Colinict actinidia: features of growing northern kiwi
Colomict actinidia is a very decorative tree-like liana with original foliage that changes color several times during the season. In addition, the culture has incredibly tasty and healthy fruits. Colomicta is one of 36 species of the genus, which includes Chinese actinidia, better known as kiwi. But if the latter is able to grow and bear fruit exclusively in tropical conditions, then the colomict is a genuine northerner that can withstand winter frosts down to -40 ºС.
Biological features of this actinidia
Plants of the genus Actinidia, including colomict, are perennial climbing vines that can climb any support to a height of 15 m. In the natural environment, they are found in the forests of the Far East, Amur Region, China and Japan. Colomicta grows in mountainous areas at an altitude of about 1300 m above sea level, as well as along the banks of streams, rivers and forest edges.
In nature, colomictus actinidia grows in mountainous areas, as well as along the banks of streams and rivers, on forest edges
Colomikta is the most hardy and tenacious among other representatives of the genus. It perfectly withstands winter frosts, grows remarkably in regions with a harsh climate: in the Far East, Siberia and even in the north of our country.
Actinidia colomicta is a true long-liver compared to other garden plants. Under favorable conditions, the vine can grow and bear fruit for up to 100 years.
Translated from Latin, the word "colomict" sounds like "sparkling", "burning." Actinidia received this name for the variegation of its leaves. Leaf blades - rather large and wrinkled - change their color throughout the season. At the beginning of their growth, they are painted in a noble bronze tone, then turn green, and before flowering, a bright white spot appears on the ends of the leaves, which gradually turns pink. After this, the leaf blades turn green again, and in the fall they acquire a yellowish or reddish hue.
According to botanists, such a coloration of liana leaves is an additional adaptation to pollination. Contrasting color spots among dense greens attract insects, so they play the role of bright petals.
Colinict actinidia with unusual foliage coloring can become a real decoration of the site
The leaf shape of actinidia colomict is ovate with a heart-shaped base, they grow up to 5–13 cm in length. Thin shoots have a dark brown hue. Quite large flowers of white color (with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm) are collected in shields of 3-5 pieces. During flowering colomict exudes a pleasant aroma reminiscent of jasmine.
Blooming actinidia colomict lasts about 3 weeks
The fruits have a fragrant, delicate pulp and are painted green with dark longitudinal strokes. Seeds are small, yellowish or dark brown in color.
Actinidia berries have a cylindrical shape, their length is 2-3 cm, and their width is about 1.5 cm
Colomicta is one of the champions in the content of ascorbic acid - in its fruits, vitamin C is 10 times more than that of blackcurrant. Actinidia is second only to rose hips in this respect. The uniqueness is that with a record high content of ascorbic berries contain very little acid and have an excellent sweet taste. Therefore, the fruits of actinidia colomict are quite suitable for dietary nutrition.
In the Far East, actinidia is called raisins, small raisins, crawler, maximovnik and the Arctic beauty.
Varietal variety colomict
The plant has been cultivated since the mid-19th century. Based on the wild forms of actinidia colomict, several dozen productive and winter-hardy varieties have been created. Among gardeners, old proven varieties are popular, such as:
- Pineapple Michurin;
- Clara Zetkin;
However, modern varietal forms are more resistant to pests and diseases, they are able to withstand frosts down to -40 ° C. Of the new varieties, the following can be distinguished:
- Adam. Male pollinator variety. The plant is decorative, with very beautiful leaves, green in May, then acquiring a white, and later a pink hue. Adam has his own peculiarity: the older the liana, the richer its color. The small, white flowers of this actinidia exude a light lemon scent.
Actinidia colomicta cultivar Adam is distinguished by decorative leaves
- Household. This Russian variety is one of the earliest. Liana is not tall, with curly shoots of medium size. The color of leaf blades is green. The average weight of the fruit is 3 g. The berries are conical in shape, painted in a dark olive shade. The skin of the fruit is thin. The taste is sour-sweet, with an apple aroma.
The fruits of actinidia colomict cultivars Homestead have a slightly conical shape
- Gourmet Medium-sized vine, a distinctive feature of which is large-fruited and high productivity. Gourmet fruits are elongated, cylindrical. Juicy and tender flesh has a sour-sweet taste and pineapple aroma. For fruiting the variety requires a pollinator.
Actinidia Gourmand is characterized by high productivity, but pollinator is required for the formation of berries
- Sarah. Actinidia of this variety is a female plant and requires pollination. Variety Sarah has a very interesting leaf color: the upper half of the leaf is painted in all kinds of shades from white to pink, and the bottom is green. The flowers have a strong aroma. Berries grow the size of gooseberries.
Actinidia varieties Sarah have a very interesting leaf color - from the bottom they are green, and from above the shades will change from white to pink
Tanyusha. The average mass of colomict fruits of this variety is 2.5 g. The berries are elongated, cylindrical. The taste is sweet and sour with a pronounced strawberry aroma.
