessert

The variety was obtained by S.I. Isaev, a famous Russian breeder, student of I.V. Michurin, by crossing Antonovka vulgaris and Pepin saffron. The result is a medium-sized tree with a rounded crown. Fertility is high, in the third year after planting. It grows in Central Russia and in the north of Ukraine. In the Urals, Siberia and the Far East, they are grown on frost-resistant dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks in low-stem and shale form. Productivity from 40 to 120 kilograms per tree. Apples with an average weight of 200 grams have a light green color with a cream tint and a reddish blush. They lie until the end of March. The taste is slightly sweeter than that of ordinary Antonovka.

Dessert Antonovka apples have a slight reddish blush

Antonovka dessert. It is superior in taste to other Antonovka, but inferior to them in yield. The last two seasons are starting to be disappointed:

1. Still, the scab is amazed. This year was also affected by fruit rot. 2. Does not withstand the stated storage period until March - April. A large percentage of fruits lose their condition in January. I come to the conclusion that the variety is late autumn.

Autumn, Moscow

Antonovka gold

Could not find information about the origin of this variety and its author. There are only descriptions on the web that are repeated many times, like a carbon copy, which is doubtful. Egorievsky nursery (Moscow region) offers for sale Antonovka gold seedlings. We trust his information:

  • Scab-resistant tree, bearing fruit for 5-6 years after planting.
  • Productivity is 250 kilograms from one tree.
  • Apple mass is 250 grams.
  • The color is golden.
  • The pulp is juicy, aromatic.
  • The taste is pleasant, sour-sweet.
  • Ripening is the end of August.
  • Shelf life is seven days.

    Photo of a golden apple Antonovka from the site of the Egorievsky nursery

Planting Antonovka apple trees in spring

Antonovka is planted in early spring with one or two year old seedlings, which are acquired in advance, preferably in the fall. Until spring, it is stored in the basement at a temperature of 0— + 5 ° C or dug into the ground. In the fall, they also prepare a landing pit.

Where to plant an apple tree Antonovka on the site

Since the crown of the tree has a large diameter, the distance between adjacent plants is not less than 4-5 meters with aisles of 5-6 meters. If seedlings are acquired on mid-height, semi-dwarf or dwarf rootstocks, then these distances are proportionally reduced in accordance with the characteristics of a particular plant. Antonovka does not like the waterlogged soil and the close laying of groundwater. It is best to choose a plot for it on a small southern slope (up to 10-15 °), protected from cold winds and drafts from the north by dense tall trees, the wall of the building, a fence. At the same time, the apple tree should be well lit by the sun, its crown should be ventilated.

How to prepare a pit for planting Apple Tree Antonovka

The roots of Antonovka need a loose, drained soil structure. Preferably loam, sandy loam or chernozem. It should be borne in mind that the roots of Antonovka are especially densely located at a depth of 0.5-0.7 meters and a diameter of 1.0-1.2 meters. Outside of these sizes, the roots are more rare. Therefore, the size of the landing pit should not be less than indicated, but on poor soils, for example, sandy, rocky, the volume of the pit significantly increase.

When preparing the landing pit, the upper fertile soil layer is laid aside for further use

To fill the pits will be needed in equal amounts:

  • chernozem;
  • humus or compost;
  • peat;
  • sand (except sandy and rocky soils).

30 grams of superphosphate and 200-300 grams of wood ash are added to each bucket of such a mixture. Filled to the top, the pit is covered until the spring with waterproof material (film, roofing material, etc.).

Step-by-step instructions for planting an apple tree

In early spring, when nature has not woken up yet, but the buds are almost ready to swell, and the earth has warmed up to + 5-10 ° C, they begin to plant:

  1. The seedling is taken from the storage place and its roots in water are soaked for 2-4 hours.
  2. Meanwhile, a hole is opened and a part of the soil is removed from it so that the roots of the seedling freely fit into the formed hole.
  3. At the bottom of the hole, a small earthen mound is formed and, a little away from the center, they drive a wooden peg 0.7-1.2 meters high. For reliability, you can drive two pegs on opposite sides of the center of the pit.
  4. Taken out of the water, the roots of the seedling are sprinkled with Kornevin powder.
  5. Lower the plant into the pit, placing the root neck on the top of the knoll and spreading the roots along the slopes.

