Copper sulfate - a simple and effective tool for the preventive treatment of the vineyard
Grape bushes, like other residents of orchards and vegetable gardens, require competent care. In the arsenal of the chemical industry, there are hundreds of drugs that improve growth and prevent plant diseases. However, to maintain the health of the vines, you can do with an affordable remedy - copper sulfate.
Is it possible to spray grapes with copper sulfate
Before using any product, you must make sure that it is safe for the plant. Therefore, to begin with, consider what copper sulfate is and how it affects the vine.
Do not confuse copper and iron sulfate! They contain different basic trace elements.
On the left are crystals of iron sulfate, which helps fight lichens and moss, and on the right is copper, which protects grapes from mildew and oidium
Table: Comparative characteristics of copper and iron sulfate
|Chemical formula and composition||CuSO 4 - copper, sulfur||FeSO 4 - iron, sulfur|
|Appearance||Opaque blue powder||Granules of bluish-green color, slightly transparent|
|Purpose of application||Protection and nutrition, saturation of plants with copper ions. Effective in the fight against fungal diseases: mildew, oidium, all types of rot||Protection against fungal diseases, soil disinfection, nutrition, saturation of plants with iron ions. Additional purpose: fight against lichens and moss|
|Mode of application||An aqueous solution in conjunction with hydrated lime - Bordeaux liquid - or an aqueous solution of a pure substance||Aqueous solution of pure substance|
The composition of copper sulfate includes a salt of sulfuric acid, which destroys scab, rot, spotting on shrubs, and copper, which is a fertilizer for plants like iron, magnesium, chromium and other trace elements. Therefore, treatment with copper sulfate is important for the development of the grape bush. However, do not forget that excess nutrition is as dangerous as a lack. In addition, copper sulfate burns young shoots and leaves, which leads to their death. In the application of any means, a reasonable approach is important - this is the key to success.
In which cases grapes are processed with copper sulfate
In horticulture and viticulture, copper sulphate treatment is carried out to fight diseases and as a top dressing. Depending on the chosen goal, the timing of the spraying is established and the dosage of the drug is selected.
Copper sulfate, like other mineral fertilizers, is suitable for feeding grapes on poor sandy soils and peat bogs, but not on chernozem. Copper is involved in photosynthesis and increases resistance to fungal diseases. Damage to the vine by diseases is a consequence of malnutrition, including copper deficiency. A sign that the plant lacks this trace element is the poor development of young shoots and whitening of the tips of the leaves. For top dressing, which is carried out on the leaves before flowering, use the following dosage: 2–5 g of copper sulfate per 10 l of water.
The lack of copper in grapes is manifested by the whitening of leaf tips, usually on peaty and sandy soils
An excess of copper in the soil should not be allowed: in this case, the growth of the vine bush will be inhibited. Therefore, if it rains after treatment with copper sulfate, it is possible to spray again not earlier than in a month.
Fungal Disease Treatment
As a fungicide, copper sulfate is effective in preventing:
- brown spotting
- white spotting
- powdery mildew.
Also, due to the fact that in a dissolved state, copper has an acid reaction, the drug stops the development of mycoses.
To keep the protective film on the vine after spraying, add adhesives to the solution. It can be:
- liquid laundry soap
- washing powder
- skimmed milk.
Enough 100 g of substance per bucket of water. As a result, the drug will stay on the plant, it will not be washed off by a sudden rain.
Since the resulting coating does not penetrate deep into the branch, special means should be used for medicinal purposes: Ridomil Gold, Strobi, Cabrio Top or similar preparations.
A solution of copper sulfate in a concentration of 1-3% is used to soak the seedlings before planting. Such treatment will prevent infection with fungal diseases.
Soaking grape seedlings before planting in a 1-3% solution of copper sulfate will prevent infection with fungal diseases
What time is better to process the vineyard
The timing of spraying grapes with copper sulfate depends on what the procedure is for. There are three seasonal treatments:
- Autumn - the main, for the destruction of bacteria and fungi;
- spring - additional, for disinfection and disease prevention;
- summer - auxiliary, to suppress the activity of pests.
Based on this, it can be determined that treatment of vines in autumn with copper sulfate is preferable, but the importance of spring and the likelihood of summer procedures cannot be ruled out. Let's consider them in more detail.
Processing of grapes with copper sulphate in autumn
The procedure is carried out after harvesting and complete fall of the foliage. Depending on the region, this can be either the beginning or the end of November. The main thing is that the bush is already prepared for the winter. In this case, getting the drug onto the falling leaves is no longer scary; the main thing is to completely irrigate the vine and protect the plant from infection. Before processing, the vine is bundled along the trellis.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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When processing grapes with copper sulfate solution in autumn, the vine should be bundled
Before carrying out the procedure, it is necessary to remove and burn damaged branches and fallen leaves. This will prevent re-infection by pathogenic spores.