Sweet and sour berries of actinidia Tanyusha have a pronounced strawberry flavor
How to plant northern kiwi
The main condition that must be taken into account when placing colomicts in the garden is that this type of actinidia is dioecious. That is, for pollination of 3-4 female specimens, the gardener will need to plant another male type vine (for example, Adam variety).
Copies of actinidia of female and male colomictus can be distinguished by the structure of the flower
The vigor growth is moderate, therefore, when planting in a row, plants can be planted at a distance of 1-2 m.
Between lianas in a row should be left at least 1-2 m
We select a place and soil for planting seedlings
Colomict actinidia is an aggressor, its roots are actively spreading to the sides and can inhibit the root systems of nearby growing plants. The distance to the nearest neighbors should be at least three meters. To protect other crops, you can protect the colomict seedlings with pieces of slate dug in the ground. When planting, the following factors affecting the development and fruiting of the plant should be considered:
- It is not recommended to plant a vine near water bodies, as the plant does not like waterlogging. Experienced gardeners are not advised to plant colomict in areas with a high occurrence of groundwater.
- The shoots of actinidia colomictus stretch to the sun, but the roots do not tolerate drying and overheating, since they are located superficially. Because of these features, a semi-shady place should be chosen for planting.
- Colinict actinidia prefers loose and light soil.
- Liana needs support. The best place for her will be the area near the path, near the fence, pergola or arch.
Actinidia seedling needs support
Young colomict plants can be planted in a permanent place in autumn or early spring. Landing is carried out as follows:
- We dig a rather large pit 60x60 cm in size.
- At the bottom we put a drainage layer - gravel or broken brick. The drainage should be about 10 cm thick.
Put drainage at the bottom of the landing pit
- We mix garden soil and well-ripened compost in equal proportions, add 1.5 kg of wood ash, 200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate.
- We pour a third of the fertile substrate into the pit with a knoll.
A third of the substrate should be poured into the landing pit with a knoll
- If the root system is open, then dip it in a clay mash (you can add a root, for example, Kornevin).
- We put the seedling on the knoll and straighten the roots.
- We fill up half with soil and water it well.
- Add the rest of the earth and ram it lightly. The root neck when planting should be deepened by 2 cm.
- We install a peg next to the seedling and we attach a plant to it.
For greater stability, you need to install a peg next to the seedling
- Mulch the planting with straw or mowed grass.
Features of growing actinidia colomict
The plant is very unpretentious. Actinidia winter well and practically do not freeze out, therefore shelter is required only for young specimens. The first three years after planting, the vines are removed from the support, laid on the surface of the soil and covered with spruce branches. Adult plants do not need shelter, they can even be left on a support.
In autumn, young shoots of actinidia are removed from the supports
In the first two years, actinidia does not need to be fed colomict. Then annually at the end of April 1 m2 is added:
- 30 g of ammonium nitrate;
- 15 g of potassium salt;
- 15 g of double superphosphate.
In summer, water the plant with a solution of complex fertilizer Kemira (20 g per 10 liters of water). At the end of September, after the end of leaf fall, 20 g of potassium salt and superphosphate should be poured under each liana (do this simultaneously with digging the soil around the plants).
An important agricultural technique in the cultivation of actinidia colomict is pruning. The first time the procedure is carried out three years after planting a seedling in open ground. It is recommended to do pruning only in the fall after leaf fall, in other periods it should never be done. Actinidia have the ability to literally expire with cell sap (they say that the plants "cry"). If you cut the liana in spring, summer or early autumn, then it can weaken and die.
Trimming adult actinidia colomict is carried out as follows:
- annually shorten the shoots by a third of their length;
- cut out all the branches that thicken the bush.
When the plant reaches 10 years of age, it is necessary to conduct anti-aging pruning. All shoots need to be cut, leaving stumps of 30-40 cm in size.
Adult actinidia bushes are pruned in the fall, shortening shoots by a third
Protecting a young creeper from cats
Modern varieties do not suffer from insect pests and diseases, but the plant has special enemies. Cats that are attracted to the aroma of actinidia love to enjoy young shoots and roots. Experienced gardeners recommend fencing young plantings with a metal mesh.
Cats like the scent of shoots and the roots of actinidia colomict, so the seedlings must be protected by wrapping them with a metal mesh
Video: Actinidia cultivation agricultural technology
How to propagate colomicta
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- seed way;
- cuttings (lignified and green);
- root layers.
Seeds must be stratified before planting. This requires:
- Wrap planting material in a cloth and place in wet sand.
Actinidia seeds need to be wrapped in cloth and placed in wet sand
- Keep two months at a temperature of + 18–20 оС.
- The next 2 months - at + 3-8 ° C.
- Another month - at + 13-15 degrees.
- Once every 5-7 days, a tissue bag with actinidia seeds is removed from the sand, unfold and ventilated for several minutes.
Actinidia seeds begin to germinate after several months of stratification
After the completion of the stratification period, they begin to land:
- Seeds are sown in a box filled with fertile soil (ready soil for seedlings is suitable).
