Choosing Cherries for Central Russia: An Overview of Suitable Varieties
In Central Russia, various varieties of cherries have long been cultivated. These are early and late, large-fruited and not very, sweet and not quite, tall and dwarf. These include ordinary cherry, as well as steppe, and felt. The beginning gardener will have to familiarize himself with the features of all varieties suitable for growing in this region in order to make the right choice.
The best varieties of cherries for Central Russia
Three types of cherries approved for cultivation in Russia are identified in the State Register. This is felt cherry, ordinary cherry and steppe cherry. There is also a decorative cherry and Sakhalin cherry, but since they are non-fertile, they will not be considered here.
Most varieties of felt and steppe cherries are unpretentious and frost-resistant, therefore they are allowed for cultivation in all regions, including in the middle lane. Varieties of common cherries are often thermophilic and can grow only in the southern regions, but there are also frost-resistant ones.
Self-fertile and self-pollinated varieties
Typically, for good fruiting, cherries need to be adjacent to other varieties of cherries or cherries for cross-pollination. But there are so-called self-fertile (or self-pollinated) varieties that have both female and male flowers, due to which dependence on neighbors is significantly reduced. Some have flowers in a form in which pollination can occur inside an unopened bud. This property allows you to get a crop even under adverse conditions - strong wind, low activity or absence of bees and other insects, neighbors for pollination.
By definition, self-fertile varieties include those in which 40% (or more) ovaries of the total number of flowers form independently. In partially self-fertile, this indicator is 20%.
But in any case, if possible, it is advisable to plant pollinating trees near the cherries, which will significantly increase the number of ovaries, and as a result, the crop.
When choosing a variety for planting, you must also remember that self-fertile varieties are often susceptible to fungal diseases. Of course, you need to give preference to trees that are resistant or medium resistant to disease.
The variety is relatively old, it has been listed in the State Register since 1947. You can expect the first harvest from a low tree 4 years after planting.
Cherry Amorel Pink begins to bear fruit in the 5th year after planting
This variety is a low-mobility table variety. The crop, depending on growing conditions, is from 4 to 15 kg.
A well-known variety of cherries with high drought resistance and frost resistance.
The youth is happy with the harvest for 15–20 years, if they receive the necessary care. She has large, fleshy berries of maroon color.
From cherry Youth can achieve a harvest for 15-20 years
The variety was introduced in the State Register in 1997. The medium-sized tree has good frost resistance, but at temperatures below -30 ° C the kidneys suffer. Therefore, in severe frosts, it is advisable to use smoke bombs or bonfires to save berries.
The yield of the variety is up to 70 kg / ha. The fruits of the cherry are dark red.
Cherry Volochaevka has a good yield
Shrub varieties of cherries for the Midland
Shrub varieties of cherries are distinguished by the absence of the main trunk (stem), instead of which several equivalent shoots grow from the root. Usually they have a small height, rarely reaching 3 m, and often 1.5–2.5 m.
As a rule, bush varieties of felt and steppe cherries are bush. As already noted, these species are resistant to frost and distributed throughout Russia.
This is felt cherry. The beauty was received in the Far East and entered into the State Register in 1999. It is self-fertile, therefore pollinators will be required to get good yields. The tree propagates best with green cuttings and layering. It has good decorative properties.
Berries ripen together in late July. Harvest high, up to 11 kg from the bush. The berries are not very transportable.
The berries of felt cherry varieties Beauty are poorly transported
Cherry is resistant to coccomycosis, with waterlogging can be affected by moniliosis.
Delight is a felt cherry of the Far Eastern selection. It is self-infertile, frost-resistant. Blossoms and bears fruit on both annual and perennial shoots.
The buds of the tree bloom in mid-May, the berries ripen at the same time, in mid-July.
The berries of Felt Cherry of the Rapture variety ripen in mid-July
The average yield is 10 kg per bush.
Flora is a relatively new variety of steppe cherry, which was obtained in the Urals and entered in the State Register in 2011.
It has all the advantages of its species, which came to us from North America, and has become widespread in the gardens of Siberia and throughout Russia. The genus of steppe cherries is also called sand cherry and microcherry.
