Choosing a season for grafting cherries
Cherry is one of the most commonly grafted plants. Everyone knows that grafting is a great way to rejuvenate the garden, expand varietal diversity, increase productivity and convey special properties to the tree. The dates of its implementation are associated both with species-varietal characteristics and agricultural technology, and with the weather and climate conditions of the year.
The nuances of spring cherry vaccination
The spring period is considered the most suitable moment for planting fruit trees, including cherries. The plant wakes up after a winter rest, nutrients move up the stem, which contributes to the rapid engraftment of the scion with stock.
When to plant cherries in spring
The best time for grafting cherries in spring is the period from early March to the first ten days of April, i.e., the time when the plant is just beginning to leave its dormant state. More specific dates are determined by regional climatic conditions. So, in the middle lane, the beginning of the transplantation process shifts to the first of April. The main criterion for the readiness of a tree for vaccination is the swelling of the kidneys, which indicates the beginning of sap flow.
You need to know that from this moment on you have a successful vaccination you have a short period of time (a week and a half) - the more active the movement of juices, the lower the transplantation efficiency. There are two reasons for this:
- Juice in the slices is oxidized, an oxide film is formed, which prevents engraftment. Therefore, spring vaccination operations must be carried out as quickly as possible.
- At a later date, an excess of nutrients and regenerative substances may prevent the tree from accepting the scion as part of the body.
There is a popular sign: vaccination work can begin when the ground thaws on two bayonets of a shovel.
There are more than 130 grafting techniques; they are all suitable for grafting fruit trees in spring. For cherries, optimal during this period are considered methods based on inoculation with lignified cuttings harvested in late autumn.
Table: The best techniques for spring cherry grafting
|Before the start of sap flow||During sap flow|
Before the operation, pay attention to the condition of the stock. If the wood is not white, but has acquired a brown hue, then the fabrics are frostbitten. Such freezing may not affect the further life of the tree, but such a stock is no longer suitable for grafting.
Photo gallery: spring cherry grafting techniques
- Inoculation with buttstock with tongue is suitable for cherries, which have not yet begun sap flow
- Ablution is also carried out before the start of sap flow
- Copying is divided into two types: simple and improved
- Vaccination for bark can be carried out without cutting it, as well as leaving a saddle
- Inoculation for the cortex also practices abandonment of the spike
- Vaccination over the bark with a cut implies the separation of the bark at the junction with the cuttings
Video: spring cherry cherry vaccination
At what temperature do cherries inoculate in spring
Choosing the time of grafting cherry in the spring, experienced gardeners are guided not only by the calendar, but also by changing weather conditions. Even in the same territory, the timing may vary annually by 1-2 weeks. So that the vaccine does not freeze, it is carried out when the risk of return frosts passes. The optimum temperature is considered to be above + 50 ° C during the day and not lower than 00 ° C at night.
Time and features of summer vaccination
In summer, vaccination is carried out during the second sap flow - in the last decade of July and until mid-August.
The readiness for vaccination is determined by the degree of maturation of the cuttings and the lag of the bark at the rootstock: on one of the branches of the rootstock, it is necessary to make an incision and separate the bark from the wood. If she leaves freely, you can start the operation.
In the summer, vaccination is usually carried out with green cuttings or a kidney. This is one of its advantages, since there is no need to deal with the harvesting and storage of cuttings. The most practiced techniques in the summer season are:
- budding (vaccination with a kidney);
- split vaccination;
- vaccination for bark.
In summer, it is more advisable to vaccinate cherries by budding
A few days before the procedure, the tree should be well nourished with water. This will improve the sap flow and separability of the rootstock bark. For the operation itself, choose a cloudy, but not rainy day. If the weather is clear, then the procedure is carried out in the early morning or in the evening.
Another vaccination option suitable for cherries in summer is the splitting method.
Check the results of summer vaccination work will be possible in the fall.