- Plantings are kept at room temperature and moisturized when the topsoil dries.
- Seedlings can be planted in the garden when 3-4 real leaves appear on them.
Species actinidia are most often propagated by seeds, since varietal characters may not survive
Plants grown from seeds bloom and begin to bear fruit for 5–6 years.
Actinidia from green cuttings
In summer, you can propagate colomict with green cuttings. Do this as follows:
- In mid-June, cuttings with 2-3 kidneys are cut. Leaves are cut in half. The stem under the kidneys is cut at an angle, and a straight cut is made on top of the stem.
- Prepared cuttings are powdered with Hetrauxin or Kornevin and planted in loose soil in the garden.
Green actinidia cuttings are planted in loose soil
- Landings are covered with cropped plastic bottles or transparent cups.
- Humidify periodically and ventilate daily so that condensate does not accumulate on the walls of the improvised greenhouse.
- Rooted cuttings are planted on a permanent place next summer.
Video: colomict actinidia cuttings
Propagation by lignified cuttings
Actinidia is propagated in a similar way in late autumn, after the end of leaf fall. By this time, the young shoots already have time to lignify. Landing is carried out as follows:
- Liana is cut into cuttings (each segment should have 3 buds) and planted immediately in open ground.
- The substrate must be loose - to achieve this, you can add a little clean river sand.
- Plantings are covered with dry foliage and spruce branches.
- All next summer, cuttings should grow in the same garden, and after a year they can be planted in a permanent place.
Lignified cuttings of actinidia colomict root quickly
Method of propagation by layering
For the reproduction of actinidia colomict in this way, annual shoots are best suited. Carry out the procedure as follows:
- In autumn or spring, the annual shoot is removed from the support.
- A groove 5–7 cm deep is dug near the vine.
- Lay the shoot in the groove and press it firmly to the soil.
- Sprinkle with soil and moisturize.
Next year, a new shoot will grow from each kidney, at the base of which roots will appear. Rooted branches can be separated from the mother plant and planted in a permanent place in the garden.
On the actinidia layers, a new shoot grows from each kidney
To get layering, you can not dig a groove, but do otherwise:
- Lay the annual shoot horizontally and pin it in several places to the ground.
The actinidia shoot needs to be laid horizontally and pinned to the ground
- Then cover with loose earth, leaving only the crown.
- Attach new shoots to the support.
Such layering is quite easy to root and quickly grow. Already in the next season you can get several new plants.
Harvesting and Harvesting
Colomict actinidia matures in August or early September. This process does not occur simultaneously, ripe berries fall from the bush, so they need to be picked several times a season. Unripe fruits can also be picked - they are laid out under a canopy in the shade, where they are perfectly ripened.
Colomict actinidia berries can be used fresh
Colomict actinidia is good fresh, its fruits can be stored in the lower compartment of the refrigerator for quite a long time. Also, many preparations are made from berries. They are dried, frozen, pickled, jam, jams are made, juices and wine are made.
Gardeners reviews on the cultivation of actinidia colomict
I have about 5 years growing several bushes of actinidia colomicta (cottage in the north of Moscow). They hibernate without shelter and descent from trellises. Blossom and bear fruit annually (as the bushes grow older and more abundant). In two neighbors in the country, actinidia has been growing for more than 10 years. Also never had problems with wintering.
Decorative actinidia (colomict) in itself very suits me - bright leaves, plentiful flowering and a peculiar form - a kind of bonsai liana.
Cats eat only actinidia colomict. Basically, it needs to be protected at a young age, before fruiting. There are special tricks for this, simple. In the future, the bark will become coarser, only superficially located roots will dig cats, which is not dangerous. Low-lying young shoots can eat. But when there is a lot of it, then the cats are lost, and basically swing on the ground.
Colomict actinidia, the most valuable in taste and healing qualities. All types of actinidia have a completely different taste ... Polygamum, for example, tastes like sweet pepper, and is tasty only in pickled form. Actinidia itself cannot be pollinated in any way, and for each type of actinidia (colomict, argument, polygamum) a pollinator of exactly the same type is needed! Surely one of your neighbors has a male plant of the same species, not necessarily nearby, maybe even on a nearby street.
I have actinidia colomict in my garden. I bought, as expected, 2 seedlings - male and female. But one did not spawn :( The second one has grown into a huge vine, annually cut it almost to the root. You either have to throw it away completely or buy a pair for it. But here's the catch: I don’t know which specimen is growing, female or can you somehow distinguish them in appearance?
The fruits of actinidia colomict are the true record for the presence of ascorbic acid. They are consumed fresh, and they also prepare a lot of dishes - from ordinary jam to gourmet pastille. Berries are pickled, and also make delicious wine out of them. Actinidia is very decorative and can decorate the most unsightly corner of the garden. Достоинств у культуры — масса, поэтому стоит поселить у себя на участке эту красивую и долговечную лиану.