    Lower the plant into the pit, placing the root neck on the top of the knoll and spreading the roots along the slopes

  6. They fill the hole with soil taken out of it, compacting layer by layer. At the same time, make sure that the root collar remains at the soil level.
  7. Tie the trunk of the plant to the pegs using elastic materials.

    Tie the trunk of the plant to the pegs with elastic materials

  8. A trunk circle is formed and the tree is abundantly watered with water.
  9. Trim the top at a distance of 0.8-1.2 meters from the ground and shorten the branches by 20-30%.
  10. After 2-3 days, the soil is loosened and covered with a layer of mulch 10-15 centimeters thick.

Features of cultivation and subtleties of care

As noted, Antonovka is an unpretentious apple tree. Caring for it is simple, and its features are mainly associated not with the variety, but with the stock on which a particular tree is grown.

Watering and feeding

Watering is important in the first years after planting. Up to 4-5 years, they will need at least 8-10 per season. In the future, their number is gradually reduced, in adulthood it is quite possible to do with three or four. In rainy years, they do without watering at all. You can not water the apple tree 2-3 weeks before harvesting.

Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties

5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia

How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats

3-4 years after planting, fertilizers must be applied annually.

Table: fertilizing the apple tree Antonovka

FertilizersApplication DatesApplication MethodsDosage
Mineral
Phosphorus-containing (Superphosphate, Super Agro)Autumn, annually Under digging 30-40 g / m2
Nitrogen-containing (Urea, ammonium nitrate, Nitroammofoska)In the spring, annually
Potassium-containing (potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate)In the summer, annuallyIn dissolved form when watering10-20 g / m2
Integrated According to instructions
Organic
Humus, compost or grassroots peatAutumn once every 3-4 yearsUnder digging5-7 kg / m2
Liquid top dressingIn the summer, 3-4 feeding with an interval of 2-3 weeksMullein infusion in water (2 to 10), bird droppings in water (1 to 10) or fresh grass in water (1 to 2) is diluted with water and watered1 l / m2

Shaping and other trimming

It is important to form the crown of the tree in the first few years of its life. There are many ways to form the crown of fruit trees. For the traditionally tall Antonovka tree, as a rule, a sparse-tier form of the crown is used, trying to restrain its growth at the level of 4-5 meters.

In the case of growing apple trees on medium-sized or dwarf rootstocks, a cup-shaped or palmette-shaped (when grown on trellises, or along fences and walls of buildings) crown shapes may be appropriate.

In addition to shaping, regulatory trim is also used. Its purpose is to thin out a thick crown, to ensure penetration into the sunlight and fresh air. To do this, cut branches growing inside the crown and up (tops), intersecting. These prunings are carried out in early spring before the start of sap flow.

And also every year in the autumn, sanitary pruning should be carried out by removing dry, damaged, diseased, branches.

Photo gallery: apple tree forming methods

Krone Antonovka on a tall rootstock give a sparse-tier form

Cup-shaped formation is the easiest to execute

Palmette shaping is used when growing on a trellis

Diseases and Pests

As we have already noticed in the description, there is no consensus on the susceptibility of the disease to Antonovka or immunity to them. Probably, a lot depends on the region of cultivation and its inherent soil and climatic conditions. In areas with damp and cool summers, the scab can do quite a lot of harm to Antonovka, and in areas with warm winters, powdery mildew is common. In any case, it is worth paying special attention to timely and regular sanitary and preventive maintenance.

Prevention

In these works, the gardener will not see anything new for himself - we emphasize only once more their importance and list briefly.

