Classification of garden paths from masters of landscape design
Garden paths are guiding threads connecting in a single ensemble all the functional areas of the site and other elements of landscape design. Without garden paths, it is impossible to achieve the artistic completeness of the appearance of the garden. The choice of the configuration of the tracks laid on the territory of the site is carried out at the stage of landscape design. Depending on the purpose of the tracks, materials are selected for their device, as well as laying technology. In accordance with the classification adopted in landscape design, paths can be decorative and utilitarian, main and secondary, hard and soft, straight and zigzag, wide and narrow. The design of the road transport network of the site is carried out taking into account its relief, which can be smooth, “saucer-shaped” or multi-stage (in the presence of significant differences in height).
Utility and decorative paths in the garden
All garden paths can be divided into two large groups: utilitarian and decorative. Representatives of both groups are always present at each site. The utilitarian group includes access roads to platforms for vehicles, as well as paths laid to outbuildings that are actively operated throughout the year. The width of the entrance path to the site depends on the dimensions of the vehicles used by the owners of the country house. Usually this value is 2.5-3 meters. The power of the base is calculated taking into account the weight of the vehicle. Previously, only concrete was used as materials for the canvas. Now, preference is increasingly given to road tiles, which allows you to more accurately maintain the style in the design of the landscape.
Decorative garden paths are needed to decorate the site. They are laid for walking, during which a person can enjoy the beauties of the garden. Decorative paths lead to relaxation areas hidden in secluded corners of the garden. The width of the tracks of this type is from half a meter to one and a half meters. Pebbles, crushed stone, tiles, natural stone, etc. are used as materials for arranging decorative paths.
Decorative garden paths, laid out of individual natural stones, add a twist to the design of the landscape of the garden and make it easier to admire its beauty
Designated garden paths
Among the garden paths there is a kind of hierarchy. Tracks can be primary, secondary, connecting.
- The main path is the main connecting element of the garden. The width of this track should exceed 1.2 meters, so that there is enough space for walking together.
- Secondary and connecting paths branch off from the main path in different directions of the garden. On narrow paths, whose width is about 0.5-0.7 meters, it is convenient to move one at a time. The configuration of the secondary and connecting tracks does not have to be complicated. Otherwise, these elements will enter into competition with the main track, which cannot be allowed in any way.
With the help of the main, secondary and connecting paths, combined into a single road transport network, all the significant objects located on a suburban area are connected: a house, a garage, outbuildings, an entrance zone, open areas, recreation places, artificial reservoirs.
A well-designed network of garden paths on the site allows you to easily get anywhere in the garden
When designing a road transport network, it is necessary to adhere to the “golden” rule, namely that the axes of all tracks must intersect at one single point. This place, which is the compositional center of the garden, is decorated in a dominant style.
Garden Path Design
The design of garden paths is chosen depending on:
- type and structure of soil on the site;
- seasonal shifts of soil;
- groundwater level;
- estimated paving load;
- intensity of use (seasonal or year-round).
Due to its design features, garden paths, in addition to their main purpose, are able to perform another important function - water disposal. To do this, they give a slight slope to their surface, which ensures rain and melt water to drain into the drainage layer of the track base. You can build a garden path:
- two-profile (middle above the edges) - water flows in two directions;
- single-profile (one edge is raised above the other) - water flows down the slope.
Garden paths have not only a transverse profile, but also a longitudinal profile, which shows the difference in its height along the entire length (from beginning to end). The difference in height between the edges of the track in the transverse and longitudinal profile is measured in ppm. The following values are allowed:
- 15-60 ppm for the transverse slope of the track (depending on its width):
- 70 ppm or less - for the longitudinal slope of the track.
If the value of the longitudinal slope at any part of the garden path exceeds 70 ppm, it is recommended to arrange stairs for safety reasons. Otherwise, the path will be too steep.
With a significant difference in elevations on the territory of the garden plot, a path with ladder steps is made to facilitate ascent and descent along the slope
Classification of tracks by type of base
Any track consists of the following structural elements:
- subgrade (recesses in the soil corresponding to the size of the track or site under construction);
- the base, consisting of an underlying sand layer and (or) a buffer gravel-crushed stone pillow layer. Both layers are designed to reduce the load on the subgrade, as well as to drain water from the site (drainage).
You can learn about other ways to drain water from a site from the material: voda / drenazh-uchastka-svoimi-rukami.html
Depending on the functional purpose of the garden path, the type of base is selected. So for the garden paths used during the summer season, it is enough to make a sandy base. For footpaths operated year-round, the base should already be gravel and sand. Entrance roads and areas intended for parking vehicles are built on a solid concrete base reinforced with reinforcement.