Steppe Flora Cherry is considered relatively young
- frost resistance;
- drought tolerance;
- undemanding to soils;
- early maturity;
- yield 82 kg / ha;
- high resistance to diseases.
After ripening, the berries of the Flora cherry can, without quality loss, hang on branches for a long time without crumbling.
Undersized and dwarf varieties
Dwarf varieties of cherries are popular everywhere, including in Central Russia. This is due to the compact form of plants, ease of care and harvesting. Almost all varieties of felt and steppe cherries are small in height and fit this category. But even among the representatives of common cherry, undersized brethren are also present.
Anthracite is a low-growing variety of common cherry, which was obtained in the Oryol region and entered into the State Register in 2006.
It has high frost resistance, satisfactory drought tolerance. Partial autonomy. It begins bearing fruit on the 4th – 5th year.
It blooms in mid-May, the harvest can be expected on July 10-15. Anthracite cherry berries have a rich, black-red color.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Harvest Anthracite Cherry Ripens in July
Cherry Christina's harvest corresponds to the size of the bush - from 2.9 to 4.5 kg, which is collected at the end of July. Bright red berries have a pleasant, sweet and sour taste.
Christina cherries have a good yield
Variety Tamaris has increased winter hardiness and resistance to coccomycosis. Self-fertile.
Purple Tamaris Cherry
Harvest Tamaris gives above average (65–80 kg / ha). Cherry has large purple berries.
As a rule, the earlier the cherry ripens, the more acidic its berry. One of the best early varieties for the Midland can be considered the following.
Shpanka Bryansk is one of the successful hybrids of cherries and cherries. It has increased resistance to frost, disease and pests. Self-fertile.
Spanka Bryansk is a hybrid of cherries
The Baby variety is also a hybrid of cherries and cherries.
- winter hardiness;
- drought tolerance;
- early harvests (end of June);
- early maturity - begins bearing fruit in the third year after planting;
- a crop of large, bright red berries every year;
- productivity of 15–20 kg;
- resistance to coccomycosis.
The disadvantages of the variety:
- susceptible to moniliosis;
- poor attachment of berries to the stalk, due to which a strong wind can throw the entire crop to the ground.
Berries of a cherry Baby large, bright red
Berries of cherries with a high sugar content are, as a rule, in cherry-cherry hybrids (the so-called dykes). This is a promising and attractive direction, many breeders around the world are working on it. Enough dukes received in the post-Soviet space.
The Zhivitsa variety of the Belarusian selection, entered the State Register in 2002 in the Central region of Belarus, but is now successfully grown throughout the country, in Ukraine and in the middle zone of Russia.
Cherry winter-hardy, resistant to typical diseases of the culture. The first crops are brought in the fourth year after planting.
Berries of the Belarusian variety of cherry Zhivitsa have a pleasant, harmonious taste
Productivity 10-14 t / ha with a planting scheme of 5x3 m. Berries with a pleasant, harmonious taste.
Shokoladnitsa is a very popular variety for Central Russia; it has been in the State Register since 1996.
It blooms in mid-May, you can enjoy the fruits in mid-July.
Cherry berries Chocolate maker medium size, almost black
Cherry brings annually up to 77 kg / ha of magnificent, juicy berries. They are medium in size, almost black in color.
In Central Russia, there are not many large-fruited varieties of cherries.
In memory of Yenikeyev
The variety of memory of Yenikeyev is universal, early, self-fertile. It has good winter hardiness.
Yeniseev Memory Cherry has good yield
Productivity is 8–10 kg per tree, or up to 46 kg / ha.
The Zhuravka variety was listed in the State Register in 2001 in the Central Region.
The cherry yield is 37–46 kg / ha.