Heat adversely affects intergrowth. So that the vaccine does not fade in the open sun, it must be shaded. Often for this they make protection of the scion in the form of a bag made of food foil.
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Video: summer vaccination of cherries (budding)
When is it better to plant cherries in autumn
Autumn cannot be called a favorable period for grafting cherries. It is advisable to conduct it only in areas with warm winters. Gardeners have a rather short period of time for this procedure - a maximum of 15 September. Cuttings should have time to take root before the onset of frost. During the autumn vaccination, a partial fusion of the scion with the stock takes place, this process ends in the spring. Thus, you can find out about the effectiveness of the transplant when the tree wakes up after the winter.
For grafting cherries during this period, the method of copulation and grafting into a split are best suited. Autumn grafting is carried out, usually in the crown of the tree and on the side branches, for one-two-year-old trees - in the trunk. For root shoots, grafting over the root neck is suitable.
To prevent the freezing of the late vaccination, it must be insulated:
- Wrap the grafting site with a double layer of wrapping paper wrapped in a sleeve.
- Collect the bottom of the structure with an accordion and secure it with a rope.
- Pour sawdust into the sleeve, carefully tamping, and tie the upper part.
- Put on a plastic bag over the packaging.
- To ensure proper air exchange, lay dry grass between polyethylene and paper.
The vaccination should be insulated in late autumn so that it does not “cook” under the scorching sun
The vaccine, performed on the root neck, will not suffer from frost, if you cover it with fallen leaves or spruce branches.
Winter cherry vaccination
Despite the prevailing opinion, it is quite realistic to vaccinate cherries in the winter months. It is believed that trees grafted at this time begin to bear fruit earlier and more easily tolerate cold.
However, you must understand that the effectiveness of the operation carried out directly in the garden in the cold will be zero: in winter, metabolic processes slow down, the plant is at rest. Therefore, vaccination is carried out indoors, usually in February, taking care of the preparation of stock and scion in advance.
In connection with the complexity of preparatory processes for winter vaccination, they are carried out mainly in nurseries.
The cherry variety has a significant impact on the effectiveness of winter vaccination. As a scion, they take root well:
The best indicators as stock during winter operation are demonstrated by:
- Fur coat;
Ways to vaccinate cherries in winter
According to experts, the method of improved copulation is the most suitable for winter vaccination. He suggests that a scythe 2.5–3 cm long is made on the scion and rootstock. A tongue is “cut” by one third of the edge of the sections, the components are connected.
When connecting the stock and scion, split tongues should go behind each other
Ideally, the diameter of the stock and scion should be the same.
Stock and scion stock
As a stock, young trees of at least 5 cm in diameter are selected, compatible with the scion. In late October - early November they are dug up, placed in boxes or canvas bags and sprinkled with wet sand. In this form, seedlings are stored in a basement or cellar at a temperature of 0 to + 30 ° C, periodically checking the degree of their moisture. For 1–2 days, stocks are transferred to a warm room, washed and removed damaged roots.
Scion cuttings are cut in late autumn or early December. The air temperature should not fall below -100C. Cuttings are bundled, wrapped in polyethylene and stored in the cellar or in the refrigerator until the day of the vaccination operation.
How to store trees grafted in winter
After vaccination, the seedlings must be taken out of dormancy. They are placed in boxes with wet sawdust, moss or sand and sent for stratification in a very warm room with a temperature of + 28 ... + 300С. After 8-10 days, they are transferred to the basement, where they will be at a temperature of 0 to + 30C until they are planted in the greenhouse in the spring. Seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place in the fall of next year.
During storage of grafted seedlings, it must be ensured that the sawdust is constantly wet
Video: Winter Cherry Vaccination
So, spring cherry grafting gives the highest results of fusion of scion with stock. If for some reason it was not possible to carry out the operation in the spring, do not despair, carry out the operation in the next season, choosing the optimal timing and methods of vaccination.