Dividing tracks into groups by type of paving
The roadbed is another mandatory structural element of any track. By the type of coverage, all garden paths can be divided into two groups:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- rigid (monolithic concrete, clinker brick, paving slabs, natural stone);
- soft (pebbles, gravel, granite screenings (crumbs), crushed stone).
In landscape design, combined paths are also used, which consist of sections having a hard or soft surface.
Combined paths are made of bulk materials and hard coatings, presented here as individual square stone slabs
Complex technologies are used to lay the special roadbed. These include green paths arranged on a geogrid or poured with decorative concrete. Hard paths are the most popular in suburban construction, allowing you to implement a wide variety of style decisions on the design of the garden plot. In addition, they are more practical, as they are durable, reliable, easy to clean. Soft tracks will have to be cleaned of debris longer and more often repaired by leveling bulk material.
In a separate group, it is customary to allocate wooden coatings, made in the form of flooring, scaffolds, boardwalks, paths made of wood cuts.
Also for garden paths use plastic tiles. Read the pros and cons of this material: dekor / ukladka-dorozhki-iz-plastikovyx-plitok.html
Wood cuts in the design of garden paths are used in combination with objects built from logs or beams
Strengthening the edges of garden paths
Borders used to strengthen the edges of garden paths allow you to:
- increase the stability of the coating;
- protect the edges of the coating from possible slipping and destruction;
- prevent overgrowing of the track with vegetation;
- protect the lawns and flower gardens adjacent to the paths from trampling.
Installation of curbs is mandatory for garden paths with a soft type of coating. Hard paths are framed by borders at the request of the owner of the suburban area.
The aesthetic value of paving garden paths
The choice of materials for paving garden paths is of great aesthetic importance in landscape design. The pavement pattern can set the direction for the movement of vacationers, while causing their interest in individual details. Using the pattern and type of paving, you can create the illusion of a large space, which is important for areas of a small area. Deliberate narrowing or widening of the path, interspersed ornaments, step-by-step sections laid out of decorative stone, as well as a number of other tricks used by landscape designers, make it possible to decorate the site and make its appearance unique.
The fanciful shape of the garden paths adorns the garden, shading the green of the lawn and highlighting small flower beds from the general background
Consideration of terrain when arranging tracks
Any track laid on the site with a practical or decorative purpose, must be safe and convenient for use. This is possible only if the paths are designed taking into account the features of the relief of the site:
- Smooth terrain: minor paths can be placed in any way (fan-shaped, in the form of branches from the main track, other options).
- “Saucer-like” relief: garden paths extend with sunbeams from the lowest place on the site in which a decorative pond or gazebo is located.
- Relief with a difference in elevation: zigzag garden paths are arranged on gentle slopes, the neighboring sections of which are connected by smooth transitions. On steep slopes, you can’t do without the installation of retaining walls and terraces, the transition to which is ensured with the help of ramps and stair steps.
For the owner of the cottage area with uneven terrain, material on strengthening slopes and slopes on the site will also be useful: plan / ukreplenie-sklonov-na-uchastke.html
The main garden path, immersed in the green of the trees and extending into the distance, allows you to climb the cascade of stairs to the terrace
The combination of materials is the key to the completeness of the composition
Garden paths, combining the shape and color of the materials used with the decoration of the house, fencing, arbors, flower beds and flower beds, allow you to give the compositional completeness to the garden. When designing tracks, you must adhere to the requirements of the chosen style. For example, in a strict regular style, it is assumed that all garden paths will be necessarily straight. The main path at the same time serves as a kind of axis of symmetry, dividing the garden into two halves identical in design. Venues arranged at the intersection of paths should also have a strict form of regular geometric shapes (circle, square).
The garden in a regular style is decorated with straight and straight paths, drawn as if along a line by the skillful hand of a designer-artist
Landscape style, on the contrary, does not accept strict and straight lines. In such a garden, winding paths leading to the most secluded corners of the site will be appropriate. At the same time, each curve of a winding garden path should provide a beautiful view of growing trees and flowers, skillfully created ponds with streams and waterfalls, attractive places of rest, charming sculptures and other decorative elements.
Combination of styles allows you to get an unexpected result. With this mixture, the main track is made in the form of a straight line, and the secondary paths departing from it are given a free shape. To emphasize the beauty of the Dutch style, paths decorated with a floral border will help.