  • Collection and destruction of fallen leaves in the fall.
  • Deep digging of the soil of near-trunk circles before the onset of frost.
  • Lime whitewash of trunks and skeletal branches.
  • Processing with a 3% solution of copper sulfate of crown and soil in late autumn and / or early spring.
  • Treatment with potent pesticides (DNOC, Nitrafen) in early spring before the start of sap flow.
  • Installation of hunting belts.
  • Preventive treatment with insecticides aimed at combating the moth and other insects. The first is carried out before flowering, the second - after flowering and another one ten days after the second. Applied preparations Decis, Fufanon, Spark and others.
  • Preventive treatments with systemic fungicides for the prevention of scab, powdery mildew and other fungal diseases. Apply Chorus (before flowering), Scor, Strobes, Fitosporin and others.

Major diseases

As already mentioned, the main diseases of Antonovka are fungal.

Scab

Its causative agent hibernates in fallen leaves. With the onset of spring, wind spores rise into the crown and, thanks to the mucous membrane, attach to the underside of young leaves. Температура воздуха в пределах 18—20 °C является наиболее благоприятной для прорастания спор грибка. Через 2—3 недели на листьях появляются светло-оливковые пятна, которые к лету разрастаются и становятся бурыми. Внутрення часть пятен высыхает и растрескивается. К этому времени парша начинает поражать плоды. На них также появляются пятна, которые в дальнейшем некротизируются, появляются трещины. Бывают годы, когда поражение паршой достигает 100%. К лечению болезни нужно приступать как только обнаружены первые её признаки. Эффективный препарат Строби довольно быстро справляется с паршой, а также предотвращает её распространение, так как блокирует споры грибка.

Буро-оливковые пятна — первый признак парши

Мучнистая роса

Эта болезнь реже поражает Антоновку. Обычно это происходит после тёплой зимы, так как при морозах ниже -20 °C споры мучнистой росы погибают. Зимуют они в ростовых почках, куда попадают летом через черешки листьев. Весной споры прорастают и покрывают молодые листья и концы зелёных побегов белым мучнистым налётом. Завязи и плоды также поражаются этой болезнью, если своевременно не произвести опрыскивание фунгицидами. Применяемые препараты такие же, как и при парше.

Мучнистая роса поражает яблоню весной

Вероятные вредители

Наибольший ущерб и частое поражение Антоновке наносит яблонная плодожорка. Это невзрачная маленькая (2—3 сантиметра) ночная бабочка бледно-коричневого цвета. Летает весной в течение одного—полутора месяцев и через 7—10 дней после цветения откладывает яйца на верхнюю сторону листьев при условии отсутствия дождя и сильного ветра, а также температуре воздуха не ниже +16 °C. После этого из яиц выползают светло-розовые гусеницы с коричневой головкой длиной до 18 миллиметров, которые тут же забираются в завязи и плоды, где питаются молодыми семечками. Профилактические мероприятия, своевременные обработки инсектицидами позволяют предупредить нашествие вредителя. Среди других возможных вредителей: яблонный цветоед, тля, щитовка и некоторые другие. Но, поскольку на Антоновку они нападают редко, то для борьбы с ними вполне достаточно обычных профилактических мероприятий. Останавливаться подробно на этом вопросе нет необходимости.

Наибольший ущерб и частое поражение Антоновке наносит яблонная плодожорка

Отзывы о сортах

Антоновку не спутать ни с каким другим сортом, у неё неповторимый «антоновский» аромат имеет великолепный вкус, который во время хранения только усиливается. Может храниться до марта. Антоновку употребляем в основном в свежем виде так и делаем компоты. Мне ещё нравится пастила ну а о мочёной антоновке я, вообще, молчу…

игорь 1988, Саратов

Мне повидло (по типу зажелееными ломтиками) нравится очень. У нас в селе дом развалился, а стареющий сад остался. Там два дерева Антоновки и два разных, на одном яблоки крупнее другого и более жёлтого цвета. Всё хочу себе пару деревьев привить, да не вышло в этом году с подвоями… ничего в будущем нужно исправляться, а то «местные алкаши» могут сад на дрова порубать… Жалко будет потерять. Единственный минус — что она не хранится. Вообще бы цены сорту не было.