Processing is carried out in the following sequence:
- 100 g of copper sulfate is dissolved in 1 liter of warm (50 ° C) water in a glass container. Stainless or enameled dishes will not work - the drug can react and destroy metal and enamel.
- Mix thoroughly, bring the solution to 10 l and pour into the sprayer tank. When pouring, it is better to use a filter, since particles of copper sulfate may remain undissolved.
- Grapes are sprayed, trying to get the solution on the whole vine.
Video: Vine processing in vitriol in autumn
Processing grapes with copper sulphate in spring
In order not to burn tender greens, the procedure must be performed before buds open. You can start processing only when the temperature stably stays at least +5 ° C. This is an important condition, since copper contributes to the accelerated cooling of plants, which will be detrimental to the buds, young leaves with possible spring frosts.
The procedure is as follows:
- Vines are freed from winter shelter and raised above the ground, secured to trellises for drying.
- After 1-2 days, a solution of copper sulfate is prepared at the rate of 100 g per 10 l of water in the same manner as for autumn processing.
- Process the vine from all sides.
Video: Vine treatment with vitriol in spring
Grape processing with blue vitriol in summer
Summer treatment is carried out in extreme cases: in order not to use potent medications if the first signs of the disease are detected. For spraying, weak solutions should be prepared - 0.5%, and for lotions of the vine against lichens and oidium - 3%.
Dosage of copper sulfate for various treatments
Since excess copper is dangerous for plants, strictly defined dosages are used for various purposes:
- 0.5% - 50 g per 10 l of water for emergency treatment on green leaves;
- 1% - 100 g per 10 l of water for spring treatment;
- 3% - 30 g per liter of water to combat scab;
- 5% - 50 g per liter of water - autumn processing of old powerful bushes.
The most applicable treatment of vineyards with Bordeaux liquid (a combination of copper sulfate with lime in a ratio of 1: 1). In this case, the concentration of copper sulfate can be increased up to 10%. In order for the mixture to remain guaranteed on the branches, add 50 g per liter liquid laundry soap (or grate it and dissolve lump in water) into the solution. It is necessary to process until the branches are completely wetted. Estimated consumption will be:
- about 1.5–2 liters per sleeve (the so-called long-term branch) of medium size,
- 3.5–4 L per large, well-developed bush.
Video: rules for the preparation of Bordeaux liquid
The order of preparation of the solution:
- Prepare glass containers for mixing.
- In 5 l of warm water add copper sulfate powder and mix until completely dissolved:
- 100 g for the preparation of a 1% solution;
- 300 g for the preparation of a 3% solution.
- Dilute the slaked lime first in a liter of warm water, then bring the solution to 5 liters:
- 100-150 g for the preparation of a 1% solution;
- 300-400 g for the preparation of a 3% solution.
- Add soap or other adhesive to the milk of lime.
- Mix both solutions: pour dissolved vitriol into lime milk.
- Stir carefully, avoiding the formation of foam and spray.
- The resulting composition must be filtered through a filter. Use immediately; do not store mixture.
Safety rules for working with copper sulfate
When processing vines with Bordeaux liquid, safety measures must be observed
To benefit the vine and not harm your health, the following rules should be followed when making and using a solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid:
- protect the skin from getting the finished product - put on closed clothing, shoes and a mask;
- do not add other ingredients to the solution, except for copper sulfate, lime and soap;
- spray the vineyard in the evening or early in the morning - so the drops last longer on the branches and do not evaporate in the sun;
- handle in dry, calm weather. During rain, no manipulations are performed, and the wind will prevent evenly applying the drug to the vine;
- spray not only the bush, but also the support on which it is tied up, since it can be a carrier of pathogens of diseases and fungal spores.
If you have to carry out summer processing, this should be done no later than a month before the expected harvest. As part of copper sulfate, there is a salt of sulfuric acid, which, when ingested, will cause poisoning.
Since the lime suspension settles to the bottom of the dishes, the solution must be mixed during spraying, otherwise first water will fall on the bush, and then a highly concentrated preparation.
It is necessary to ensure that the entire surface of the vine is irrigated, while abundant watering of the soil under the bush should not be allowed. You can simply cover the ground with a film, but it is better to use fine dispersed sprayers of directional action - manual pump-action or electric devices.
The procedure (regardless of processing time) is as follows:
- First process the top of the bush.
- Then spray the middle tier.
- The next step is to apply the product to the sleeves and the barrel.
- At the end, the support is irrigated.
The mouthpiece of the apparatus should be kept at a distance of about 10–20 cm from the branch, and the jet should be directed from top to bottom along the vine.
A manual sprayer is convenient for processing a pair of vine bushes, while an electric sprayer is useful for a large vineyard
Copper sulfate is an effective drug for mineral nutrition and the prevention of fungal diseases. However, using it to process the vineyard, do not neglect the rules, and then your plants will respond to the care with an excellent harvest!