Cherry productivity Zhuravka - more than 30 kg / ha
Table: Comparative characteristics of the cherry varieties mentioned in the article
|Grade||Grade Features||Ripening time||Berry description||Disease resistance|
|Amorel pink||The tree grows to 2.5–3 m. The crown is rare, spherical, becoming spreading as it ages.||Very early||The berries are light pink weighing 4 g. The pulp is tender, light and juicy. The juice is colorless.||Coccomycosis medium|
|Youth||Low-growing tree of bush-like type, the crown is sprawling, drooping, moderately thickened||Mid-late||The berries are large (4–5 g), fleshy, dark burgundy, pleasant taste||Coccomycosis medium|
|Volochaevka||Medium-sized tree with spherical crown of medium density||Middle||The berries are small (2.7 g), dark red, juicy, tasty||To coccomycosis high|
|Beauty||It is a short (1.6 m) bush with straight shoots. Crohn is thick, wide||Middle||The berries are large (3–3.5 g), light pink in color, with short hairs, pleasant taste, with an inseparable bone||Coccomycosis is good|
|Delight||A dense crown up to 1.5 m high is formed by straight, thick shoots of brown color||Middle||The berries are bright red, shiny with short hairs, with a good, sweet and sour taste. Weight - 3.2 g. If there are a lot of berries, they become small||Good|
|Flora||Bush of medium growth (1.8–2 m), sprawling, under the weight of the crop, the branches can bend significantly||Middle||The berries are dark red, large (4 g), with an easily detachable stone, the taste is pleasant, tart||Good|
|Anthracite||The tree has a raised, spreading crown and rarely reaches two meters in height.||Middle||The mass of black and red berries reaches 4–5 g. Dark red dense pulp with a thin skin||Good|
|Kristina||Dwarf variety of steppe cherry up to 80 cm high||Mid-late||Bright red, juicy medium-sized berries - 4.5 g. The taste is sweet and sour, pleasant||Not resistant to coccomycosis|
|Tamaris||Dwarf variety of common cherry. The usual height is 1.7–2m. Spreading crown has an inverse pyramidal shape||Mid-late||The berry is large (3.8–4.8 g), purple in color with brownish integument dots. The taste is sweet and sour||Coccomycosis is good|
|Shpanka Bryansk||Medium-sized tree, with a raised, compact crown||Early||The berry is not very large (on average 4 g), but tasty and well-stored, light red fruit, juicy, delicate cream-colored flesh, pink juice||Increased|
|Baby||The tree is undersized (up to 2.5 m), which can be grown with a spreading bush or left one trunk and grown like a tree||Early||The berries are large (5-6 g), bright red, sweet and sour taste||Coccomycosis is good|
|Sap||A tree with a rare crown, up to 3 m high, and raised-hanging branches||Early||The berries are sweet, harmonious taste. The size is average (3.8 g), the bone is easily separated. Color dark red||High|
|Chocolate girl||The tree is compact, with a crown resembling an inverted pyramid, up to 2.5 m high||Middle||The berries are almost black, medium size (3 g), with maroon, dense pulp. The taste is excellent, sugar content up to 12.4%||For coccomycosis satisfactory|
|In memory of Yenikeyev||The tree is medium-sized, medium thickened, with vertically directed shoots||Early||Berries reach a mass of up to 5 g. The color of berries and pulp is dark red, the taste is pleasant, sweet, with acidity. Sugar content up to 10%||Coccomycosis medium|
|Crane||A weak-growing tree with a panicled, medium-thickened crown, has thick, straight shoots of olive color||Late||The berries are large, on average 5.2 g, reach a maximum of 7.2 g. The taste is sweet and sour||Coccomycosis and moniliosis average|
Growing Chocolate Girl. The variety is excellent. The berries are classy, but almost cannot be picked. All these blackbirds, radishes, eat it from year to year. No scarecrow helps. And in the care is generally simple, I would even say that you do not need to care.
There are many varieties, I’m quite familiar with such a variety as Molodezhnaya, I think this is what you want from cherries. The variety is very productive and self-fertile. Cherry ripens quite late and at the same time is well resistant to frosty winter. Fruits are very large, rounded, maroon. The pulp for cherries is very sweet with a pleasant taste. I also noticed that the fruits hang on a tree for a very long time.
Spanka is a great variety of cherries. Indeed, it is not as burgundy as most varieties of cherries, and already "glows" in the sun. But despite this, we are happy to eat and preserve it, and close the compotes.
Varieties and types of cherries grown in Central Russia, thanks to the efforts of breeders, have come close in quality to varieties of sunny, southern regions. Of course, they are not so large and sweet, but often the difference is no longer felt. The important thing is that these beautiful, healthy berries can be on your table for anyone who puts not so much effort into their cultivation.