RuS_CN, Чернигов

Садоводы говорят, что без Антоновки сад не сад. Хоть одно её дерево должно быть в любом саду. У меня в саду три вида Антоновки. Одно дерево — Антоновка обыкновенная, другое — Антоновка Белая Осенняя и третье, – Дочь Антоновки (Снежок). Про Антоновку обыкновенную тут уже много чего правильно сказали, не стану повторяться. Антоновка Белая Осенняя у меня действительно подходит раньше Обыкновенной, но она не такая белая, как я видел на ВВЦ, в экспозиции Корочанского плодопитомника, на выставке Золотая Осень, и далеко не такая сладкая. Там моё внимание привлекли яблоки белого, точно из алебастра, цвета. Я спросил — что за сорт, и мне ответили — Антоновка Яровая. Выяснилось, что это они сами так назвали этот клон, который нашли в старом корочанском саду и размножили. Яблоки были исключительного вкуса, – гораздо слаще Антоновки Обыкновенной, с таким же сильным ароматом. Я приобрёл у них пару саженцев на карликовом подвое. Деревья плодоносят и яблоки действительно подходят раньше, но у меня они и не такие сладкие и совсем не белые. Внешне они не отличаются от обыкновенной Антоновки. Вот они на фото вверху.

Эппл, Белгород

Антоновка идеальна для сока. Брикс — 12% стабильно (самое большое было 13% в начале сентября у неё в Беларуси, это самый высокий показатель для яблок в Беларуси). Лишней кислоты нет, сок сам по себе очень сладкий.Работал в цеху по производству сока технологом, поэтому знаю о чём говорю.

Doctor-KKZ, Беларусь

Антоновка — хороший сорт, когда вызревает. Но чаще он осыпается недозревшим. Только в 2014 году в Московской области у меня был 3-й урожай за 5-ть лет. Вызрел он на отлично, так что плоды порозовели с боков, налились жёлтым цветом. К сожалению, срок съёма — середина сентября, а срок хранения — до начала ноября. Период потребления: месяц — полтора. С нашей яблони получилось вёдер пятнадцать — двадцать. Семья из пяти человек съела ведра два — три. Вывод: делитесь яблоками с соседями, угощайте всех, не жалейте. Ещё хорошее яблочное варенье из антоновки получается, как желе.

eugenes, Московская обл.

Хочу реабилитировать Антоновку Белую. В прошлом году было первое плодоношение, и яблоки были не такие сладкие, как ожидалось, о чём я тут и написал. В этом году урожай был больше, а яблоки уродились на редкость вкусные и сладкие. Представьте Антоновку с её ароматом, но в два раза слаще обычного! Мы были просто в восторге от этих яблок. Точно так же проявила в этом году себя и Дочь Антоновки или Снежок. Сладкие, ароматнейшие яблоки. У них классический аромат антоновки смешивается с ещё каким-то своеобразным, конфетным ароматом, что даёт очень интересный, приятный букет. Я рад, что не зря потратил силы и время, ухаживая за этими двумя сортами. И Антоновка Белая, и Дочь Антоновки оказались прекрасными, очень вкусными сортами.

Эппл, Белгород

Сообщение от Анатолий Жомов. У Антоновки очень много разновидностей. В одном только районе Орловской области было найдено свыше 200 разновидностей Антоновки народной селекции.

You're right. In my garden, Antonovka and Antonovka-Kamenichka grow. In unripe Antonovka there is a lot of pectin. Therefore, the jam turns out to be of high quality. When baking pies, it does not blur. Juice from Antonovka Kamenichki is very good. It harmoniously combines sugar and acid. Guests often ask how much sugar we add to the juice.

Grapevine lover, Oryol Region

Antonovka is an apple that will not replace any modern variety. The magnificent taste and aroma, familiar from childhood, significantly overlap the varieties present in the not too significant drawbacks. It is definitely worth growing this apple tree on the site, if there are favorable conditions for this.

Recommended

Cherry pruning: basic rules and processing features of different types
2020
All About Apricot Pruning
2020
Diseases and pests of apple trees: causes and struggle
2020